A full online archive of references

August 2021


Time to assume that health research is fraudulent until proven otherwise? BMJ 2021, July 5.

“Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption”, by Marcia Angell. The New York Review, January 15, 2009:

The knowledge system underpinning healthcare is not fit for purpose and must change. BMJ 2015; 350 doi:

Peer review: a flawed process at the heart of science and journals. J R Soc Med 2006 Apr; 99(4): 178–182. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.99.4.178

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PloS Medicine 2005:

Prevalence of questionable research practices, research misconduct and their potential explanatory factors: a survey among academic researchers in The Netherlands. MetaArXiv 2021, July 6. doi:10.31222/


K.Vita: a feasibility study of a blend of medium chain triglycerides to manage drug-resistant epilepsy. Brain Communications 2021, fcab160,

Rapid resolution of COVID-19 after faecal microbiota transplantation. Gut Published Online First: 06 July 2021. Doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325010.

Using an erythrocyte fatty acid fingerprint to predict risk of all-cause mortality: the Framingham Offspring CohortThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2021; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab195.

Evaluating microbiome-directed fibre snacks in gnotobiotic mice and humans. Nature 595, 91–95 (2021).

Characterizing long COVID in an international cohort: 7 months of symptoms and their impactEClinicalMedicine, 2021; 101019 DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101019.

SPMs: Disrupted Resolution Mechanisms Favor Altered Phagocyte Responses in Covid-19. Circulation Research

The Women’s Study for the Alleviation of Vasomotor Symptoms (WAVS), Menopause  2021, July 12, doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001812.

Vitamin K2 Holds Promise for Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment. Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2206;

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Environ Health 2021, 20, 84.



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CALM Study

 A modified Mediterranean dietary intervention for adults with major depression: Dietary protocol and feasibility data from the SMILES trialNutritional Neuroscience 2018, 21:7, 487-501. DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1312841.

Men and women
Sex differences in specific aspects of two animal tests of anxiety-like behavior
Psychopharmacology, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s00213-021-05893-w.



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[11] Geneva CANNABIDIOL (CBD) . n.d. Critical Review Report Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting

Dr Elisabeth Phillipps

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Gut microbiome heritability is nearly universal but environmentally contingentScience 2021. DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5483.

Immunoglobulin A–specific deficiency induces spontaneous inflammation specifically in the ileumGut, 2021; gutjnl-2020-322873 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322873.

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The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides. Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 500;

Cocoa and cocoa fibre differentially modulate IgA and IgM production at mucosal sitesBritish Journal of Nutrition 2016, 115(9), 1539-1546. DOI:10.1017/S000711451600074X.

Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates sIgA production and the phagocytic system of gnotobiotic mice. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2000, 89(3):404-14. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01128.x.

Caloric restriction disrupts the microbiota and colonization resistance. Nature 2021, 595, 272–277.

Hepatoenteric recycling is a new disposition mechanism for orally administered phenolic drugs and phytochemicals in rats. eLife 2021, 10:e58820 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.58820.

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Bacteroides-dominant gut microbiome of late infancy is associated with enhanced neurodevelopment. Gut Microbes 2021, 13: 1.
Dietary alteration of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for headache reduction in adults with migraine: randomized controlled trialBMJ, July 1, 2021; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n1448.

Quantitative mapping of human hair greying and reversal in relation to life stresseLife, 2021; 10 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.67437.

Enterically derived high-density lipoprotein restrains liver injury through the portal veinScience, 2021; 373 (6553): eabe6729 DOI: 10.1126/science.abe6729.

Maternal cecal microbiota transfer rescues early-life antibiotic-induced enhancement of type 1 diabetes in miceCell Host & Microbe, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.06.014.

Distribution of dietary protein intake in daily meals influences skeletal muscle hypertrophy via the muscle clockCell Reports, 2021; 36 (1): 109336 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109336.

CBD and oral ulcers: Xingying Qi, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, presented the findings  – Cannabidiol Promotes Oral Ulcer Healing by Inactivating CMPK2-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome – at the virtual 99th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) and the 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), on July 21-24, 2021.


Food Supplements Consumer Research, 2018 report for the FSA:

July 2021


“6 ways the FDA’s approval of Aduhelm does more harm than good”, by Prof Sam Gandy, June 15, 2021.


Using an erythrocyte fatty acid fingerprint to predict risk of all-cause mortality: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021,

Blood omega-3 fatty acids and death from COVID-19: A pilot study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Mar;166:102250, doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2021.102250.

What COVID-19 is doing to the heart, even after recovery. September 3, 2020.

Obesity and the pandemic: And Mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes: early international evidence, April 12, 2020.

COVID Infection Fatality Rates:

Associations between body-mass index and COVID-19 severity in 6·9 million people in England: a prospective, community-based, cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol  2021 Jun; 9(6):350-359. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00089-9. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Covid-19: Highest death rates seen in countries with most overweight populations. BMJ 2021, 372, doi: (Published 04 March 2021).

A Time Frame for Testing Negative for SARS-COV2 in People with Obesity. Obes Facts 2020, 13:528-533. DOI: 10.1159/000511738.

Exhaled aerosol increases with COVID-19 infection, age, and obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021, Feb,118 (8) e2021830118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021830118.

Are face masks effective? The evidence.

Influenza and obesity: its odd relationship and the lessons for COVID-19 pandemic. Acta Diabetol 2020, Jun;57(6):759-764. DOI: 10.1007/s00592-020-01522-8.

Swiss Policy Research:
Observational Study on 255 Mechanically Ventilated Covid Patients at the Beginning of the USA Pandemic. (Pre-print, not peer-reviewed). MedRxiv 2021.05.28.21258012. DOI:

Treatment with Zinc is Associated with Reduced In-Hospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study. Res Sq [Preprint] 2020, Oct DOI: 10.21203/  


Substituting Cannabidiol for Opioids and Pain Medications Among Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Large Online SurveyThe Journal of Pain 2021.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2021.04.011.

Generation of systemic antitumour immunity via the in situ modulation of the gut microbiome by an orally administered inulin gel. Nature Biomedical Engineering 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41551-021-00749-2.

Short-Term Western Diet Intake Promotes IL-23‒Mediated Skin and Joint Inflammation Accompanied by Changes to the Gut Microbiota in MiceJournal of Investigative Dermatology 2021; 141 (7): 1780 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2020.11.032.

Clinical impact of a pharmacist + health coach chronic disease management program in a rural free clinic. J Am Pharm Assoc 2021; doi:

Echinacea reduces antibiotic usage in children through respiratory tract infection prevention: a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 2021, 26, 33:

Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010, 340:c2096:  doi:10.1136/bmj.c2096.

Hericium erinaceus and Coriolus versicolor Modulate Molecular and Biochemical Changes after Traumatic Brain Injury. Antioxidants 2021;10:898.

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Tobler M, et al: Characteristics of whole fresh plant extracts. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitMedizin,1994.


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The epigenetics of perinatal stress. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2019, Dec;21(4):369-378. doi: 10.31887/DCNS.2019.21.4/mszyf.

Imprinted genes
Genomic imprinting in mouse blastocysts is predominantly associated with H3K27me3Nature Communications 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-23510-4.


Evaluation of Thiamine as Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19 Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter Propensity Score Matched Study. In Review at Critical Care 2021, June. DOI: 10.21203/

α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase: a mitochondrial redox sensor. Free Radic Res. 2011 Jan;45(1):29-36: doi: 10.3109/10715762.2010.534163. Epub 2010 Nov 29.
The alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in neurodegeneration. Neurochem Int. 2000 Feb;36(2):97-112. doi: 10.1016/s0197-0186(99)00114-x.

Prospective Biomarkers from Plasma Metabolomics of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Implicate Redox Imbalance in Disease Symptomatology. Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 90;

 Inhibition of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by the myeloperoxidase products, hypochlorous acid and mono-N-chloramine. Journal of Neurochemistry 2005, 92: 302-310.

Inhibition of NADH-linked mitochondrial respiration by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Biochemistry 1998, Jan 13;37(2):552-7. doi: 10.1021/bi971958i.

Thiamine preserves mitochondrial function in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, preventing inactivation of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg 2018, Sep;1859(9):925-931, doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2018.05.005. Epub 2018 May 16. 
Glutamate Excitotoxicity Induced by Nitric Oxide Mediated Dysfunction of the Mitochondrial 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase Complex. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2017, Volume 112, Supplement 1, November, Page 74.

High-dose thiamine improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia. BMJ Case Rep 2013, May 20;2013:bcr2013009019. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-009019.

High dose thiamine improves fatigue in multiple sclerosis. BMJ Case Reports 2013; 2013:bcr2013009144.
High-dose thiamine and essential tremor. BMJ Case Reports 2018;2018:bcr-2017-223945.
Thiamine and Fatigue in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: An Open-label Pilot Study. J Altern Complement Med 2013, Volume 19, Number 8. 704–708. DOI: 10.1089/acm.2011.0840.
High-dose thiamine improves the symptoms of Friedreich’s ataxia. BMJ Case Reports 2013;2013:bcr2013009424.
Long-Term Treatment with High-Dose Thiamine in Parkinson Disease: An Open-Label Pilot Study. J Altern Complement Med 2015, Dec;21(12):740-7, doi: 10.1089/acm.2014.0353.
Thiamine and benfotiamine prevent stress-induced suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice exposed to predation without affecting brain thiamine diphosphate levels.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 2017, 126-136.

June 2021


mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2018, 17, 261–279.


Association of Loneliness and Wisdom With Gut Microbial Diversity and Composition: An Exploratory StudyFrontiers in Psychiatry, 2021; 12. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.648475.

Potential reversal of epigenetic age using a diet and lifestyle intervention: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Aging (Albany NY) 2021, Apr 12;13(7):9419-9432. DOI: 10.18632/aging.202913.

High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Inflammatory Capacity and Incident Cardiovascular EventsCirculation, 2021. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050808.

“Up to 8,700 patients died after catching Covid in English hospitals”. By Denis Campbell and Anna Bawden. The Guardian, May 24, 2021.

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humansNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4.

Prevalence of Immunosuppressive Drug Use Among Commercially Insured US Adults, 2018-2019JAMA Network Open, 2021; 4 (5): e214920 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4920.

β-sitosterol reduces anxiety and synergizes with established anxiolytic drugs in miceCell Reports Medicine, 2021; 2 (5): 100281 DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100281.


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Daily probiotic use is associated with a reduced rate of upper respiratory tract symptoms in overweight and obese people. DDW 2021; Abstract 739.

Probiotics reduce self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in overweight and obese adults: Should we be considering probiotics during viral pandemics? Gut Microbes 2021,

A randomised controlled study shows supplementation of overweight and obese adults with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduces bodyweight and improves well-being.
Scientific Reports 2020; 10(1): 4183.

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Colonization of the Caenorhabditis elegans gut with human enteric bacterial pathogens leads to proteostasis disruption that is rescued by butyratePLOS Pathogens, 2021; 17 (5): e1009510 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009510.

Whole-genome sequencing analysis of semi-supercentenarianseLife, 2021; 10 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.57849.

Pericardial Fat and the Risk of Heart FailureJournal of the American College of Cardiology, 2021; 77 (21): 2638 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.003.




May 2021


High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequalae of COVID-19. Nature 2021, April 22.

Avoiding the Coming Tsunami of Common, Chronic Disease: What the Lessons of the COVID-19 Pandemic Can Teach Us. Circulation 2021, April 6. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053461.

A guideline to limit indoor airborne transmission of COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021, Apr 27, 118 (17) e2018995118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018995118.


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Disruption of the blood−brain barrier in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Brain 2021.  DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab055.

Study presented virtually at ENDO 2021, Washington, DC, March 20, 2021:
Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 InfectionThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, Oct 27, 106, 3, e1343–e1353,

Post-covid syndrome in individuals admitted to hospital with covid-19: retrospective cohort study. Brit Med J 2021, March 31, 372:n693, doi:

Maternal DHA supplementation influences sex-specific disruption of placental gene expression following early prenatal stressBiology of Sex Differences, 2021; 12 (1). DOI: 10.1186/s13293-020-00356-x.

Disordered eating in a population‐based sample of young adults during the COVID‐19 outbreakInternational Journal of Eating Disorders, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/eat.23505.

Aluminium and Tau in Neurofibrillary Tangles in Familial Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, 2021; 5 (1): 283 DOI: 10.3233/ADR-210011.

Nutrition in Crisis
Higher consumption of red and processed meat is associated with adverse cardiovascular magnetic resonance morpho-functional phenotypes: A study of 19,408 UK Biobank participants. Presented April 15 at ESC Preventive Cardiology 2021, an online scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Effect of varying quantities of lean beef as part of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern on lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa375.

Betaine ameliorates schizophrenic traits by functionally compensating for KIF3-based CRMP2 transportCell Reports 2021; 35 (2): 108971. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108971.

Ultraviolet A Radiation and COVID‐19 Deaths in the USA with replication studies in England and ItalyBritish Journal of Dermatology 2021, Apr 8. DOI: 10.1111/bjd.20093.

Postprandial glycaemic dips predict appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals. Nat Metab (2021). 

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    4. Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic. Lancet.2020; 396: 874. DOI: Discussed in The COVID-19 syndemic is not global: context matters, Lancet 2020, Nov 28;396 (10264):1731. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32218-2.
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Musculoskeletal involvement of COVID-19: review of imagingSkeletal Radiology, Feb. 18, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s00256-021-03734-7.

Pathogenic, glycolytic PD-1 B cells accumulate in the hypoxic RA jointJCI Insight, 2020; 5 (21) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.139032.

The Influence of Specific Bioactive Collagen Peptides on Knee Joint Discomfort in Young Physically Active Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, Feb 5;13(2):523,  doi: 10.3390/nu13020523.

Vegan Diet and Bone Health—Results from the Cross-Sectional RBVD Study. Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 685;

Partial Replacement of Animal Proteins with Plant Proteins for 12 Weeks Accelerates Bone Turnover Among Healthy Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Nutrition 2021, 151, Jan, 11–19,

Stabilization of Damaged Articular Cartilage with Hydrogel‐Mediated Reinforcement and SealingAdvanced Healthcare Materials, 2021; 2100315 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202100315.

Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan; 105(1): 136–143, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138594.

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Oral Administration of Polymer Hyaluronic Acid Alleviates Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study over a 12-Month Period. Scientific World Journal 2012; 2012: 167928. .


Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women. Science 2021, April 22, eabe9985. DOI: 10.1126/science.abe9985.

Potential Role of Vitamin B6 in Ameliorating the Severity of COVID-19 and Its Complications. Front Nutr., 29 October 2020 |

Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression. N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1402-1411. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032994.

High-throughput fitness screening and transcriptomics identify a role for a type IV secretion system in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease-associated Escherichia coliNature Communications 2021; 12 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-22306-w.

Developmental trajectory of the healthy human gut microbiota during the first 5 years of lifeCell Host & Microbe, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.02.021.

The Gut Microbiome in Autism: Study-Site Effects and Longitudinal Analysis of Behavior ChangemSystems, 2021; 6 (2) DOI: 10.1128/mSystems.00848-20.

Sulfoquinovose is a select nutrient of prominent bacteria and a source of hydrogen sulfide in the human gutThe ISME Journal, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41396-021-00968-0.

Dietary cocoa ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and increases markers of antioxidant response and mitochondrial biogenesis in high fat-fed miceThe Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2021; 92: 108618 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108618.


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Rationale of Probiotic Supplementation during Pregnancy and Neonatal Period. Nutrients 2018, Nov 6;10(11):1693,  doi: 10.3390/nu10111693. 

April 2021


Physical, cognitive and mental health impacts of COVID-19 following hospitalisation: a multi-centre prospective cohort Preprint: medRxiv 2021, 03.22.21254057; doi:


Botanical Medicines Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Artemisia annua, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Alchornea cordifolia Demonstrate Inhibitory Activity Against Babesia duncani. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol 2021, March 8:

The use of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is associated with a lower likelihood of COVID‐19 infectionThe FEBS Journal, 2021; DOI: 10.1111/febs.15784.
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Trends in fall‐related mortality and fall risk increasing drugs among older individuals in the United States,1999–2017Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/pds.5201.

Debaryomyces is enriched in Crohn’s disease intestinal tissue and impairs healing in mice. Science 2021, March 12, 1154-1159. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd0919.



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Ames and Williams:
Supplements and Tuning Up Metabolism, Bruce N. Ames, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 11, November 2004:
A theory of evolutionary allocation of scarce micronutrients by enzyme triage: adequate micronutrient nutrition to delay the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006; 103:17589–17594.


Obesity and Brain Vulnerability in Normal and Abnormal Aging: A Multimodal MRI Study’.  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports 2021, 1 Jan. 65–77:
Integrated analysis of behavioral, epigenetic, and gut microbiome analyses in AppNL-G-FAppNL-F, and wild type mice. Scientific Reports 2021, 11, 4678:
Cannabidiol Ameliorates Cognitive Function via Regulation of IL-33 and TREM2 Upregulation in a Murine Model of Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2021; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-210026.
Cognitive Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis 2021, 80(1):233-244. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-201100.

Hippocampal transcriptome-wide association study and neurobiological pathway analysis for Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS Genet 2021, 17(2): e1009363.

Bredesen ingredients:
1. Enhancement of hippocampal CA3 neuronal dendritic arborization by Centella asiatica (Linn) fresh leaf extract treatment in adult ratsJournal of the Chinese Medical Association 2008 Jan;71(1):6-13.
2. UCLA study, released at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, held Nov. 8–12, 2003, in New Orleans, LA, used positron-emission tomography (PET) and found that for subjects taking gingko biloba, improved recall correlated with better brain function in key brain memory centres.
3. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano) 1993,  Apr;5(2):123-33,  doi: 10.1007/BF03324139.
4. Modulatory effect of coffee fruit extract on plasma levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy subjects. British Journal of Nutrition, 110 (3), 420-425.
5. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the risk for dementia: the Framingham Heart Study. JAMA Neurol 2014, Jan;71(1):55-61.DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.4781.
6. Evidence on the Health Benefits of Supplemental Propolis. Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2705;
7. Bee pollen and propolis improve neuroinflammation and dysbiosis induced by propionic acid, a short chain fatty acid in a rodent model of autism. Lipids Health Dis 2019, 18, 200.
8. Curcumin improves learning and memory ability and its neuroprotective mechanism in mice. Chin Med J (Engl) 2008, May 5;121(9):832-9.


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Higher airborne pollen concentrations correlated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates, as evidenced from 31 countries across the globeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021; 118 (12): e2019034118 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019034118.

Has the Prevalence of Peanut Allergy Changed Following Earlier Introduction of Peanut? The EarlyNuts StudyJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2021; 147 (2): AB236 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.009.

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One-Year Aerobic Exercise Reduced Carotid Arterial Stiffness and Increased Cerebral Blood Flow in Amnestic Mild Cognitive ImpairmentJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2021, 80 (2): 475-492.

Identification of bacteria-derived HLA-bound peptides in melanomaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03368-8

Paper Notebooks vs. Mobile Devices: Brain Activation Differences During Memory RetrievalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2021; 15 DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2021.634158.

Differential Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue Following Weight Loss Induced by Diet or Bariatric SurgeryThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2021; DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab072.

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Vitamin C levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Critical Care (2020) 24:522, DOI:10.1186/s13054-020-03249-y

Molecular basis of bacterial disinfectant resistance. Drug Resist Updat. 2020 Jan;48:100672. doi: 10.1016/j.drup.2019.100672. Epub 2019 Nov 30. PMID: 31830738.

Transmission of COVID-19 in 282 clusters in Catalonia, Spain: a cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2021, February 02. DOI:

Updated estimates of coronavirus (COVID-19) related deaths by disability status, England: 24 January to 20 November 2020.

Massive expansion of human gut bacteriophage diversityCell, 2021; 184 (4): 1098 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.029

BEN BROWN – post-COVID syndrome

  1. Morris G, Berk M, Walder K, Maes M. The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in the Genesis of Intractable Fatigue Accompanied by Cognitive and Physical Disability. Mol Neurobiol. 2016 May;53(4):2550-71. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9262-7. Epub 2015 Jun 17. PMID: 26081141.
  2. Moldofsky H, Patcai J. Chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, depression and disordered sleep in chronic post-SARS syndrome; a case-controlled study. BMC Neurol. 2011 Mar 24;11:37. doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-37. PMID: 21435231; PMCID: PMC3071317.
  3. Perrin R, Riste L, Hann M, Walther A, Mukherjee A, Heald A. Into the looking glass: Post-viral syndrome post COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2020 Nov;144:110055. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110055. Epub 2020 Jun 27. PMID: 32758891; PMCID: PMC7320866.
  4. Marra A, Pandharipande PP, Girard TD, Patel MB, Hughes CG, Jackson JC, Thompson JL, Chandrasekhar R, Ely EW, Brummel NE. Co-Occurrence of Post-Intensive Care Syndrome Problems Among 406 Survivors of Critical Illness. Crit Care Med. 2018 Sep;46(9):1393-1401. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000003218. PMID: 29787415; PMCID: PMC6095801.
  5. Boursier V, Gioia F, Musetti A, Schimmenti A. Facing Loneliness and Anxiety During the COVID-19 Isolation: The Role of Excessive Social Media Use in a Sample of Italian Adults. Front Psychiatry. 2020 Dec 8;11:586222. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.586222. PMID: 33363484; PMCID: PMC7752864.
  6. Fiorillo A, Sampogna G, Giallonardo V, Del Vecchio V, Luciano M, Albert U, Carmassi C, Carrà G, Cirulli F, Dell’Osso B, Nanni MG, Pompili M, Sani G, Tortorella A, Volpe U. Effects of the lockdown on the mental health of the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: Results from the COMET collaborative network. Eur Psychiatry. 2020 Sep 28;63(1):e87. doi: 10.1192/j.eurpsy.2020.89. PMID: 32981568; PMCID: PMC7556907.
  7. Lin D, Friedman DB, Qiao S, Tam CC, Li X, Li X. Information uncertainty: a correlate for acute stress disorder during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. BMC Public Health. 2020 Dec 7;20(1):1867. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09952-3. PMID: 33287780; PMCID: PMC7719728.
  8. COVID-19 rapid guideline: managing the long-term effects of COVID-19. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK); 2020 Dec 18. PMID: 33555768.
  9. Moreno-Pérez O, Merino E, Leon-Ramirez JM, Andres M, Ramos JM, Arenas-Jiménez J, Asensio S, Sanchez R, Ruiz-Torregrosa P, Galan I, Scholz A, Amo A, González-delaAleja P, Boix V, Gil J; COVID19-ALC research group. Post-acute COVID-19 Syndrome. Incidence and risk factors: a Mediterranean cohort study. J Infect. 2021 Jan 12:S0163-4453(21)00009-8.
  10. Carvalho-Schneider C, Laurent E, Lemaignen A, Beaufils E, Bourbao-Tournois C, Laribi S, Flament T, Ferreira-Maldent N, Bruyère F, Stefic K, Gaudy-Graffin C, Grammatico-Guillon L, Bernard L. Follow-up of adults with noncritical COVID-19 two months after symptom onset. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Oct 5;27(2):258–63. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.09.052. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33031948; PMCID: PMC7534895.
  11. Townsend L, Dowds J, O’Brien K, Sheill G, Dyer AH, O’Kelly B, Hynes JP, Mooney A, Dunne J, Ni Cheallaigh C, O’Farrelly C, Bourke NM, Conlon N, Martin-Loeches I, Bergin C, Nadarajan P, Bannan C. Persistent Poor Health Post-COVID-19 Is Not Associated with Respiratory Complications or Initial Disease Severity. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2021 Jan 8. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.202009-1175OC. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33413026.
  12. Walsh-Messinger J, Manis H, Vrabec A, Sizemore J, Bishof K, Debidda M, Malaspina D, Greenspan N. The Kids Are Not Alright: A Preliminary Report of Post-COVID Syndrome in University Students. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 Nov 29:2020.11.24.20238261. doi: 10.1101/2020.11.24.20238261. PMID: 33269366; PMCID: PMC7709187.
  13. Covid Symptoms Study. How long does COVID-19 last? June 6, 2020
  14. Simani L, Ramezani M, Darazam IA, Sagharichi M, Aalipour MA, Ghorbani F, Pakdaman H. Prevalence and correlates of chronic fatigue syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder after the outbreak of the COVID-19. J Neurovirol. 2021 Feb 2:1–6. doi: 10.1007/s13365-021-00949-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33528827; PMCID: PMC7852482.
  15. Wostyn P. COVID-19 and chronic fatigue syndrome: Is the worst yet to come? Med Hypotheses. 2021 Jan 2;146:110469. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110469. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33401106.
  16. Lopez-Leon S, Wegman-Ostrosky T, Perelman C, Sepulveda R, Rebolledo PA, Cuapio A, Villapol S. More than 50 Long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2021 Jan 30:2021.01.27.21250617. doi: 10.1101/2021.01.27.21250617. PMID: 33532785; PMCID: PMC7852236.
  17. Hoong CWS, Amin MNME, Tan TC, Lee JE. Viral arthralgia a new manifestation of COVID-19 infection? A cohort study of COVID-19-associated musculoskeletal symptoms. Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 18;104:363-369. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.01.031. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33476761; PMCID: PMC7813485.
  18. Liu JWTW, de Luca RD, Mello Neto HO, Barcellos I. Post-COVID-19 Syndrome? New daily persistent headache in the aftermath of COVID-19. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2020 Nov;78(11):753-754. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20200187. PMID: 33331469.
  19. Miglis MG, Prieto T, Shaik R, Muppidi S, Sinn DI, Jaradeh S. A case report of postural tachycardia syndrome after COVID-19. Clin Auton Res. 2020 Oct;30(5):449-451. doi: 10.1007/s10286-020-00727-9. Epub 2020 Sep 3. PMID: 32880754; PMCID: PMC7471493.
  20. Chandrashekara S, Jaladhar P, Paramshetti S, Ramachandran V, Nizar SF, Kori D. Post COVID Inflammation Syndrome: Different Manifestations Caused by the Virus. J Assoc Physicians India. 2020 Dec;68(12):33-34. PMID: 33247640.
  21. Ahmed H, Patel K, Greenwood DC, Halpin S, Lewthwaite P, Salawu A, Eyre L, Breen A, O’Connor R, Jones A, Sivan M. Long-term clinical outcomes in survivors of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreaks after hospitalisation or ICU admission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Rehabil Med. 2020 May 31;52(5):jrm00063. doi: 10.2340/16501977-2694. PMID: 32449782.
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  23. Yang S, Tian M, Johnson AN. SARS-CoV-2 protein ORF3a is pathogenic in Drosophila and causes phenotypes associated with COVID-19 post-viral syndrome. bioRxiv [Preprint]. 2020 Dec 20:2020.12.20.423533.
  24. Dennis, A. et al. Multi-organ impairment in low-risk individuals with long COVID. Preprint at medRxiv (2020).
  25. Doykov I, Hällqvist J, Gilmour KC, Grandjean L, Mills K, Heywood WE. ‘The long tail of Covid-19’ – The detection of a prolonged inflammatory response after a SARS-CoV-2 infection in asymptomatic and mildly affected patients. F1000Res. 2020 Nov 19;9:1349. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.27287.2.
  26. Brown BI. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a personalized integrative medicine approach. Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;20(1):29-40. PMID: 24445354.
  27. Stefano GB, Ptacek R, Ptackova H, Martin A, Kream RM. Selective Neuronal Mitochondrial Targeting in SARS-CoV-2 Infection Affects Cognitive Processes to Induce ‘Brain Fog’ and Results in Behavioral Changes that Favor Viral Survival. Med Sci Monit. 2021 Jan 25;27:e930886. doi: 10.12659/MSM.930886. PMID: 33487628; PMCID: PMC7845145.
  28. Moreno Fernández-Ayala DJ, Navas P, López-Lluch G. Age-related mitochondrial dysfunction as a key factor in COVID-19 disease. Exp Gerontol. 2020 Dec;142:111147. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2020.111147. Epub 2020 Nov 7. PMID: 33171276; PMCID: PMC7648491
  29. Nunn AVW, Guy GW, Brysch W, Botchway SW, Frasch W, Calabrese EJ, Bell JD. SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondrial health: implications of lifestyle and ageing. Immun Ageing. 2020 Nov 9;17(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s12979-020-00204-x. PMID: 33292333; PMCID: PMC7649575.
  30. Brown BI. Chronic fatigue syndrome: a personalized integrative medicine approach. Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;20(1):29-40. PMID: 24445354.
  31. Ostojic SM. Diagnostic and Pharmacological Potency of Creatine in Post-Viral Fatigue Syndrome. Nutrients. 2021 Feb 4;13(2):503. doi: 10.3390/nu13020503. PMID: 33557013.
  32. Wood E, Hall KH, Tate W. Role of mitochondria, oxidative stress and the response to antioxidants in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: a possible approach to SARS-CoV-2 ‘long-haulers’? Chronic Dis Transl Med. 2020 Nov 21. doi: 10.1016/j.cdtm.2020.11.002. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33251031; PMCID: PMC7680046.
  33. Bland JS. The Long Haul of COVID-19 Recovery: Immune Rejuvenation versus Immune Support. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2020 Dec;19(6):18-22. PMID: 33488306; PMCID: PMC7819497.


Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(2):e210369. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369.

Daily Mail, February 13, 2021:

Therapeutic 8 g/day of vitamin C increases recovery rate from SARS-CoV-2 infection by 71% (P = 0.036) based on the randomized trial by Thomas et al. (2021). Prof Harri Hemilä comment:

Vitamin C review article: Vitamin C – An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients 2020, Dec 7;12(12):3760, doi: 10.3390/nu12123760.

EGCG binds intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of p53 and disrupts p53-MDM2 interactionNature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21258-5.

An Antioxidant Enzyme Therapeutic for COVID‐19Advanced Materials, 2020; 2004901 DOI: 10.1002/adma.202004901.

Dietary table grape protects against UV photodamage in humans: 1. clinical evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2021. Doi:

Effects of an Antioxidant-enriched Multivitamin in Cystic Fibrosis. A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial.  American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2018, Sept 1, Vol 198, Issue 5, .


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Citrus Polyphenols in Brain Health and Disease: Current Perspectives. Front Neurosci.,19 February 2021,

Vitamin C and Covid-19.  Front. Med 2021, 18 January 2021 |

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 serology levels in pregnant women and their neonates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.016

Fructose reprogrammes glutamine-dependent oxidative metabolism to support LPS-induced inflammation. Nature Communications 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21461-4.

Air pollution exposure is linked with methylation of immunoregulatory genes, altered immune cell profiles, and increased blood pressure in children. Scientific Reports 2021; 11 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-83577-3.

The one-carbon pool controls mitochondrial energy metabolism via complex I and iron-sulfur clusters. Science Advances 2021; 7 (8): eabf0717 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf0717.

Food anaphylaxis in the United Kingdom: analysis of national data, 1998-2018. BMJ 2021; n251 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n251.

Rural-urban differences in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Web (February 24, 2021).


The Long Haul of COVID-19 Recovery: Immune Rejuvenation versus Immune Support. Integrative Medicine 2020, 19, 6, December.

February 2021


State of the Nation – SIMON MARTIN WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer – aka The Global Cancer Observatory.
Every two minutes someone in the UK is diagnosed with cancer:

Delineating the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with cancer and cancer services. Health Data Research UK, May 13, 2020.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer deaths due to delays in diagnosis in England, UK: a national, population-based, modelling study. The Lancet Oncology 2020, Open Access, July 20. DOI:

UK incidence of cancer:

Diabetes in the UK: 2019. Diabet Med 2020, Jan 4, 37, 242–7:

 “Around three-quarters of people aged 45-74 in England are overweight or obese”: (

NHS England 2020:

“Air pollution a cause in girl’s death, coroner rules in landmark case”. Sandra Laville, The Guardian, Dec 16 2020.

Heart disease:

Long Term Conditions Compendium of Information: Third Edition, Department of Health, 2012, quoted in

The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort. BMC Med 2019, 17, 145:,or%20another%20longstanding%20respiratory%20illness.


Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Ann. Intensive Care 2021, 11, 5:

Characterizing Long COVID in an International Cohort: 7 Months of Symptoms and Their Impact. medRxiv 2020, doi:


BEN BROWN – COVID and resilience

  1. Bland J. Reflections on the COVID-19 Pandemic. Medium. April 12, 2020.
  2. Nieman DC. Coronavirus disease-2019: A tocsin to our aging, unfit, corpulent, and immunodeficient society. J Sport Health Sci. 2020 Jul;9(4):293-301.
  3. Preskorn SH. The 5% of the Population at High Risk for Severe COVID-19 Infection Is Identifiable and Needs to Be Taken Into Account When Reopening the Economy. J Psychiatr Pract. 2020 May;26(3):219-227.
  4. Horton R. Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic. Lancet. 2020 Sep 26;396(10255):874.
  5. Lustig RH. Ultraprocessed Food: Addictive, Toxic, and Ready for Regulation. Nutrients. 2020 Nov 5;12(11):3401.
  6. Sagner M, Katz D, Egger G, Lianov L, Schulz KH, Braman M, Behbod B, Phillips E, Dysinger W, Ornish D. Lifestyle medicine potential for reversing a world of chronic disease epidemics: from cell to community. Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Nov;68(11):1289-92. doi: 10.1111/ijcp.12509. PMID: 25348380.
  7. Sepúlveda-Loyola W, Rodríguez-Sánchez I, Pérez-Rodríguez P, Ganz F, Torralba R, Oliveira DV, Rodríguez-Mañas L. Impact of Social Isolation Due to COVID-19 on Health in Older People: Mental and Physical Effects and Recommendations. J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;24(9):938-947.
  8. Cheng Z, Mendolia S, Paloyo AR, Savage DA, Tani M. Working parents, financial insecurity, and childcare: mental health in the time of COVID-19 in the UK. Rev Econ Househ. 2021 Jan 12:1-22.
  9. Santarsiero A, Giustini M, Quadrini F, D’Alessandro D, Fara GM. Effectiveness of face masks for the population. Ann Ig. 2020 Dec 3. doi: 10.7416/ai.2020.2390.
  10. Rubin EJ, Longo DL. SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination – An Ounce (Actually, Much Less) of Prevention. N Engl J Med. 2020 Dec 31;383(27):2677-2678.
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  13. Enhanced ACE2 expression, pre-existing endothelial dysfunction and procoagulant state
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  15. Zhu L, She Z-G, Cheng X, et al. Association of blood glucose control and outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and pre-existing type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab 2020;31:1068–77.
  16. Holman N, Knighton P, Kar P, O’Keefe J, Curley M, Weaver A, Barron E, Bakhai C, Khunti K, Wareham NJ, Sattar N, Young B, Valabhji J. Risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England: a population-based cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Oct;8(10):823-833.
  17. Zhu B, Jin S, Wu L, Hu C, Wang Z, Bu L, Sun H, Wang X, Qu S, Chen D. J-shaped association between fasting blood glucose levels and COVID-19 severity in patients without diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Oct;168:108381.
  18. Rubino, F. et al. New-onset diabetes in Covid-19. N. Engl. J. Med. 383, 789–790 (2020).
  19. Holly JMP, Biernacka K, Maskell N, Perks CM. Obesity, Diabetes and COVID-19: An Infectious Disease Spreading From the East Collides With the Consequences of an Unhealthy Western Lifestyle. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Sep 17;11:582870.
  20. Mohammad S, Aziz R, Al Mahri S, Malik SS, Haji E, Khan AH, Khatlani TS, Bouchama A. Obesity and COVID-19: what makes obese host so vulnerable? Immun Ageing. 2021 Jan 4;18(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s12979-020-00212-x. PMID: 33390183; PMCID: PMC7779330.
  21. Nutrition, immunity and COVID-19. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020;3:doi: 10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000085. Grant WB, Lahore H, McDonnell SL, et al. Evidence that Vitamin D Supplementation Could Reduce Risk of Influenza and COVID-19 Infections and Deaths. Nutrients. 2020;12(4):E988.
  22. Holford P, Carr AC, Jovic TH, Ali SR, Whitaker IS, Marik PE, Smith AD. Vitamin C-An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients. 2020 Dec 7;12(12):3760.
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  24. Angelidi AM, Kokkinos A, Katechaki E, Ros E, Mantzoros CS. Mediterranean diet as a nutritional approach for COVID-19. Metabolism. 2021 Jan;114:154407. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154407. Epub 2020 Oct 17. PMID: 33080270.
  25. Annunziata G, Sanduzzi Zamparelli M, Santoro C, Ciampaglia R, Stornaiuolo M, Tenore GC, et al. May Polyphenols Have a Role Against Coronavirus Infection? An Overview of in vitro Evidence. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020;7:240.
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  30. Ohaegbulam KC, Swalih M, Patel P, Smith MA, Perrin R. Vitamin D Supplementation in COVID-19 Patients: A Clinical Case Series. Am J Ther. 2020 Sep/Oct;27(5):e485-e490.
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  34. Horowitz RI, Freeman PR, Bruzzese J. Efficacy of glutathione therapy in relieving dyspnea associated with COVID-19 pneumonia: A report of 2 cases. Respir Med Case Rep. 2020 Apr 21;30:101063.



Zwickey: Covid-19: What We Know Now About Spread, Shedding Period, Symptoms, and Effects of Pollen,  a follow-up interview with Heather Zwickey, PhD. Natural Medicine Journal, April 2020 Vol. 12 Issue 4.

GI symptoms in Chinese patients: Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study.

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Disease: Implications for the Gastroenterologist. Digestive Diseases 2020:

Involvement of digestive system in COVID-19: manifestations, pathology, management and challenges. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020; 13: doi: 10.1177/1756284820934626.


UV-LED disinfection of Coronavirus: Wavelength effectJournal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2020, 212: 112044 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.112044.

Triptolide targets super-enhancer networks in pancreatic cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblastsOncogenesis 2020, 9 (11). DOI: 10.1038/s41389-020-00285-9.

Targeting CD38-dependent NAD+ metabolism to mitigate multiple organ fibrosisiScience 2021; 24 (1): 101902 DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101902.

Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal painNature 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03118-2.

Effect of green-Mediterranean diet on intrahepatic fat: the DIRECT PLUS randomised controlled trial. Gut, 2021. Published online first: 18 January. Open Access, doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323106.

The Effect of Wolffia globosa Mankai, a Green Aquatic Plant, on Postprandial Glycemic Response: A Randomized Crossover Controlled TrialDiabetes Care, 2019; 42 (7): 1162 DOI: 10.2337/dc18-2319.

Circulating mitochondrial DNA is an early indicator of severe illness and mortality from COVID-19JCI Insight 2021. DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.143299.

January 2021


Diverse Functional Autoantibodies in Patients with COVID-19.

medRxiv 2020.12.10.20247205; doi:
Pre-print, not peer-reviewed.

Prothrombotic autoantibodies in serum from patients hospitalized with COVID-19Science Translational Medicine, Nov. 2, 2020; DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd3876.

Antimalarial Drug Shortages During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from the Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey. Research presented at ACR Convergence 2020, the American College of Rheumatology’s annual meeting.

Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19.

Science, 2020 Oct 23, 370, Issue 6515, eabd4585. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4585.

Effect of gut microbiota on depressive-like behaviors in mice is mediated by the endocannabinoid systemNat Commun 2020, 11, 6363.

Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19. Nature 2020, Dec 11:

Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of Stevia Extract, Stevioside, Rebaudioside A and Their Aglycon Steviol. Molecules 2020, 25, 5480:

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) lowers sugar-induced postprandial glycaemia independently and in a product with fermented quinoa: A randomised crossover trialBritish Journal of Nutrition 2020, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S0007114520004468.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES CohortThe Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2020; 33 (6): 842. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200110.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES CohortThe Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2020; 33 (6): 842. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200110.

Reversal of the Pathophysiological Responses to Gram-Negative Sepsis by Megadose Vitamin C. Critical Care Medicine 2020, Nov 25, Online First, doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004770.

Dried urine and salivary profiling for complete assessment of cortisol and cortisol metabolites. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology 2020, 22, 100243.


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Coronosomnia – UC Davis

The acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on insomnia and psychological symptoms. Sleep Med 202, S1389-9457(20)30261-6. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2020.06.005.

D, K, COVID and heart disease: Dr TRYGVE BERGELAND
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Worldwide Prevalence and Burden of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Results of Rome Foundation Global Study. Gastroenterology 2020 Apr 12; S0016-5085(20)30487-X.

Association between Brachyspira and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

Gut 2020, Online First: 11 November. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321466.  

Controlled Delivery of Bile Acids to the Colon. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology 2020, December, 11: 12, e00229. DOI: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000229.

Allergy-Related Diseases During Childhood And Risk Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome at 16 Years: a Swedish Birth Cohort Study. Presented at UEG Week Virtual 2020. Related: The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Epidemiology 2014:; Epidemiology and burden of chronic constipation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology.2011:

Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled multi-centre study to assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Enterosgel® in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) in adults. Trials 2020, 21, 122:


β-Carotene Oxygenase 1 Activity Modulates Circulating Cholesterol Concentrations in Mice and Humans. Journal of Nutrition 2020, 150: 8, 2023–30:

β-carotene conversion to vitamin A delays atherosclerosis progression by decreasing hepatic lipid secretion in mice.  Journal of Lipid Research 2020, 61(11):1491-1503. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.RA120001066.

Therapeutic responses to Roseomonas mucosa in atopic dermatitis may involve lipid-mediated TNF-related epithelial repair. Science Translational Medicine 2020. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz8631.

Exercise training reveals micro-RNAs associated with improved cardiac function and electrophysiology in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarctionJournal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 2020; 148: 106 DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.08.015.

Effects of a Fat-Rich Diet on the Spontaneous Release of Acetylcholine in the Neuromuscular Junction of MiceNutrients 2020, 12, 3216. Published online 2020 Oct 21. doi: 10.3390/nu12103216.

December 2020


Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Bruce N. Ames.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2006, 103 (47) 17589-17594; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0608757103.


“Dame Sally Davies: obesity scourge led to 50,000 Covid death toll”. The Times, Nov 15, 2020:

Higher egg consumption associated with increased risk of diabetes in Chinese adults – China Health and Nutrition SurveyBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520003955.

Metabolic Profiling of High Egg Consumption and the Associated Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle‐Aged Finnish MenMolecular Nutrition & Food Research  2018; 1800605 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201800605.

Prof Richard Feinman: Nutrition in Crisis: Flawed Studies, Misleading Advice and the Real Science of Human Metabolism, (Chelsea Green Publishing, 2019).

“The Problem with Epidemiological Studies”, by Georgia Ede, MD. Online at her diagnosis:Diet website:

Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2020. dgaa733,

Upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection might help to reduce COVID-19 transmission in buildings: a feasibility studyPeerJ, 2020; 8: e10196 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10196

Dietary flavanols improve cerebral cortical oxygenation and cognition in healthy adultsScientific Reports, 2020; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76160-9.

Structure and function of virion RNA polymerase of a crAss-like phage, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2921-5 ,

Alterations in the Intestinal Morphology, Gut Microbiota, and Trace Mineral Status Following Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Seed Extracts. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3020.

Distinct Fecal and Plasma Metabolites in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Modulation after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

mSphere Oct 2020, 5 (5) e00314-20; DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00314-20

Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Lipopolysaccharide as Mediators Between Gut Dysbiosis and Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2020,  78, 2, 683-697.

Prebiotic Xylo-Oligosaccharides Ameliorate High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Rats. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3225.


Frontline Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance:

Low level of Vitamin C and dysregulation of Vitamin C transporter might be involved in the severity of COVID-19 InfectionAging and Disease, 2020; DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0918.

Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery
. Integr Med (Encinitas) 2020, 19(Suppl 1): 8–35.

Lymphopenia predicts disease severity of COVID-19: a descriptive and predictive study. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 2020, 5, Article number: 33.  

Broadly-targeted autoreactivity is common in severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Preprint, medRxiv 2020, ID: ppmedrxiv-20216192.

Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides on the Adult Gut Microbiota and Barrier Function. 
Nutrients. 2020

November 2020


Aspirin Use is Associated with Decreased Mechanical Ventilation, ICU Admission, and In-Hospital Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Anesthesia & Analgesia: October 21, 2020 – Ahead of Print.


How menaquinone-7 deficiency influences mortality and morbidity among COVID-19 patients. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 2020, 15 Sep, 29:101792. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2020.101792.  

Reduced Vitamin K Status as A Potentially Modifiable Prognostic Risk Factor in COVID-19. Preprints 2020, 2020040457, doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0457.v1.

Lower nocturnal blood glucose response to a potato-based mixed evening meal compared to rice in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Nutrition 2020, doi:

Vitamin C and vitamin C plus E improve the immune function in the elderly.

Experimental Gerontology 2020, 111118,

Global, regional, and national burden of ischaemic heart disease and its attributable risk factors, 1990-2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2020, doi:10.1093/ehjqcco/qcaa076.

2GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2019, 393:1958-1972.

Data shows the average age of death from coronavirus is 82.4 years.  David Rose. Daily Mail, 8 October 2020.

Stats are from the continuingly updated website of The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine of the University Oxford, that includes contributions from Prof Carl Heneghan and Dr Jason Oke, Senior Statistician at the Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences.,

Disorders of human coenzyme q10 metabolism: An overview. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020, 21(18): 6695:

Older age and frailty are the chief predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to an acute medical unit in a secondary care setting- a cohort study
BMC Geriatrics 2020, 10-16. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-01803-5.

Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75-year olds: opportunities for successful ageing. BMC Geriatr 20, 96 (2020).

Is there scope for a novel mycelium category of proteins alongside animals and plants? Foods 2020, 9(9): 1151:


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Faecal microbiota transplantation from mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits sleep disturbances in naïve mice. Experimental Neurology 2020, 334, 113439:

Sleep fragmentation increases blood pressure and is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and fecal metabolome in ratsPhysiological Genomics 2020,  52 (7): 280. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00039.2020.

Mucosal or systemic microbiota exposures shape the B cell repertoireNature, 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2564-6.

Associations of equol‐producing status with white matter lesion and amyloid‐β deposition in cognitively normal elderly JapaneseAlzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 2020. DOI: 10.1002/trc2.12089.

Circadian Host-Microbiome Interactions in Immunity. Front Immunol 2020 Aug 14;11:1783. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01783.


Additive effects of green tea and coffee on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes RegistryBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 2020; 8 (1): e001252 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001252.

An Antioxidant Enzyme Therapeutic for COVID‐19Advanced Materials, 2020; 2004901 DOI: 10.1002/adma.202004901.

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Pro-Homeostatic Lipid Mediators in Ocular Hypertension – A Human Experimental ModelJ. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2979.
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Nuclear receptor REVERBα is a state-dependent regulator of liver energy metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2020, Oct, 117 (41) 25869-25879.

Optimization of antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities and ganoderic acid content of differentially dried Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry 2021, 335, 127645:

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Effect of Omega-3 Dosage on Cardiovascular Outcomes
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.08.034.

British Heart Foundation: › files › medical-information-sheet.

British Dietetic Association:


BBC: Fish oil supplements for a healthy heart ‘nonsense’ – BBC News

Trans-ethnic analysis reveals genetic and non-genetic associations with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. medRxiv 2020, 09.04.20188318; PREPRINT. doi:

Zinc supplementation affects favorably the frequency of migraine attacks: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J 2020, 19, 101:

Effects of fermented human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota and barrier function in adults. Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2808; DOI: 10.3390/nu12092808

Paul Bastard et al. Auto-antibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19Science, Sept. 24, 2010; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4585

Qian Zhang et al. Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19Science, Sept. 24, 2020; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4570

Andrographis-mediated chemosensitization through activation of ferroptosis and suppression of β-catenin/Wnt-signaling pathways in colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis, 2020, bgaa090,


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National Center for Biotechnology Information. dbSNP

Soerensen M, Christensen K, Stevnsner T, Christiansen L. The Mn-superoxide dismutase single nucleotide polymorphism rs4880 and the glutathione peroxidase 1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1050450 are associated with aging and longevity in the oldest old. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009 May;130(5):308-14. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2009.01.005. Epub 2009 Feb 5. PMID: 19428448; PMCID: PMC2720516.

Yahyah Aman, Yumin Qiu, Jun Tao, Evandro F. Fang, Therapeutic potential of boosting NAD+ in aging and age-related diseases, Translational Medicine of Aging, Volume 2, 2018, Pages 30-37, ISSN 2468-5011,


 A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin stormeLife, 2020; 9 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.59177.

SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. PLoS ONE 2020, 15(9): e0239252:

A randomized controlled study of weighted chain blankets for insomnia in psychiatric disordersJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2020; 16 (9): 1567 DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.8636.

Curcumin Can Decrease Tissue Inflammation and the Severity of HSV-2 Infection in the Female Reproductive MucosaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020; 21 (1): 337 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21010337.

Fecal microbiota transplantation from mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits sleep disturbances in naïve miceExperimental Neurology, 2020; 334: 113439 DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113439.

September 2020




Chinese restaurant:,at%20its%20entrance%20this%20week.

COVID deaths per million, August 24:

Obesity and vaccine response:

Research summary for Prof Melinda Beck, who has a new paper in process:  


The Effect of a Multivitamin and Mineral Supplement on Immune Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled TrialNutrients, 2020; 12 (8): 2447 DOI: 10.3390/nu12082447


Revealing the targets and mechanisms of vitamin A in the treatment of COVID-19. Aging 2020; 12:15784-15796.

COVID-19 pandemic and admission rates for and management of acute coronary syndromes in England. Lancet 2020,  396, 10248, P381-389, August 8:

Excess Cardiac Arrest in the Community During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions 2020, 13 (16), 1968–9:

Eggs: buried in the new guidelines available at

Antibiotic use and the development of inflammatory bowel disease: a national case-control study in SwedenThe Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30267-3.

Metabolic Syndrome and Viral Pathogenesis: Lessons from Influenza and CoronavirusesJournal of Virology, 2020; DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00665-20.

Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2020; 17 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9.

 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term (R)-α-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Promotes Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults without Altering Baseline Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations.The Journal of Nutrition, 2020, nxaa203,


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Air pollution and asthma

Air pollution and family related determinants of asthma onset and persistent wheezing in children: nationwide case-control studyBMJ, 2020; m2791 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m2791.


In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa  Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Preprints 2020, 2020040315.

Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNACannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2020; DOI: 10.1089/can.2020.0043.

The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychopharmacology 2020, first published online August 7.

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Drug-Drug InteractionsMedical Cannabis and Cannabinoids 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1159/000507998.


  1. Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and diseaseMol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(7):780-788. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700075.
  2. Mitochondria in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.Immunity. 2015;42(3):406-417. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.02.002.
  3. Role of mitochondria in steroidogenesis.Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26(6):771-790. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2012.05.002.
  4. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death: Potential TherapeuticsAnnu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017;57:437-454. doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010716-105001.
  5. Metabolic features and regulation of the healing cycle – a new model for chronic disease pathogenesis and treatmentMitochondrion. 2019;46:278-297. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2018.08.001.
  6. Metabolic features of the cell danger response. Mitochondrion 2014, 16, May, 7-17.
7. HIF1-α-mediated gene expression induced by vitamin B1 deficiencyInt J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(3):188-197. doi:10.1024/0300-9831/a000159.

  1. “Oxygenation, Nutrition and Cancer”, by Derrick Lonsdale MD, FACN, CNS:

  1. Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(1):52-57. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328332f9b7,
  2. Changes in Plasma Acylcarnitine and Lysophosphatidylcholine Levels Following a High-Fructose Diet: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in Healthy WomenNutrients. 2018;10(9):1254, doi:10.3390/nu10091254.
  3. Mechanisms of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(3):465-472. doi:10.1139/H09-045
  4. Exercise Modifies the Gut Microbiota with Positive Health Effects.

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017, ID 3831972:


Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with extensive abdominal aortic calcification in elderly women: a cross-sectional studyBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520002706.

Trajectories of childhood adversity and mortality in early adulthood: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet, 2020; 396 (10249): 489 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30621-8.

Influence of cinnamon on glycaemic control in subjects with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Endocrine Society 2020, publishd online July 212. DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa094.

Gut Microbiota in T1DM-Onset Pediatric Patients: Machine Learning Algorithms to Classify Microganisms Disease-Linked. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, published online July 21:

Resolution Response – Dr BARRY SEARS

Dietary Technologies to Optimize Healing from Injury-Induced Inflammation. Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 2020, 19, 1-12. Open Access available at

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August 2020


Do vitamin D supplements help prevent respiratory tract infections?

BMJ 2017; 356 doi:


Brain delivery of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. EBio Medicine 2020, Open Access, publishe July 17. DOI:

Women’s Health in the UK – Dietary and Health Challenges across the Life Cycle with a Focus on Micronutrients. J Virol Mycol 2020, 4: 118. DOI: 10.29011/2688-8750.100018.

Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID‑19 (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2020, 46, 17-26.

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

medRxiv 2020, pre-print, 05.02.20080036; doi:

Influence of cinnamon on glycaemic control in subjects with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Endocrine Society 2020, publishd online July 212. DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa094.

Gut Microbiota in T1DM-Onset Pediatric Patients: Machine Learning Algorithms to Classify Microganisms Disease-Linked. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, published online July 21:

Investigating Ketone Bodies as Immunometabolic Countermeasures Against Respiratory Viral Infections. Med 2020.


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Lustig: additional material from SIMON MARTIN

Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2011;4(3):146-162. DOI : 10.2174/1874473711104030146.

Hyper‐Palatable Foods: Development of a Quantitative Definition and Application to the US Food System Database. Obesity 2019; 27 (11): 1761. DOI: 10.1002/oby.22639.

Why it can be hard to stop eating even when you’re full: Some foods may be designed that way”, by Tera Fazzino and Kaitlyn Rohde. The Conversation, December 6, 2019:



  1. An Oral Formulation of the Probiotic, Bacillus subtilisHU58, was Safe and Well Tolerated in a Pilot Study of Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy. Sayed Yossef et al. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020, 1463108:
  2. Probiotic Bacillus Spores Protect Against Acetaminophen Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats. Neag, et al. Nutrients 2020, Mar; 12(3): 632. DOI: 10.3390/nu12030632.
  3. “A synbiotic concept containing spore-forming Bacillusstrains and a prebiotic fiber blend consistently enhanced metabolic activity by modulation of the gut microbiome in vitro.”Duysburgh, Cindy et al. International journal of pharmaceutics: X, vol. 1 100021. 6 Jul. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.ijpx.2019.100021.


MtcB, a member of the MttB superfamily from the human gut acetogen Eubacterium limosum, is a cobalamin-dependent carnitine demethylase. Duncan J. Kountz et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2020; jbc.RA120.012934.  DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.012934.

High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel DiseaseCell Host & Microbe 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.001.

Standard gastroenterologist versus multidisciplinary treatment for functional gastrointestinal disorders (MANTRA): an open-label, single-centre, randomised controlled trial.  The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2020, July 14, 2020DOI:

The small intestine shields the liver from fructose-induced steatosis. Nat Metab 2020, 2, 586–93:

Fitness trade-offs incurred by ovary-to-gut steroid signalling in DrosophilaNature 2020, July 8. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2462-y.



  1. Short-term, but not acute, intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves insulin sensitivity and free-living postprandial glucose excursions in individuals with overweight or obesity. Nolan, A., Brett, R., Strauss, J.A. et alEur J Nutr2020:
  2. Effects of blackcurrant extract on arterial functions in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.Takanobu Okamoto et al. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2020, 42:7, 640-647, DOI: 10.1080/10641963.2020.1764015.
  3. Why So Many People with Diabetes Stop Taking Metformin”:


The Gut Microbiota in Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study. Cell Metabolism 2020, online July 10:


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Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19Nat Med 26, 1017–1032 (2020).

Food & mood: a review of supplementary prebiotic and probiotic interventions in the treatment of anxiety and depression in adults. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020, bmjnph-2019-000053. DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000053.

Oxytocin reverses Aβ-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in miceBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2020, 528 (1): 174 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.046.

Antiviral and virucidal effects of curcumin on transmissible gastroenteritis virus in vitro. Journal of General Virology 2020; DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001466.

Evidence for improved systemic and local vascular function after long‐term passive static stretching training of the musculoskeletal system. J Physiol 2020: doi:10.1113/JP279866.

Effects of 4- and 6-h Time-Restricted Feeding on Weight and Cardiometabolic Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with ObesityCell Metabolism, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.018

Avocado (Persea americana) pulp improves cardiovascular and autonomic recovery following submaximal running: a crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Sci Rep 10, 10703 (2020).

July 2020


Estimated Inactivation of Coronaviruses by Solar Radiation With Special Reference to COVID‐19. Jose‐Luis Sagripanti and C. David Lytle. Accepted for publication in Photochemistry and Photobiology 2020:


Obesity and covid-19: the role of the food industry. Tan M, He FJ, MacGregor GA. BMJ 2020, 369, Editorial. DOI: June 10.

Air Pollution as a Contributor to the Inflammatory Activity of Multiple Sclerosis/ Andrea Cortese, Luca Lova, Patrizia Comoli et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020, PREPRINT May 11. DOI: 10.21203/

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote astrocyte differentiation and neurotrophin production independent of cAMP in patient-derived neural stem cells. Jiang-Zhou Yu et al. Molecular Psychiatry 2020, DOI: 10.1038/s41380-020-0786-5.

Randomized Trial of Lactin-V to Prevent Recurrence of Bacterial Vaginosis. Craig R. Cohen et al. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1906-1915. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1915254.

Do arsenic levels in rice pose a health risk to the UK population? Manoj Menon et al. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2020, 197, 110601.

Between-centre differences for COVID-19 ICU mortality from early data in England. Zhaozhi Qian et al. Accepted for publication in Intensive Care Medicine. Preprint:

Prone Positioning in Awake, Nonintubated Patients With COVID-19 Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Alison E. Thompson et al.  JAMA Intern Med 2020; doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3030.  

COVID and blood type:

Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals. Robbiani DF et al. Nature 2020.

“The end of exponential growth: The decline in the spread of coronavirus”, by Isaac Ben-Israel. The Times of Israel, April 19 , 2020:

Hydrocortisone, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine (HAT Therapy) for the Treatment of Sepsis. Focus on Ascorbic Acid. Paul E Marik. Nutrients 2018, Nov 14;10(11):1762.

DOI: 10.3390/nu10111762


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  22. Kalinić D, Borovac Štefanović L, Jerončić A, Mimica N, Dodig G, Delaš I. Eicosapentaenoic acid in serum lipids could be inversely correlated with severity of clinical symptomatology in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Croat Med J. 2014;55(1):27-37.
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  27. Fernandes BS, Dean OM, Dodd S, Malhi GS, Berk M. N-Acetylcysteine in depressive symptoms and functionality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(4):e457-e466.
  28. Duailibi MS, Cordeiro Q, Brietzke E, et al. N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of craving in substance use disorders: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Addict. 2017;26(7):660-666.
  29. Back SE, McCauley JL, Korte KJ, et al. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(11):e1439-e1446.
  30. Cohen J, Wei Z, Phang J, Laprairie RB, Zhang Y. Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;37(1):28-34.
  31. Cohen J, Wei Z, Phang J, Laprairie RB, Zhang Y. Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;37(1):28-34.
  32. Shannon S, Opila-Lehman J. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Perm J. 2016;20(4):16-005. doi:10.7812/TPP/16-005
  33. Elms L, Shannon S, Hughes S, Lewis N. Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Series. J Altern Complement Med. 2019;25(4):392-397. doi:10.1089/acm.2018.0437


Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis – back to the future? Bowe WP, Logan AC. Gut Pathog.2011 Jan 31;3(1):1. Free online at

The effect on the skin of emotional and nervous statestheoretical and practical consideration of a gastro-intestinal mechanism. Stokes J, Pillsbury D. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1930;22(6):962–993. doi:10.1001/archderm.1930.01440180008002.


Hookworm Treatment for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis. Radu Tanasescu et al. JAMA Neurology 2020; DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1118

Patient genetics is linked to chronic wound microbiome composition and healing. Craig D. Tipton et al. PLOS Pathogens, 2020; 16 (6): e1008511 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008511

The Neurobiology of Social Distance, Danilo Bzdok, Robin I.M. Dunbar.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2020:

Vitamin K status, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A participant-level meta-analysis of 3 US cohorts. Shea, MK et al.  Am J Clin Nutr 2020.

Daily listening to Mozart reduces seizures in individuals with epilepsy: A randomized control study. Marjan Rafiee et al. Epilepsia Open, 2020; 5 (2): 285 DOI: 10.1002/epi4.12400.

Copper(II)-binding equilibria in human blood. Kirsipuu, T., Zadorožnaja, A., Smirnova, J. et al. Sci Rep 2020, 10, 5686.

A dual effect of ursolic acid to the treatment of multiple sclerosis through both immunomodulation and direct remyelination. Yuan Zhang et al.

PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000208117, 2020.

Chromatin Priming Renders T Cell Tolerance-Associated Genes Sensitive to Activation below the Signaling Threshold for Immune Response Genes. Sarah L. Bevington et al. Cell Reports 2020; 31 (10): 107748 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107748.

A neurotransmitter produced by gut bacteria modulates host sensory behaviour. Michael P. O’Donnell et al. Nature, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2395-5.

June 2020


“More is less and less is more? Breaking the cycle of polypharmacy with deprescribing”, by Dr Henry J. Woodford is Chair of the British Geriatric Society’s Medicine Optimisation SIG. January 21 2020:  

 “Reflections on the COVID-19 Pandemic”, by Dr Jeff Bland, PhD:


The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients. Ali Daneshkhah et al. medRxiv 2020, posted April 30. 2020:

Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Michael F. Holick et al. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2011, Volume 96, Issue 7, 1 July, 1911-30:

Persistent organic pollutant exposure and coeliac disease: a pilot study. Abigail Gaylord et al. Environmental Research 2020; 109439.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109439.

Niacin Cures Systemic NAD Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metabolism 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008.

C9orf72 suppresses systemic and neural inflammation induced by gut bacteria.  Nature 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2288-7.

In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Wang B et al. Preprints 2020, 2020040315. DOI: 10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1. Pre-print manuscript, not peer-reviewed.

Ketogenic Diets Alter the Gut Microbiome Resulting in Decreased Intestinal Th17 Cells. Qi Yan Ang et al. Cell 2020, May 20: DOI:

Association of social relationships with incident cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Gronewold J, Kropp R, Lehmann N et al. EAN Virtual Congress 2020. 


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Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk

Sheldon Cohen et al. PNAS 2012, April 2:  


Gut microbiota may underlie the predisposition of healthy individuals to COVID-19. Wanglong Gou et al. Pre-print: not peer-reviewed. medRxiv 2020.04.22.20076091; doi:

Gut Microbes Could Predict How Seriously Ill A Covid-19 Patient Might Get, Preliminary Study Suggests. By Kashmira Gander. April 28, 2020.

Genetic and metabolic links between the murine microbiome and memory. Jian-Hua Mao et al. Microbiome 2020, 8 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-020-00817-w.

Microbiota-induced type I interferons instruct a poised basal state of dendritic cells. Schaupp L et al. Cell 2020 May 6. doi:

Prof Glenn Gibson:

Can probiotics and prebiotics go viral? Prof Glenn Gibson.

March 18, 2020.

Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial.
De Vrese M et al. Clin Nutr 2005 Aug;24(4):481-91. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

Probiotics for Preventing Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Qiukui Hao et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015, Feb 3;(2):CD006895,  doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub3.

2019 Novel coronavirus infection and gastrointestinal tract. Qin Yan Gao et al. J Digestive Diseases 2020, First published:25 February 2020.

“Can bacteria help humans fight COVID-19?” Gregor Reid,

Professor, Western University and Lawson Institute. Nature Research Microbiology March 17, 2020:

“Coronavirus: Australian scientists map how immune system fights virus”.

March 17 2020:


Effects of blackcurrant extract on arterial functions in older adults: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Okamoto T et al. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2020, May 12: DOI: 10.1080/10641963.2020.1764015.

Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant on Blood Pressure, Cognitive Function and Functional Performance in Older Adults. Cook MD et al. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics 2020, online Jan 6. DOI:


Circulating plasma concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in men and women with heart failure and effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone inhibitors. Adriaan A Voors et al. European Heart Journal, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa373.

Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: novel biomarker in heart failure with implications for COVID-19. Marc A Pfeffer, Gavin Y Oudit. European Heart Journal, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa414.

Euro Heart J special issue:

Sugar‐Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the California Teachers Study. Lorena S. Pacheco et al. Journal of the American Heart Association 2020: DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014883.

Reductive Stress Causes Pathological Cardiac Remodeling and Diastolic Dysfunction. Gobinath Shanmugam et al. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2020:  DOI: 10.1089/ars.2019.7808.

The Mediterranean diet, plasma metabolome, and cardiovascular disease risk Liming Liang et al.  European Heart Journal 2020. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa209.


“Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials”. Carine Dion et al. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016; 13: 28. DOI: 10.1186/s12986-016-0086-x.

“Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers”. Udani JK et al. Nutr J. 2010, Aug 26;9:32. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-32.

Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents. Ryu D et al. Nat Med. 2016;22(8):879‐888. DOI:10.1038/nm.4132


Synergistic effect of fasting-mimicking diet and vitamin C against KRAS mutated cancers. Maira Di Tano et al. Nature Communications, 2020; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16243-3.

Glutathione Restricts Serine Metabolism to Preserve Regulatory T Cell FunctionCell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (5): 920 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.03.004.

Effect of yoga as add-on therapy in migraine (CONTAIN)Neurology, 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009473 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009473

Effect of Acupuncture for Postprandial Distress Syndrome: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020, May 12.

Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in miceScience, 2020; 368 (6491): 620 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8899.

Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring CohortThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa079.

Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study on the nutritional efficacy of a food for special medical purposes (FSMP) and a dietary supplement in reducing the symptoms of veisalgia. Bernhard Lieb, Patrick Schmitt.  BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020. DOI:

May 2020

Quote of the Month

“On Covid-19, a Respected Science Watchdog Raises Eyebrows”, by Michael Schulson, April 24:
COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California.

Eran Bendavid et al. medRxiv 2020.04.14.20062463 (pre-print). DOI:

Also see report at

Self‐reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in Covid‐19.

Carol H. Yan et al. Allergy & Rhinology 2020, April 24:


Digestion of Intact Gluten Proteins by Bifidobacterium Species: Reduction of Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Responses. Natália Ellen Castilho de Almeida et al.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2020, 68, 15, 4485-92. March 20, 2020DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01421.

COVID-19, pneumonia & inflammasomes – the melatonin connection. Doris Loh. March 14, 2020.

Vitamin D on Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 (COVITD-19):

Vitamin D deficiency in Spain. Reality or myth? Navarro Valverde C, Quesada Gómez JM. Rev Osteoporos Metab Miner 2014; 6 (1) suplemento: 5-10.

Zinc in Infection and Inflammation. Gammoh NZ, Rink L. Nutrients. 2017 Jun 17;9(6). pii: E624. doi: 10.3390/nu9060624.

Is Quercetin a Safer Alternative to Hydroxychloroquine?

“Absolutely not”: Press Association, April 3, 2020

New analysis recommends less reliance on ventilators to treat coronavirus patients. Sharon Begley.

Respiratory Support in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Patients, with a Focus on Resource-Limited Settings. Arjen M. Dondorp et al.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2020.  Available online: 21 April. DOI:

Assessment of coupled Zn concentration and natural stable isotope analyses of urine as a novel probe of Zn status.  Rebekah E. T. Moore et al. Metallomics, 2019,11, 1506-1517.

Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Peter Forster et al. PNAS  April 8, 2020.

Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. David Welch et al. Scientific Reports 2018, volume 8, Article number: 2752.

Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: “The Cure That Time Forgot”? Michael R. Hamblin.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 996: 295–309. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-56017-5_25.

PMID: 29124710

Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75 year olds: opportunities for successful ageing. SJ Gordon, N Baker, M Kidd, A Maeder and KA Grimmer. BMC Geriatrics 2020, April.  DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-1490-7.

Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Philipp Schreiner et al.

ImmunoHorizons 2020, 4 (4) 201-215. DOI: 10.4049/immunohorizons.2000006.

Free online at:


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“Treat vitamin D deficiency to prevent deadly lung attacks”:

Vitamin D to prevent exacerbations of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. David A. Jolliffe et al. Thorax 2019, 74: 337-345.DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212092



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  1. Acute Oral Toxicity Test
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    Lab: AMA Laboratories, New York, USA (Ref: WP96-BERN1/LD504881.DP). (Animal Experiment involving rats to determine any potential toxicity of MGN-3. Above material can be classified as non-toxic according to the reference. LD50 > 36.0g / kg.)
  2. Experience with Administration of Biobran in Patients with Chronic Rheumatism
    Author: Kenichi Ichihashi (Ichihashi Clinic)
    Journal: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy Vol. 14/No.4
  3. Anti-HIV activity in vitro of MGN-3, an activated arabinoxylan from rice bran
    Author: M. Ghoneum
    Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Journal 243, 25-29 (1998), Article No. RC978047. (This is a detailed write up of the abstract Ghoneum presented in July 1996 at the International Conference on AIDS in Vancouver.)
  4. Modified Rice Bran Improves Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM Adult Rats Given Streptozotocin as Neonates
    Authors: Ohara, K. Onai and H. Maeda, 2002
  5. Hyrolyzed rice bran reduces the aggravation of protein metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Presenters: Kitamura N., Ohara I., (Aichi Gakusen University) and Maeda H. (Daiwa Pharmaceutical)
    Event: 45th Annual Meeting of the American College of Nutrition in California. Kitamura 2004
  6. Therapeutic Effects of Biobran, Modified Arabinoxylan Rice Bran, in Improving Symptoms of Diarrhea Predominant or Mixed Type Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study
    Authors: Takeshi Kamiya, Michiko Shikano, Mamoru Tanaka, Keiji Ozeki, Masahide Ebi, Takahito Katano, Shingo Hamano, Hirotaka Nishiwaki, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Yoshinori Mori, Eiji Kubota, Satoshi Tanida, Hiromi Kataoka, Noriaki Okuda, and Takashi Joh
    Journal: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014, Article ID 828137, 6 pages
  7. Evaluation of the effects of asthma prevention and symptom reduction by enzymatically modified rice-bran foods in asthmatic model mice
    Presenters: Kanbayashi H. and Endo Y., Department of Pathological Molecular Medicine, McMaster University
    Event: 52nd Conference of Japanese Society of Allergology, Jokohama, Japan
  8. Protective effect of low molecular fraction of MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, on acute liver injury by inhibition of NF-kB and JNK/MAPK expression
    Presenters: Surina Zheng, Shunsuke Sugita, Shizuka Hirai, Yukari Egashira
    Event: International Immunopharmacology 14 (2012) 764–769
  9. Biobran-augmented maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Authors: D. Cholujova, J. Jakugikova, J. Sedlak
    Journal: Neoplasma 56, 2, 2009.
  10. Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro by the Biological Response Modifier Arabinoxylan Rice Bran (MGN-3/Biobran)
    Authors: M. Ghoneum and S. Agrawal
    Journal: Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, Vol.24, no.4, 941-948 (2011)
  11. Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Activity of Aged Mice by Modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN3/Biobran)
    Authors: Ghoneum, Abedi
    Journal: J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:1581-8.
  12. Evalutation of flow cytometry-based assay for natural killer cell activity in clinical settings
    Authors: Valiathan, Lewis, Melillo, Leonard, Alis, Asthana
    Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2011; 1365-3083
  13. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN3/Biobran) enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Perez-Martinez, Valentin, Fernandez, Hernandez-Jimenez, Lopez-Collezo, Zerbes, Schworer, Nunez, Martin, Sallis, Diaz, Handgretinger and Pfeiffer.
    Journal: Cytotherapy, 2015, 0:1-2.
  14. An Open-label, randomized clinical trial to assess the immunomodulatory activity of a novel oligosaccharide compound in healthy adult
    Authors: K. H. Ali, A. B. Melillo, S. M. Leonard, D. Asthana, Judi M. Woolger, A. H. Wolfson, H. R. McDaniel, J. E. Lewis
    Journal: Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7): 265-279
  15. Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan rice bran, enhances NK cell activity in geriatric subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ahmed F. Elsaid, Magda Shaheen and Mamdooh Ghoneum. Exp Ther Med. 2018 Mar;15(3):2313-2320. doi: 10.3892/etm.2018.5713. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
  16. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) alleviates radiation-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction of mice in a mitochondrion-dependent manner.  Zhao Z, Cheng W, Qu W, Wang K. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Apr;124:109855. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.109855. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Novel potent decameric peptide of Spirulina platensis reduces blood pressure levels through a PI3K/AKT/eNOS-dependent mechanism. Albino Carrizzo et al. Hypertension 2019;73:449–57.

Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus. Mark F. McCarty, James J. DiNicolantonio, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2020,

An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly. McCarty MF, DiNicolantonio JJ. Age (Dordr) 2015, Oct;37(5):96. doi: 10.1007/s11357-015-9823-8. Epub 2015 Sep 11.


1 C Wu et al, ‘Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.’ JAMA Internal Medicine, (2020), published online.  []; see also Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel-associated transmission cluster

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  1. #
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12 Read more on the cytokine storm here

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Microbiome analyses of blood and tissues suggest cancer diagnostic approach. Gregory D. Poore et al. Nature 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2095-1.

Cécilia Samieri et al. Using network science tools to identify novel diet patterns in prodromal dementiaNeurology 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009399 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009399.

Impairment of Glycolysis-Derived l-Serine Production in Astrocytes Contributes to Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease. Juliette Le Douce et al. Cell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (3): 503 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.02.004.

The citrus flavonoid nobiletin confers protection from metabolic dysregulation in high-fat-fed mice independent of AMPK. Nadya M. Morrow, Amy C. Burke, Joshua P. Samsoondar, Kyle E. Seigel, Andrew Wang, Dawn E. Telford, Brian G. Sutherland, Conor O’Dwyer, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Murray W. Huff. Journal of Lipid Research, 2020; 61 (3): 387 DOI: 10.1194/jlr.RA119000542.

Dietary prebiotics alter novel microbial dependent fecal metabolites that improve sleep. Robert S. Thompson, Fernando Vargas, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M. Berg, Monika Fleshner. Scientific Reports, 2020; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60679-y

April 2020



Gut Dysbiosis during Influenza Contributes to Pulmonary Pneumococcal Superinfection through Altered Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

Sencio V et al. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 3;30(9):2934-2947.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.013.

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Associations of habitual fish oil supplementation with cardiovascular outcomes and all cause mortality: evidence from a large population based cohort study. Li Zhi-Hao, Zhong Wen-Fang, Liu Simin, Kraus Virginia Byers, Zhang Yu-Jie, Gao Xiang et alBMJ 2020; 368 :m456.

Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19, James H Diaz. Journal of Travel Medicine, taaa041,


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Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Thevarajan, I., Nguyen, T.H.O., Koutsakos, M. et al. Nat Med (2020).

Published16 March 2020. DOI:

Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 3 months of life may reduce the risk of respiratory allergies and some asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Galya Bigman. Acta Paediatrica, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/apa.15162

Structure of intact IgE and the mechanism of ligelizumab revealed by electron microscopy. Rasmus K Jensen, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Brian Mølgaard, Wolfgang Pfützner, Christian Möbs, Edzard Spillner, Gregers R Andersen. Allergy, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/all.14222

VIRUS – Simon Martin

Prof Michael Levitt interview:,7340,L-3800632,00.html.

Ebola stats:

Ebola antibodies: The Barcelona Institute for Global Health, ISGlobal –

Air vents: Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, et al. JAMA. Published online March 04, 2020. DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.3227.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection. Cheng VC, Lau SK, Woo PC, Yuen KY. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(4):660–694. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00023-07.

Italy’s National Institute of Health report:

NHS survey: Health Survey for England 2018 Longstanding Conditions:

Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre report:

Into the Eye of the Cytokine Storm. Jennifer R. Tisoncik et al.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012 Mar; 76(1): 16–32. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.05015-11.

COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression.

Puja Mehta et al. The Lancet 2020, March 16. DOI:

Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality. Gagnon A, Miller MS, Hallman SA, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e69586. Published 2013 Aug 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.

A, D and Chris Kresser:

ACE-2 graphic: “ACE-2: The Receptor for SARS-CoV-2”:

BLOOD TYPE – Peter D’Adamo

Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility. Jiao Zhao et al. medRxiv 2020.03.11.20031096; doi:

Pre-print: not peer-reviewed.

Inhibition of the interaction between the SARS-CoV spike protein and its cellular receptor by anti-histo-blood group antibodies.

Guillon P et al. Glycobiology. 2008 Dec;18(12):1085-93. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwn093.

SCUTELLARIA – Anna Haynes (Boudrain in the issue)

The effects of acute and repeated oroxylin A treatments on Aβ25–35-induced memory impairment in mice. Dong Hyun Kim et al.

Neuropharmacology. Vol 55, Issue 5, October 2008, Pages 639-64.

Characterization of Chemical Constituents in Scutellaria baicalensis with Antiandrogenic and Growth-Inhibitory Activities toward Prostate Carcinoma.

Michael Bonham et al. Clin Cancer Res May 15 2005 (11) (10) 3905-3914; DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1974.

Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) inhibits inflammation and proliferation on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Bo-RamJin et al.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 235, 10 May 2019, Pages 481-488.


A Cardiovascular Disease-Linked Gut Microbial Metabolite Acts via Adrenergic Receptors. Ina Nemet, Prasenjit Prasad Saha, Nilaksh Gupta, Weifei Zhu, Kymberleigh A. Romano, Sarah M. Skye, Tomas Cajka, Maradumane L. Mohan, and others

Cell 2020Vol. 180, Issue 5, p862–877.e22, March 5.

Multi-omics Analysis of the Intermittent Fasting Response in Mice Identifies an Unexpected Role for HNF4α. Luke Hatchwell, Dylan J. Harney, Michelle Cielesh, Kieren Young, Yen Chin Koay, John F. O’Sullivan, Mark Larance. Cell Reports, 2020; 30 (10): 3566 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.051.

Propionic acid shapes multiple sclerosis disease course by immunomodulatory mechanism. Alexander Duscha, Aiden Haghikia et al. Cell 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.035.

Biphasic chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to the microbiota metabolite indole. Jingyun Yang, Ravi Chawla, Kathy Y. Rhee, Rachit Gupta, Michael D. Manson, Arul Jayaraman, Pushkar P. Lele. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020; 201916974 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916974117

Zebrafish-Based Screening of Antiseizure Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Magnolia officinalis Extract and Its Constituents Magnolol and Honokiol Exhibit Potent Anticonvulsant Activity in a Therapy-Resistant Epilepsy Model. Jing Li, Daniëlle Copmans, Michèle Partoens, Borbála Hunyadi, Walter Luyten, Peter de Witte. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 2020; 11 (5): 730. DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00610.

IN PRACTICE – Jenny Phillips

  1. 2012 Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

  1. 2014 Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

  1. 2019 Insulin resistance is a cardiovascular risk factor in humans
  2. 2015 Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and colorectal adenomas: A meta-analysis

  1. 2019 Insulin resistance in prostate cancer patients and predisposing them to acute ischemic heart disease
  2. 2017 Insulin Resistance and Neurodegeneration: Progress Towards the Development of New Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease
  3. 2016 Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome


Case history

  1. Damasiewicz-Bodzek, A., Wielkoszyński, T. (2008) Serologic markers of celiac disease in psoriatic patients. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology; Sep2008, Vol. 22 Issue 9, p1055-1061.
    2. Bolla AM, Caretto A, Laurenzi A, Scavini M, Piemonti L (2019) Low carb diets in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients May; 11(5):962.
  2. Caldesi & Phillips (2019) The diabetes weight-loss cookbook Kyle books.

References In Focus gut:

Christina Georgallou:


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Saari A et al., “Antibiotic exposure in infancy and risk of being overweight in the first 24 months of life,” Pediatrics, pp. 135 (4): 617-626, 2015.


Robertson R et al., “The human microbiome and child growth- First 1000 days and beyond,” Trends in Microbiology, pp. 27 (2): 131-147 , 2019.


Stokholm et al., “Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, pp. 20 (7): 629-635, 2014.


Browne P et al., “Human milk microbiome and maternal postnatal pyschosocial distress,” Frontiers in Microbiology, pp. 10, doi= 10. 3389/fmicb.2019.02333, 2019.


Chua MC et al., “Effect of synbiotic on the gut microbiota of Cesarean delivered infants. A randomised, double blind, multicenter study,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, pp. 65 (1): 102-106, 2017.


Kosuwon P et al., “A synbiotic mixture of scGOS/lcFOS and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V increases faecal Bifidobacterium in healthy young children,” Beneficial Microbes, pp. 541-552, 2018.


Patole et al., “Effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V supplementation on faecal Bifidobacteria in preterm neonates- a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” PLoS one, p. 9 (3): e89511, 2014.


Davidson L E et al., “Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65 , no. 4, p. 501, 2011.


Schultz M et al., “Immunomodulatory consequences of oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in healthy volunteers,” Jounral of Dairy Research, vol. 70, no. 2, p. 165, 2003.


Hikaru U et al., “Bifidobacteria prevents preterm infants from developing infection and sepsis,” International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, pp. 5 (1) 33-36, 2010.


Satoh Y et al., “Bifidobacteria prevents nectrotising enterocolitis and infection in preterm infants.,” International Journal of Probiotics & Prebiotics, p. 2; 49, 2007.


“Pharmaceutical Services Neotiating Comittee,” PSNC, May 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 Feb 2020].


Van der Aa et al., “Synbiotics prevent asthma-like symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis,” Allergy , pp. 170-177, 2011.


Stojkovic A et al., “CLinical trial (consort compliant): Optimal time period to achieve the effects on synbiotic- controlled wheezing and respiratory infections in young children,” Serbian journal of management , vol. 144, no. (1-2), pp. 38-45, 2016.


“Allergy UK,” 19 April 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 02 2020].


Hattori K et al., “Effects of administration of bifidobacteria on faecal microflora and clinical symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis,” Arerugi, pp. 5, 387, 2003.


Wolke D., “Systematic review and meta analysis: fussing and crying duractions and prevalence of colic in infants,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 185, pp. 55-61, 2017.


Chau K et al., “Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938,” J. Pediatr, vol. 166, pp. 74-78, 2014.


Savino F et al., “Preventative effects of oral probiotic on intantile colic: a prospective, randomised, blinded, controlled trial using Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938,” Beneficial Microbes, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 245-251, 2015.


Cazzola, “Efficacy of a synbiotic supplementation in the prevention of common winter diseases in children: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study,” Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease, vol. 4, no. (5), pp. 271-8, 2010.

[22] Taniuchi S et al., “Administration of Bifidobacterium to infants with atopic dermatitis: changes in faecal microflora and clinical symptoms,” The Journal of Applied Research, pp. 5 (2): 387-396, 2005.


Aicacia Young/Karen Jones:

Alzheimer’s Society (2020) Facts for the media [online]. Available from: (Accessed 12 March 2020).

Anon (2020) Alzheimer’s disease [online]. Available from: (Accessed 12 March 2020).

Blatchford, P. et al. (2017) Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomised controlled human trial. Journal of Nutritional Science. [Online] 6.

Bourassa, M. et al. (2016) Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?. Neuroscience Letters. [Online] 6256-63.

Chelakkot, C. et al. (2018) Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. [Online] 50 (2), e450-e450.

Faure, M. et al. (2006) Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. The Journal of Nutrition. [Online] 136 (6), 1558-1564.

Friedland, R. et al. (2020) What Are the Molecular Mechanisms by Which Functional Bacterial Amyloids Influence Amyloid Beta Deposition and Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. [Online] 21 (5), 1652.

Holzer, P. & Farzi, A. (2014) Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. [Online] 195-219.

Kaliannan, K. et al. (2015) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia. Scientific Reports. [Online] 5 (1), .

Kaliannan, K. et al. (2015) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia. Scientific Reports. [Online] 5 (1), .

Liu, H. et al. (2018) Butyrate: A Double-Edged Sword for Health?. Advances in Nutrition. [Online] 9 (1), 21-29.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Mancuso, C. & Santangelo, R. (2018) Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota modifications: The long way between preclinical studies and clinical evidence. Pharmacological Research. [Online] 129329-336.

McFarlin, B. et al. (2017) Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology. [Online] 8 (3), 117.

Poulose, S. et al. (2012) Anthocyanin-rich Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Fruit Pulp Fractions Attenuate Inflammatory Stress Signaling in Mouse Brain BV-2 Microglial Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 60 (4), 1084-1093.

Powell, N. et al. (2017) The mucosal immune system: master regulator of bidirectional gut–brain communications. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. [Online] 14 (3), 143-159.

Rao, M. & Gershon, M. (2016) The bowel and beyond: the enteric nervous system in neurological disorders. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. [Online] 13 (9), 517-528.

Reddy, V. et al. (2020) Polyphenols in Alzheimer’s Disease and in the Gut–Brain Axis. Microorganisms. [Online] 8 (2), 199.

Schwartz, M. & Deczkowska, A. (2016) Neurological Disease as a Failure of Brain–Immune Crosstalk: The Multiple Faces of Neuroinflammation. Trends in Immunology. [Online] 37 (10), 668-679.

Serra, D. et al. (2020) Polyphenols in the management of brain disorders: Modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. [Online] 1-27.

Shen, H. et al. (2020) New mechanism of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated by gut microbiota. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online] 100109884.

Shen, H. et al. (2020) New mechanism of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated by gut microbiota. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online] 100109884.

Sylvia, K. & Demas, G. (2018) A gut feeling: Microbiome-brain-immune interactions modulate social and affective behaviors. Hormones and Behavior. [Online] 9941-49.

Yang, J. et al. (2015) Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study. Frontiers in Physiology. [Online] 6.

Zhao, Y. et al. (2017) Microbiome-Derived Lipopolysaccharide Enriched in the Perinuclear Region of Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Frontiers in Immunology. [Online] 8.


Humphrey Baccus:

  1. Cani, P. D. et al. Metabolic Endotoxemia. 56, 1761–1772 (2007).
  2. Festi, D. et al. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome. World J. Gastroenterol. 20, 16079–94 (2014).
  3. Corfield, A. P. The Interaction of the Gut Microbiota with the Mucus Barrier in Health and Disease in Human. Microorganisms 6, 78 (2018).
  4. Zhang, M. & Yang, X.-J. Effects of a high fat diet on intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases. World J. Gastroenterol. 22, 8905–8909 (2016).
  5. Nakatani, Y. et al. Endotoxin clearance and its relation to hepatic and renal disturbances in rats with liver cirrhosis. Liver 21, 64–70 (2001).
  6. Geerlings, S., Kostopoulos, I., de Vos, W. & Belzer, C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: When, Where, and How? Microorganisms 6, 75 (2018).
  7. Wexler, H. M. Bacteroides: The good, the bad, and the nitty-gritty. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 593–621 (2007).
  8. Naofumi Yoshida et al. Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei Reduce Gut Microbial Lipopolysaccharide Production and Inhibit Atherosclerosis. (2018). doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033714
  9. Vereecke, L. & Elewaut, D. Ruminococcus on the horizon in arthritic disease. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 13, (2017).
  10. Chua, H.-H. et al. Intestinal Dysbiosis Featuring Abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus Associates With Allergic Diseases in Infants. Gastroenterology 154, 154–167 (2018).
  11. Silverman, G. J. The microbiome in SLE pathogenesis. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 15, 72–74 (2019).
  12. Anh, F. F. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols : A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome ? 7, 146–153 (2016).
  13. Zhou, K. Strategies to promote abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, an emerging probiotics in the gut, evidence from dietary intervention studies. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2017.03.045
  14. Shang, Q. et al. Dietary fucoidan improves metabolic syndrome in association with increased Akkermansia population in the gut microbiota of high-fat diet-fed mice. Artic. J. Funct. Foods (2017). doi:10.1016/j.jff.2016.11.002
  15. Sánchez-Tapia, M. et al. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05096-4
  16. Sirisinha, S. The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity.
  17. Paula Boroni Moreira, A., Fiche Salles Texeira, T., Barbosa Ferreira, A., do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, M. & de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R. Review Article Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. (2020). doi:10.1017/S0007114512001213
  18. Chan, Y. S. et al. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology 19, 245–254 (2011).
  19. Bijak, M. Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.)—Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism. Molecules 22, 1–11 (2017).
  20. Salem, M. Ben et al. Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 70, 441–453 (2015).
  21. Papalini et al. Stress matters: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial on the effects of a multispecies probiotic on neurocognition. bioRxiv 263673 (2018). doi:10.1101/263673
  22. Hickl, J. et al. Mediterranean herb extracts inhibit microbial growth of representative oral microorganisms and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. (2018). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207574
  23. Krebs, S., Omer, T. N. & Omer, B. Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) suppresses tumour necrosis factor alpha and accelerates healing in patients with Crohn’s disease – A controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine 17, 305–309 (2010).



March 2020


Pale Rider: the Spanish Flu of 1918 and how it changed the world, by Laura Spinney (Public Affairs, Hachette Book Group, New York, 2017).

Mortality Attributable to Influenza in England and Wales Prior to, during and after the 2009 Pandemic. Helen K. Green. PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e79360.

Published online 2013 Dec 11. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079360


NAD Repletion Rescues Female Fertility during Reproductive Aging. Michael J. Bertoldo et al. Cell Reports, 2020; 30 (6): 1670. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.01.058.

Evaluation of natural and botanical medicines for activity against growing and non-growing forms of B. burgdorferi. Feng Jie et al. Frontiers in Medicine 2020, Feb 20, Vol 7.      

Also see:      

The stress polarity signaling (SPS) pathway serves as a marker and a target in the leaky gut barrier: implications in aging and cancer. Pradipta Ghosh et al.

Life Science Alliance 2020 DOI: 10.26508/lsa.201900481.

L-( )-Ergothioneine Significantly Improves the Clinical Characteristics of Preeclampsia in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Rat Model. Rachel D. Williamson et al. Hypertension 2020; 75 (2): 561. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.13929.

The biology of ergothioneine, an antioxidant nutraceutical. Irina Borodina et al. Nutrition Research Reviews 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0954422419000301.

New nutraceutical combination reduces blood pressure and improves exercise capacity in hypertensive patients via a nitric oxide–dependent mechanism.

Albino Carrizzo et al. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020, 9:e014923.

Originally published 20 Feb 2020.


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Candida auris Forms High-Burden Biofilms in Skin Niche Conditions and on Porcine Skin. Mark V. Horton et al. mSphere 2020; 5 (1) DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00910-19.


Emotion Regulation and Immune Functioning During Grief. Richard B. Lopez et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 2020; 82 (1): 2 DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000755.

The landscape of viral associations in human cancers. Marc Zapatka et al.  Nature Genetics, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41588-019-0558-9.

Methionine Metabolism Shapes T Helper Cell Responses through Regulation of Epigenetic Reprogramming. Dominic G. Roy et al. Cell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (2): 250 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.01.006.

Indole Alleviates Diet‐induced Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in a Manner Involving Myeloid Cell PFKFB3. Linqiang Ma et al. Hepatology, 2020; DOI: 10.1002/hep.31115.

A cell atlas of human thymic development defines T cell repertoire formation. Jong-Eun Park et al. Science 2020; 367 (6480): eaay3224 DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3224.

Lipid Droplet-Derived Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Traffic via PLIN5 to Allosterically Activate SIRT1. Charles P. Najt et al. Molecular Cell 2020; 77 (4): 810 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.12.003

Nutritional Mushroom Treatment in Meniere’s Disease with Coriolus versicolor: a  rationale for therapeutic intervention in neuroinflammation and antineurodegeneration. Scuto M et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;21(1):E284. Dec 31. doi:10.3390/ijms21010284.

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Gut microbiome composition and diversity are related to human personality traits. lKaterina V.-A.Johnson. Human Microbiome Journal, Vol 15, March 2020, 100069.

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Dysregulation of Hypothalamic Gene Expression and the Oxytocinergic System by Soybean Oil Diets in Male MiceEndocrinology, 2020; DOI: 10.1210/endocr/bqz044

Tobacco exposure and somatic mutations in normal human bronchial epithelium.

Kenichi Yoshida, Kate Gowers et al. Nature 2019. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-1961-1

Clinical Evidence for Association of Acupuncture and Acupressure with Improved Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. He, Yihan, Xinfeng Guo, Brian H. May, Anthony Lin Zhang, Yihong Liu, Chuanjian Lu, Jun J. Mao, Charlie Changli Xue, and Haibo Zhang.  JAMA oncology 2019. DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.5233.

Defining pathological social withdrawal: proposed diagnostic criteria for hikikomori. Takahiro A. Kato, Shigenobu Kanba,  Alan R. Teo. World Psychiatry, 2020; 19 (1): 116. DOI: 10.1002/wps.20705.

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A ketone monoester drink reduces the glycemic response to an oral glucose challenge in individuals with obesity: a randomized trial. Étienne Myette-Côté et al. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019, Volume 110, Issue 6, December 2019, Pages 1491–1501,

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Nutrition for doctors
Cuerda et al – A clinical nutrition education in medical schools: results of an ESPEN survey – Clin Nutr 2017, 36:915-6.
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Human osteoarthritic synovial fluid increases excitability of mouse dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons: an in-vitro translational model to study arthritic pain. Chakrabarti, S et al. Rheumatology; 13 August 2019; DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez331

Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. G. Shaw, A. Lee-Barthel, M. L. Ross, B. Wang, K. Baar.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016; DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138594

Stress Relaxation and Targeted Nutrition to Treat Patellar Tendinopathy.

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Associations of Fish Oil Supplement Use with Testicular Function in Young Men.

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Effects of the microalgae Chlamydomonas on gastrointestinal health. Francis J. Fields, Franck Lejzerowicz, Dave Schroeder, Soo M. Ngoi, Miller Tran, Daniel McDonald, Lingjing Jiang, John T. Chang, Rob Knight, Stephen Mayfield. Journal of Functional Foods  2020; 65: 103738. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2019.103738.

Hypothesis: Bacterial induced inflammation disrupts the orderly progression of the stem cell hierarchy and has a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. A.K. Marwaha, J.A. Morris, R.J. Rigby. Medical Hypotheses, 2020; 136: 109530 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109530.

Obese adolescents with PCOS have altered biodiversity and relative abundance in gastrointestinal microbiota. Beza Jobira et al. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020. DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgz263.

Taurine treatment of retinal degeneration and cardiomyopathy in a consanguineous family with SLC6A6 taurine transporter deficiencyHuman Molecular Genetics 2019; DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddz303.

January 2020


Potential of Manuka Honey as a Natural Polyelectrolyte to Develop Biomimetic Nanostructured Meshes With Antimicrobial PropertiesFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2019; 7 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00344

Researchers identify novel biomarkers to accurately measure dietary intake of key flavanols: studies were published in Nature Scientific Reports and are freely available on their website here:

Could a gene-environment interaction between NAPRT1 risk allele and pre-natal niacin deficiency explain 4 medical mysteries of schizophrenia research?  Fuller-Thomson, E., Mehta, R. Letter to the editor.  Schizophrenia Research 2019, available online 12 December.

Lipoteichoic acid from the cell wall of a heat killed Lactobacillus paracasei D3-5 ameliorates aging-related leaky gut, inflammation and improves physical and cognitive functions: from C. elegans to mice. GeroScience 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11357-019-00137-4

Ten-Hour Time-Restricted Eating Reduces Weight, Blood Pressure, and Atherogenic Lipids in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.11.004.

Validation of a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for cytochrome P450 probe substrates caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and alprazolam in human serum reveals drug contamination of serum used for research. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2019; 112983 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2019.112983.


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Boys with NAFLD:
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Water Science – NIKKI GRATRIX


  2. TEDx Talk by Gerald Pollack for more info:



* The upper-airway microbiota and loss of asthma control among asthmatic children. Nature Communications 2019, 10, 5714. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13698-x.

* Rectal Microbiome Composition Correlates with Humoral Immunity to HIV-1 in Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques. Sonny R. Elizaldi et al. mSphere 2019; 4 (6) DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00824-19.

* Cognitive performance in relation to hydration status and water intake among older adults, NHANES 2011–2014. Bethancourt, H.J., Kenney, W.L., Almeida, D.M. et al. Eur J Nutr (2019) doi:10.1007/s00394-019-02152-9.

* Mitochondrial DNA stress signalling protects the nuclear genome. Nature Metabolism, 2019; 1 (12): 1209 DOI: 10.1038/s42255-019-0150-8.

* High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019,  DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz275.

* Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2019; 16 (12): 1478 DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201907-538CME

* Relative D3 vitamin deficiency and consequent cognitive impairment in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease: Potential involvement of collapsin response mediator protein-2. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Dec 12:107910. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107910.

* Carotenoid metabolism at the intestinal barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Nov 30:158580. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.158580.

* Biotin Supplementation Ameliorates Murine Colitis by Preventing NF-κB Activation.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Nov 28. pii: S2352-345X(19)30166-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.11.011. Free full text.

* BPA: have flawed analytical techniques compromised risk assessments? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30381-X.

* Enriched Marine Oil Supplements Increase Peripheral Blood Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators Concentrations and Reprogram Host Immune Responses: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Circulation Research 2019, 12 Dec, Open access.

* Sexual dimorphism in immune development and in response to nutritional intervention in neonatal piglets. Frontiers in Immunology 2019: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02705.  

December 2019


Association of the Functional Medicine Model of Care with Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes. Beidelschies M, Alejandro-Rodriguez M, Ji X, Lapin B, Hanaway P, Rothberg MB. JAMA Netw Open 2019, 2(10):e1914017. doi:

Discrepancies in the Registries of Diet vs Drug Trials. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB, Heymsfield SB. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2(11):e1915360. doi:

Attenuation of capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and secondary hyperalgesia during exposure to an immersive virtual reality environment. Sam W. Hughes et al. PAIN Reports 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000000790.

Is running associated with a lower risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and is the more the better? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Zeljko Pedisic et al. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019; bjsports-2018-100493 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100493

Incidence of necrotising enterocolitis before and after introducing routine prophylactic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotics. Claire Robertson et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood – Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 2019; fetalneonatal-2019-317346 DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-317346.

Coupled electrophysiological, hemodynamic, and cerebrospinal fluid oscillations in human sleep. Nina E. Fultz et al. Science,  01 Nov 2019, 366, Issue 6465, 628-631, doi: 10.1126/science.aax5440.
The Glymphatic System: A Beginner’s Guide. Jessen NA et al. Neurochem Res 2015, Dec;40(12):2583-99. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1581-6.

Senolytics in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Results from a first-in-human, open-label, pilot study. Jamie N. Justice et al. EBioMedicine 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.12.052.

Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Li Y et al. Nutrients 2016, Mar 15;8(3):167,  doi: 10.3390/nu8030167.

Senolytics decrease senescent cells in humans: Preliminary report from a clinical trial of Dasatinib plus Quercetin in individuals with diabetic kidney disease.

Hickson, LaTonya J. et al. EBioMedicine 2019,47, 446–456.

IHCAN chat – Marta Anhelush

  1. Teitella M, Richardson B. DNA methylation in the immune system. Clinical Immunology. 2003;109:2–5.
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  3. Partearroyo T et al. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid imbalance modifies NK cytotoxicity, lymphocytes B and lymphoprolipheration in aged rats. Nutrients. 2013;5(12):4836–4848.
  4. Tserel L et al. Age-related profiling of DNA methylation in CD8+ T cells reveals changes in immune response and transcriptional regulator genes. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13107.
  5. Gallagher JC. Vitamin D and Aging. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. 2013;42(2):319-332.


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  8. Ely PH. Is psoriasis a bowel disease? Successful treatment with bile acids and bioflavonoids suggests it is. Clin Dermatol. 2018 May – Jun;36(3):376-389.
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Pancreatic Enzyme Supplementation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies: An Open-Label Pilot Study. Paediatr Drugs. 2019 Feb;21(1):41-45.

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  9. Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I,et al. Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to  moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013 Mar-Apr;17(2):114-22.
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Research briefs

Gerrit Müller, Charlotte Lübow, Günther Weindl. Lysosomotropic beta blockers induce oxidative stress and IL23A production in Langerhans cellsAutophagy, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1686728

The Influence of Ketogenic Diets on Psoriasiform-Like Skin Inflammation. Felix Locker et al. The Influence of Ketogenic Diets on Psoriasiform-Like Skin InflammationJ Investigative Dermatology 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.07.718.

Association of Vitamin A Intake With Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk in the United States. Kim J, Park MK, Li W, Qureshi AA, Cho E. JAMA Dermatol 2019, 155 (11): 1260–68. doi:

Real-World Prevalence of Prurigo Nodularis and Burden of Associated Diseases.

Huang AH et al. J Invest Dermatol 2019, Aug 15. pii: S0022-202X(19)32690-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.07.697. [Epub ahead of print]


  1. Candida auris: The recent emergence of a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen 

Kaitlin Forsberg et al. Medical Mycology 2019, Volume 57, Issue 1, January, Pages 1–12,

  2. Perfect, John R. The Antifungal Pipeline: A Reality Check. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2017, 16, May, 603:
  3. Fisher, Matthew C., et al. Worldwide Emergence of Resistance to Antifungal Drugs Challenges Human Health and Food Security. Science 2018, 360, 6390, May, 739. doi:10.1126/science.aap7999.
  4. Natural history of Candidaspecies and yeasts in the oral cavities of infants

C.Russell, K.M.Lay. Archives of Oral Biology 1973, 18, 8, August, 957-962:

  1. Markey L et al. Pre-colonization with the commensal fungus Candida albicans reduces murine susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection. Gut Microbes 2018, Nov 2;9(6):497–509:
  2. Nobile CJ, Johnson AD. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 2015 Oct 15;69(1):71–92:
  3. White TC et al. Resistance Mechanisms in Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002, Jun 1;46(6):1704:

Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization. Kumamoto CA. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14(4):386–391. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.015.

Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Gunsalus KTW et al. mSphere 2015. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00020-15.

Dietary Supplementation With Medium-Chain Triglycerides Reduces Candida Gastrointestinal Colonization in Preterm Infants. Arsenault AB et al. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2019;38(2):

IN PRACTICE – Alex Manos

  1. Guilford et al. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness. Toxins (Basel). 2014 Feb; 6(2): 608–23.
  2. Kong, Changsu et al. “Evaluation of mycotoxin sequestering agents for aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol: an in vitro approach.” SpringerPlus vol. 3 346. 8 Jul. 2014, doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-346.


Other resources:

Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew and Sabran Mohd-Redzwan (2018) Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota, Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol., 26

Brewer et al., Detection of Mycotoxins in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Toxins (Basel). 2013 Apr; 5(4): 605–617.
Zain (2011) Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 129-144.

Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic Environmental Illness. Neil Nathan, MD. (Victory Belt Publishing, 2018.) 


NMN transporter study
Grozio, A., Mills, KF, Yoshino J. et al. Slc12a8 is a nicotinamide mononucleotide transporter. Nat Metab 2019, 1, 47–57, doi:10.1038/s42255-018-0009-4


Vitamin D-VDR signaling inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated melanoma progression and promotes anti-tumor immunity. Sathya Muralidhar et al. Cancer Research 2019; canres.3927.2018, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3927.

Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dellinger, R.W., Santos, S.R., Morris M et al.  npj Aging Mech Dis 2017, 3, 17, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0016-9.  

Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dellinger, R.W., Santos, S.R., Morris, M. et al.  npj Aging Mech Dis 2017, 3, 17, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0016-9.

Principal Results of the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) and Updated Meta-analyses of Relevant Vitamin D Trials. Manson JE, Bassuk SS, Buring JE; VITAL Research Group. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019, Nov 13:105522, doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105522.  

Neurogenesis and prolongevity signaling in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old mice. Parag Kundu et al. Science Translational Medicine  2019; 11 (518): eaau4760, doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau4760.

Aging Induces an Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Dependent Expansion of Adipose B Cells That Impairs Metabolic Homeostasis. Christina D. Camell et al. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.10.006.

Society for Endocrinology annual conference, 2019, P184:

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Leads To Fatty Acid Metabolism Dysregulation and Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in Human Adipocytes and in Maternal Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue. Jinous Samavat et al.  

November 2019


Exploiting the Zonulin Mouse Model to Establish the Role of Primary Impaired Gut Barrier Function on Microbiota Composition and Immune Profiles. Miranda-Ribera A, Ennamorati M, Serena G, et al. Front Immunol. 2019;10:2233. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02233.

Inequalities in Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide in Parks and Playgrounds in Greater London, Charlotte Sheridan et al. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173194. Also see interactive map online at

El-Salhy M, Haltebakk JG, Gilja OH, et al. Effects of faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Presented at UEG Week October 21, 2019.

New releases

Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells. Zeevalk GD et al.
Neurochem Res 2010 ,Oct;35(10):1575-87. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0217-0. Epub 2010 Jun 10.

Polyphenols From Grape and Blueberry Improve Episodic Memory in Healthy Elderly with Lower Level of Memory Performance: A Bicentric Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Memophenol-Bensalem, J et al.  J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019, Jun 18;74(7):996-1007. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gly166.
Memophenol – Activ’Inside (2019). CTS-0162-A1_Clinical study 2_one shot_what are clinical results on students_V04.
Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Silveri, M et al. NMR in Biomedicine 2008, 21(10), pp.1066-1075.

Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. McGlade E et al. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2012, 03(06), pp.769-77.

 BEN BROWN – Arsenic

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  3. Moon KA, Oberoi S, Barchowsky A, Chen Y, Guallar E, Nachman KE, Rahman M, Sohel N, D’Ippoliti D, Wade TJ, James KA, Farzan SF, Karagas MR, Ahsan H, Navas-Acien A. A dose-response meta-analysis of chronic arsenic exposure and incident cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Dec 1;46(6):1924-1939.
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  15. Frediani JK, Naioti EA, Vos MB, Figueroa J, Marsit CJ, Welsh JA. Arsenic exposure and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among U.S. adolescents and adults: an association modified by race/ethnicity, NHANES 2005-2014. Environ Health. 2018 Jan 15;17(1):6.
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  18. Crinnion W. Arsenic: The Underrecognized Common Disease-inducing Toxin. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2017 Apr;16(2):8-13.
  19. Cubadda F, Jackson BP, Cottingham KL, Van Horne YO, Kurzius-Spencer M. Human exposure to dietary inorganic arsenic and other arsenic species: State of knowledge, gaps and uncertainties. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Feb 1;579:1228-1239.
  20. Hasanato RM, Almomen AM. Unusual presentation of arsenic poisoning in a case of celiac disease. Ann Saudi Med. 2015 Mar-Apr;35(2):165-7.
  21. Nigra AE, Nachman KE, Love DC, Grau-Perez M, Navas-Acien A. Poultry Consumption and Arsenic Exposure in the U.S. Population. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Mar;125(3):370-377.
  22. Lundebye AK, Lock EJ, Rasinger JD, Nøstbakken OJ, Hannisdal R, Karlsbakk E, Wennevik V, Madhun AS, Madsen L, Graff IE, Ørnsrud R. Lower levels of Persistent  Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Environ Res. 2017 May;155:49-59.
  23. Wilson D, Hooper C, Shi X. Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base. J Environ Health. 2012 Dec;75(5):14-20
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  25. Majumdar J, Mukhopadhyay S, Chandrakar A, Sengupta S, Ghosh B. A Reversible Case of Chronic Arsenicosis due to Homeopathy Medicine. J Assoc Physicians India. 2019 Apr;67(4):94-95.
  26. Mwale T, Rahman MM, Mondal D. Risk and Benefit of Different Cooking Methods on Essential Elements and Arsenic in Rice. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 May 23;15(6).
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  29. Gamble MV, Liu X, Slavkovich V, Pilsner JR, Ilievski V, et al. Folic acid supplementation lowers blood arsenic. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1202–9.
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  31. Bozack AK, Hall MN, Liu X, Ilievski V, Lomax-Luu AM, Parvez F, Siddique AB, Shahriar H, Uddin MN, Islam T, Graziano JH, Gamble MV. Folic acid supplementation enhances arsenic methylation: results from a folic acid and creatine supplementation randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh. Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Feb 1;109(2):380-391.
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  1. Boyle J, Teede HJ. Polycystic ovary syndrome – an update. Aust Fam Physician 2012;41(10):752-756. [Abstract]
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Fahy, GM, Brooke, RT, Watson, JP, et al. Reversal of epigenetic aging and immunosenescent trends in humans. Aging Cell. 2019; 00:e13028.
DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types. Horvath S. Genome Biol. 2013;14(10):R115.

Breast cancer
Vitamin D pathway related polymorphisms and vitamin D receptor expression in breast cancer. Francis I. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Oct 18:1-9. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000615.
Tumor Autonomous Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency Promote Breast Cancer Metastasis. Williams JD et al. Endocrinology. 2016 Apr;157(4):1341-7. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-2036. Epub 2016 Mar 2.


A randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of lactolycopene on semen quality in healthy males. Elizabeth A. Williams, Madeleine Parker, Aisling Robinson, Sophie Pitt, Allan A. Pacey. European Journal of Nutrition, 2019,  DOI: 10.1007/s00394-019-02091-5.

Attenuation of constitutive DNA damage signaling by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Halicka HD, Zhao H, Li J, Traganos F, Studzinski GP, Darzynkiewicz Z. Aging (Albany NY). 2012 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Rate of Change of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Following Sublingual and Capsular Vitamin D Preparations. Williams, Claire E., Elizabeth A. Williams, and Bernard M. Corfe. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 23, 2019.

Antioxidants: Scientific Literature Landscape Analysis. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Jan 8;2019:8278454. doi: 10.1155/2019/8278454. eCollection 2019. Yeung AWK et al.
Evaluation of antioxidant treatments for the modulation of macrophage function in the context of retinal degeneration. Elbaz-Hayoun S et al. Mol Vis. 2019 Sep 5;25:479-488. eCollection 2019.

Protective effect of carnosic acid, a pro-electrophilic compound, in models of oxidative stress and light-induced retinal degeneration T. Rezaie et al.

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2012; DOI: 10.1167/iovs.12-10793.

Creatine uptake regulates CD8 T cell antitumour immunity. Stefano Di Biase, Xiaoya Ma, Xi Wang, Jiaji Yu, Yu-Chen Wang, Drake J. Smith, Yang Zhou, Zhe Li, Yu Jeong Kim, Nicole Clarke, Angela To, Lili Yang. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 2019; jem.20182044 DOI: 10.1084/jem.20182044.

Phenolic compounds from coffee by-products modulate adipogenesis-related inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance in adipocytes, via insulin/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Qiaozhi Zhang, Yolanda Aguilera, Maria A. Martín-Cabrejas, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia.  Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2019; 132: 110672 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110672

Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections in the Hip and Knee: Perhaps Not as Safe as We Thought? Andrew J. Kompel, Frank W. Roemer, Akira M. Murakami, Luis E. Diaz, Michel D. Crema, Ali Guermazi. Radiology, 2019; 190341 DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2019190341.

Ming-Feng Hsueh, Patrik Önnerfjord, Michael P. Bolognesi, Mark E. Easley, Virginia B. Kraus. Analysis of “old” proteins unmasks dynamic gradient of cartilage turnover in human limbsScience Advances, 2019; 5 (10): eaax3203 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax3203.

Cartilage regeneration – SIMON MARTIN

Prof Keith Baar: personal communication, and quotes from a Just Fly Sports podcast, July 3 2019, complete transcript at Recommend following him on Twitter: @MuscleScience. All his papers are listed on his UC Davis website at – except the seminal first one on tendon repair! That is:
Rehabilitation and nutrition protocols for optimising return to play from traditional ACL reconstruction in elite rugby union players: A case study. Gregory Shaw, Ben Serpell & Keith Baar. Journal of Sports Sciences 2019, 37:15, 1794-1803, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1594571.
Also worth listening to is the Institute of Performance Nutrition’s podcast with Dr Laurent Bannock interviewing Prof Baar:

Dr Kaayla Daniel: She reports on Dr Prudden’s research here:
She has fully explained the history and science behind bone broth in contributions to Nourishing Broth: An Old-Fashioned Remedy for the Modern World (the follow-up book to Nourishing Traditions), co-authored with Sally Fallon Morell of the Weston A. Price Foundation.

Advertorial – page 16:

Aminzadeh et al. (2016) Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills. Iranian Red Crescent medical journal, 18(10), e38909.

Blasi et al. (1992) Early differential molecular response of a macrophage cell line to yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans. Infection and immunity, 60(3), 832–837.

Chauvel et al. (2012) A versatile overexpression strategy in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans: identification of regulators of morphogenesis and fitness. PloS one, 7(9), e45912.

Cheng et al. (2006) Cellular and Molecular Biology of Candida albicans Estrogen Response. Eukaryotic Cell, 5 (1) 180-191.

Edman et al. (1986) Zinc status in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 155(5), 1082 – 1085

Finkel and Mitchell (2011) Genetic control of Candida albicans biofilm development. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 9(2), 109–118.

Ghannoum et al. (2015) The Role of Echinocandins in Candida Biofilm–Related Vascular Catheter Infections: In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(6), S618–S621.

Gunsalus et al. (2015) Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. mSphere 1(1):e00020-15.

Hall et al. (2010) CO2 Acts as a Signalling Molecule in Populations of the Fungal Pathogen Candida

albicans. PLoS Pathog, 6(11): e1001193.

Horowitz et al. (1984) Sugar chromatography studies in recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 29(7) 441-443.

Kim et al. (2016) Oral manifestations in vitamin B12 deficiency patients with or without history of gastrectomy. BMC oral health, 16(1), 60.

Krasowska et al. (2009) The antagonistic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans filamentation, adhesion and biofilm formation. FEMS Yeast Research, 9(8), 1312–1321.

Manohar et al. (2001) Anti-fungal activities of Origanum oil against Candida albicans. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 228,111-117.

Marangoni et al. (2017) In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases. PLoS ONE, 12(11): e0188567.

Martinez et al. (2009) Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Letters in applied microbiology, 48. 269-74.

Mathé and Van Dijck, (2013) Recent insights into Candida albicans biofilm resistance mechanisms. Current genetics, 59(4), 251–264.

Matsubara et al. (2016). Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62. 1143–53.

Meri et al. (2004) The Hyphal and Yeast Forms of Candida albicans Bind the Complement Regulator C4b-Binding Protein. Infection and immunity, 72. 6633-41.

Murzyn et al, (2010) The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans-infected human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 and Intestin 407. FEMS Microbiol Letter, 310, 17–23.

Nobile and Johnson (2015) Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease. Annual review of microbiology69, 71–92.

Paillaud et al. (2004) Oral candidiasis and nutritional deficiencies in elderly hospitalised patients. British Journal of Nutrition, 92(5), 861-867.

Peters et al. (2014) Candida vaginitis: when opportunism knocks, the host responds. PLoS pathogens, 10(4), e1003965.

Pfaller et al. (2010) Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: A 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion. J Clin Microbiol 48: 1366–1377.

Pietrzak et al. (2018) Prevalence and Possible Role of Candida Species in Patients with Psoriasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2018, Article ID 9602362, 7 pages.

Santana et al. (2013) Dietary carbohydrates modulate Candida albicans biofilm development on the denture surface. PloS one, 8(5), e64645.

Shuford et al. (2005) Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 49(1), 473.

Takahashi et al. (2012) Inhibition of Candida Mycelia Growth By a Medium Chain Fatty Acids, Capric Acid in Vitro and Its Therapeutic Efficacy in Murine Oral Candidiasis]. Medical Mycology Journal, 53(4), 255-61.

Tournu and Van Dijck (2012) Candida Biofilms and the Host: Models and New Concepts for Eradication, International Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2012, Article ID 845352, 16 pages.

Tsui et al. (2016) Pathogenesis of Candida albicans Biofilm. Pathogens and Disease, 74. ftw018.

Tsutsumi-Arai et al. (2019) Grapefruit seed extract effectively inhibits the Candida albicans biofilms development on polymethyl methacrylate denture-base resin. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217496.

Turner and Butler (2014) The Candida pathogenic species complex. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 4(9), a019778.

Uppuluri et al. (2010) Dispersion as an important step in the Candida albicans biofilm developmental cycle. PLoS pathogens, 6(3), e1000828.

Vargas et al. (1993) Modulating effect of dietary carbohydrate supplementation on Candida albicans colonization and invasion in a neutropenic mouse model. Infection and immunity, 61, 619-26.

Williams and Lewis (2011) Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis. Journal of oral microbiology, 3, 10.3402/jom.v3i0.5771.

Williams et al. (2013) Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces. Journal of oral microbiology, 5, 10.3402/jom.v5i0.22434.

October 2019

WELCOME -Simon Martin

  1. Ashkan Afshin, Patrick John Sur, Kairsten A. Fay, Leslie Cornaby, Giannina Ferrara, Joseph S Salama, Erin C Mullany, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Zegeye Abebe, Mohsen Afarideh, Anju Aggarwal, Sutapa Agrawal, Tomi Akinyemiju, Fares Alahdab, Umar Bacha, Victoria F Bachman, Hamid Badali, Alaa Badawi, Isabela M Bensenor, Eduardo Bernabe, Sibhatu Kassa K Biadgilign, Stan H Biryukov, Leah E Cahill, Juan J Carrero, Kelly M. Cercy, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Anh Kim Dang, Meaza Girma Degefa, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Alireza Esteghamati, Sadaf Esteghamati, Jessica Fanzo, Carla Sofia e Sá Farinha, Maryam S Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery L. Feigin, Joao C Fernandes, Luisa Sorio Flor, Nataliya A. Foigt, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Morsaleh Ganji, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Richard F Gillum, Alessandra C Goulart, Giuseppe Grosso, Idris Guessous, Samer Hamidi, Graeme J. Hankey, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Simon I. Hay, Chi Linh Hoang, Masako Horino, Farhad Islami, Maria D. Jackson, Spencer L. James, Lars Johansson, Jost B. Jonas, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ibrahim A. Khalil, Young-Ho Khang, Ruth W Kimokoti, Yoshihiro Kokubo, G Anil Kumar, Tea Lallukka, Alan D Lopez, Stefan Lorkowski, Paulo A. Lotufo, Rafael Lozano, Reza Malekzadeh, Winfried März, Toni Meier, Yohannes A Melaku, Walter Mendoza, Gert B.M. Mensink, Renata Micha, Ted R Miller, Mojde Mirarefin, Viswanathan Mohan, Ali H Mokdad, Dariush Mozaffarian, Gabriele Nagel, Mohsen Naghavi, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Molly R Nixon, Kanyin L Ong, David M. Pereira, Hossein Poustchi, Mostafa Qorbani, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Christian Razo-García, Colin D Rehm, Juan A Rivera, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Gholamreza Roshandel, Gregory A Roth, Juan Sanabria, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Benn Sartorius, Josef Schmidhuber, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Min-Jeong Shin, Reed J.D. Sorensen, Marco Springmann, Lucjan Szponar, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G Thrift, Mathilde Touvier, Bach Xuan Tran, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Irfan Ullah, Olalekan A Uthman, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Giang Thu Vu, Linh Gia Vu, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Tissa Wijeratne, Walter C Willett, Jason H Wu, Gelin Xu, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chuanhua Yu, Christopher J L Murray. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017The Lancet, 2019; 393 (10184): 1958 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8


Probiotics Reduce Health Care Cost and Societal Impact of Flu-Like Respiratory Tract Infections in the USA: An Economic Modeling Study. Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00980.

Circulating Micronutrient Biomarkers Are Associated With 3 Measures of Frailty: Evidence From the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Aisling M. O’Halloran, et al. JAMDA 2019, Sept: in press. DOI:

Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Bruce N. Ames.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Oct 2018, 115 (43) 10836-10844; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809045115.

Emma Derbyshire. Could we be overlooking a potential choline crisis in the United Kingdom? BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, 2019; bmjnph-2019-000037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000037

Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy, Non-obese Humans. Slaven Stekovic et al. Cell Metabolism 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.07.016

BEN BROWN – glutathione

  1. Forman HJ, Zhang H, Rinna A. Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):1-12.
  2. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.
  3. Deponte M. The Incomplete Glutathione Puzzle: Just Guessing at Numbers and Figures? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017 Nov 20;27(15):1130-1161
  4. Sies H. Glutathione and its role in cellular functions. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Nov;27(9-10):916-21.
  5. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.
  6. Teskey G, Abrahem R, Cao R, Gyurjian K, Islamoglu H, Lucero M, Martinez A, Paredes E, Salaiz O, Robinson B, Venketaraman V. Glutathione as a Marker for Human Disease. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;87:141-159.
  7. Atkuri KR, Mantovani JJ, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. N-Acetylcysteine—a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;7(4):355-9.
  8. Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Margaritelis NV, Kyparos A, Nikolaidis MG. N-acetylcysteine supplementation increases exercise performance and reduces oxidative stress only in individuals with low levels of glutathione. Free Radic Biol Med 2018;115:288–97.
  9. Rushworth GF, Megson IL. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;141(2):150-9.
  10. Lang CA, Mills BJ, Mastropaolo W, Liu MC. Blood glutathione decreases in chronic diseases. J Lab Clin Med. 2000 May;135(5):402-5.
  11. van ‘t Erve TJ, Wagner BA, Ryckman KK, Raife TJ, Buettner GR. The concentration of glutathione in human erythrocytes is a heritable trait. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Dec;65:742-749.
  12. Richie JP Jr, Abraham P, Leutzinger Y. Long-term stability of blood glutathione and cysteine in humans. Clin Chem. 1996 Jul;42(7):1100-5.
  13. Sedda V, De Chiara B, Parolini M, et al. Plasma glutathione levels are independently associated with γ-glutamyltransferase activity in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Free. Radic. Res. 2008;42(2):135–141.
  14. Koenig G, Seneff S. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase: A Predictive Biomarker of Cellular Antioxidant Inadequacy and Disease Risk. Dis Markers. 2015;2015:818570.
  15. Lee DH, Jacobs DR Jr. Is serum gamma-glutamyltransferase a marker of exposure to various environmental pollutants? Free Radic Res. 2009 Jun;43(6):533-7.
  16. Bulusu S, Sharma M. What does serum γ-glutamyltransferase tell us as a cardiometabolic risk marker? Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 May;53(Pt 3):312-32.
  17. Bradley R, Fitzpatrick AL, Jenny NS, Lee DH, Jacobs DR Jr. Associations between total serum GGT activity and metabolic risk: MESA. Biomark Med. 2013 Oct;7(5):709-21.
  18. Bulusu S, Sharma M. What does serum γ-glutamyltransferase tell us as a cardiometabolic risk marker? Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 May;53(Pt 3):312-32.
  19. Lee DH, Steffes MW, Jacobs DR Jr. Can persistent organic pollutants explain the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia. 2008 Mar;51(3):402-7.
  20. Minich DM, Brown BI. A Review of Dietary (Phyto)Nutrients for Glutathione Support. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 3;11(9).



Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden. Walker MM et al. Hum Pathol. 2015 Feb;46(2):277-83. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2014.10.026. Epub 2014 Nov 15.


Hazel A Everitt, Sabine Landau, Gilly O’Reilly, Alice Sibelli, Stephanie Hughes, Sula Windgassen, Rachel Holland, Paul Little, Paul McCrone, Felicity L Bishop, Kim Goldsmith, Nicholas Coleman, Robert Logan, Trudie Chalder, Rona Moss-Morris. Cognitive behavioural therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: 24-month follow-up of participants in the ACTIB randomised trialThe Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30243-2

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency:

Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency as a Potential Masquerader in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Kim, S.B., Calmet, F.H., Garrido, J. et al. Dig Dis Sci (2019).

Functional variants in the sucrase–isomaltase gene associate with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome. Henström M, Diekmann L, Bonfiglio F, et al. Gut 2018, 67: 263-270.

Diet-induced remission in chronic enteropathy is associated with altered microbial community structure and synthesis of secondary bile acids. Shuai Wang et al. Microbiome 2019; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-019-0740-4

CBD – Dr Elisabeth Philipps

  4. Jay L Goldstein (2015) Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7: 31–41. 

  5. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Apr; 3(4): 1084–1092. 

Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Amir Klein and  Rami Eliakin.
11. Elisabeth Philipps (2019). Pain Management nutrihub webinar

  1. Perry G. Fine (2013) The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain Rambam Maimonides Med J 4(4): e0022.
  2. Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Prog Neurobiol. 2001 Apr; 63(5):569-611.
  3. Kozono S, Matsuyama T, Biwasa KK, et al. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;394: 928–33.
  4. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. Campbell FA, Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. BMJ. 2001 Jul 7; 323(7303):13-6.
  5. Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and pain.

Michalski CW, Oti FE, Erkan M, Sauliunaite D, Bergmann F, Pacher P, Batkai S, Müller MW, Giese NA, Friess H, Kleeff J. Int J Cancer. 2008 Feb 15; 122(4):742-50.

  1. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Feb; 39(2):167-79.
  2. Perry G. Fine, The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain Rambam Maimonides Med J 2013, 4(4): e0022. 
  3. Klein K, et al. Pharmacogenomics of cytochrome P450 3A4: recent progress toward the “missing heritability” problem. Frontiers in Genetics. 2013; 4:12.
  4. Zanger U, et al. Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2008; 392(6):1093-108.
  5. Yamaori S, et al. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by cannabidiol: role of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol moiety. Life Sciences. 2011; 88(15-16):730-6.
  6. Yamaori S, et al. Cannabidiol, a major phytocannabinoid, as a potent atypical inhibitor for CYP2D6. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 2011; 39(11):2049-56.
  7. Geffrey AL, et al. Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2015; 56(8):1246-51.
  8. Grayson L, et al. An interaction between warfarin and cannabidiol, a case report. Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports. 2018; 9:10-11.
  9. Project CBD Releases Educational Primer on Cannabinoid-Drug Interactions. | Project CBD, 14 Jan. 2019,
  10. Gertsch J, Pertwee RG, Di Marzo V. Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun; 160(3):523-9.

For example, the terpene beta-caryophyllene, commonly found in plants including hemp, black pepper, cinnamon, clove, and other spices, selectively binds to the CB2 receptor at nanomolar concentrations and acts as a full agonist, effectively reducing neuropathic pain in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner.

  1. Zimmer A, Racz I, Klauke AL, Markert A, Gertsch J. Betacaryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid acting on CB2 receptors. IACM 5th Conference on cannabinoids in medicine; Cologne, Germany. 2009:
  2. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: A large case series. Perm J, 2019;23:18-041. DOI:
  3. J Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2014, 39, 564–566 doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12179. Case Report.
  4. Vaughn LK, Denning G, Stuhr KL, de Wit H, Hill MN, Hillard CJ. Endocannabinoid signalling: has it got rhythm? Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):530–43.
  5. 31. Roth T. Effects of excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue on overall health and cognitive function. J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76(9):e1145.
  6. Murillo-Rodriguez E, Sarro-Ramirez A, Sanchez D, Mijangos- Moreno S, Tejeda-Padron A, Poot-Ake A, et al. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014;12(3):269–72
  7. Russo EB, Guy GW, Robson PJ. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8):1729–43
  8. Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. Effect of Delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early- morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24(3):305–13.



Modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet modulates gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids in association with Alzheimer’s disease markers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Ravinder Nagpal, Bryan J. Neth, Shaohua Wang, Suzanne Craft, Hariom Yadav. EBioMedicine 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.032

Host-Microbe-Drug-Nutrient Screen Identifies Bacterial Effectors of Metformin Therapy. Pryor R et al. Cell. 2019 Sep 5;178(6):1299-1312.e29. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.003. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Lima, YC et al. Whey protein sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bert.) increases mitochondrial biogenesis markers in the skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats. Nutrition & Metabolism 2019, 16, 65. Open Access:

Temporal changes in postprandial blood transcriptomes reveal subject-specific pattern of expression of innate immunity genes after a high-fat meal. Danielle G Lemay et al. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2019; 72: 108209 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.06.007.

Blindness Caused by a Junk Food Diet. Rhys Harrison, Vicki Warburton, Andrew Lux, Denize Atan. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.7326/L19-0361.

IN PRACTICE – Andy Jancewicz

  1. Dayna M. Yorks, DO, et al, November 2017, Effects of Group Fitness Classes on Stress and Quality of Life of Medical Students. J American Osteopathic Association: Vol 117, No. 11.
  2. Brown B, Brain on Fire: dietary patterns for Alzheimer’s and cognitive decline.

IHCAN, October 2017, p12-15.

  1. Jancewicz A, 2001, Tai Chi Chuan’s role in maintaining independence in ageing people with chronic disease- literature review. J Bodywork and Movement Therapies, January 2001, p70-77.
  2. Blair SN, Garcia ME, 1996 Get up and move: A call to action for older men and women. J American Geriatrics Society 44: 599-600.
  3. Bland J, Personalised Lifestyle Medicine: the future – as Jeff Bland sees it.

IHCAN, May 2019, p18-19.

  1. Ashish Sharma MD et al, Letters to the Editor. Exercise for Mental Health

Prim Care Companion, J Clin Psychiatry 2006;8(2).

September 2019

The economic case for prevention of population vitamin D deficiency: a modelling study using data from England and Wales. Aguiar et’ al.  European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019, Aug 20.

Aguiar, M., Andronis, L., Pallan, M., Högler, W., and Frew, E. (2019). The economic case

Birnbaum, AK, Karanam, A, Marino, SE, et al. Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2019; 60: 1586– 1592.

Characteristics and patient pathways of Lyme disease patients: a retrospective analysis of hospital episode data in England and Wales (1998-2015) 
Tulloch et alBMC Public Health 2019 
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7245-8

Green R, Lanphear B, Hornung R, et al. Association Between Maternal Fluoride Exposure During Pregnancy and IQ Scores in Offspring in Canada. JAMA Pediatr. Published online August 19, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1729

Ashley J. Malin, Corina Lesseur, Stefanie A. Busgang, Paul Curtin, Robert O. Wright, Alison P. Sanders. Fluoride exposure and kidney and liver function among adolescents in the United States: NHANES, 2013–2016Environment International, 2019; 105012 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105012

Mariosa D, Carreras-Torres R, Martin RM, Johansson M, Brennan P
What can Mendelian randomization tell us about causes of cancer?
Int J Epidemiol, 48(3):816–21. Published 25 July 2019;

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association. Ann C. Skulas-Ray et al. Ciculation 2019, 19 Aug.

Prevalence and Severity of Sesame Allergy in the United States. Warren CM, Chadha AS, Sicherer SH, Jiang J, Gupta RS. JAMA Netw Open. Published online August 02, 20192(8):e199144. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9144.

Fatty Acid Metabolites Combine with Reduced β Oxidation to Activate Th17 Inflammation in Human Type 2 Diabetes. Dequina A. Nicholas et al. Cell Metabolism,

2019, online Aug 1.

Amir Minerbi, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Nicholas J.B. Brereton, Abraham Anjarkouchian, Ken Dewar, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Stéphanie Chevalier, Yoram Shir. Altered microbiome composition in individuals with fibromyalgiaPAIN, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001640.

NEWS extra

Whole genome sequencing revealed new molecular characteristics in multidrug resistant staphylococci recovered from high frequency touched surfaces in London.

Rory Cave et al. Scientific Reports 2019, vol 9, Article number: 9637.

Maija P T Ylilauri, Sari Voutilainen, Eija Lönnroos, Heli E K Virtanen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jukka T Salonen, Jyrki K Virtanen, Associations of dietary choline intake with risk of incident dementia and with cognitive performance: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, , nqz148,

Effect of Montmorency tart cherry juice on cognitive performance in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Chai SC et al.  Food Funct. 2019 Jul 17;10(7):4423-4431. doi: 10.1039/c9fo00913b.

NEW RELEASES – vitamin D

Worm N. Heilkraft D: How the sun vitamin protects against heart attack, cancer and other lifestyle diseases. systemed Verlag, Lünen. 2010, p12.

LansdowAnaglin, Rebecca ES, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British journal of psychiatry, 2013, 202. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 100-107.

Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Feb;135(4):319-23.

In a study, substitution with vitamin D three times significantly shortened sputum conversion in patients with open lung tuberculosis. Lancet (2011; doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61889-2)

Reins RV and McDermott  AM: Vitamin D: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential. Exp Eye Res. 2015 May; 134: 101–110.

BEN BROWN – Fibromyalgia

  1. Borchers AT, Gershwin ME. Fibromyalgia: A Critical and Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Oct;49(2):100-51.
  2. Queiroz LP. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Aug;17(8):356.
  3. Wolfe F, Walitt B, Perrot S, Rasker JJ, Häuser W. Fibromyalgia diagnosis and biased assessment: Sex, prevalence and bias. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 13;13(9):e0203755.
  4. Wang SM, Han C, Lee SJ, Patkar AA, Masand PS, Pae CU. Fibromyalgia diagnosis:  a review of the past, present and future. Expert Rev Neurother. 2015 Jun;15(6):667-79.
  5. Choy E, Perrot S, Leon T, Kaplan J, Petersel D, Ginovker A, Kramer E. A patient survey of the impact of fibromyalgia and the journey to diagnosis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010 Apr 26;10:102.
  6. Higgs JB. Fibromyalgia in Primary Care. Prim Care. 2018 Jun;45(2):325-341.
  7. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Häuser W, Katz RL, Mease PJ, Russell AS, Russell IJ, Walitt B. 2016 Revisions to the 2010/2011 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016 Dec;46(3):319-329.
  8. Zachrisson O, Regland B, Jahreskog M, Kron M, Gottfries CG. A rating scale for fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (the FibroFatigue scale). J Psychosom Res. 2002 Jun;52(6):501-9.
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  10. Coskun Benlidayi I. Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and treatment of  fibromyalgia. Rheumatol Int. 2019 May;39(5):781-791.
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Extra stories:

Identification of new therapeutic targets for osteoarthritis through genome-wide analyses of UK Biobank data. Nature Genetics, 5: 230–6 (2019).

Ma Hao, Li Xiang, Sun Dianjianyi, Zhou Tao, LeySylvia H, Gustat Jeanette et al. Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank BMJ 2019; 365 :l1628.


Eran Blacher et al. Potential roles of gut microbiome and metabolites in modulating ALS in miceNature, 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1443-5.

 de la Rubia JE et al. Efficacy and tolerability of EH301 for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human pilot study. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener. 2019 Feb;20(1-2):115-122. Epub 2019 Jan 22.  

Diana Matheoud et al. Intestinal infection triggers Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms in Pink1−/− miceNature 2019, July 17. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1405-y.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2019, Jul 1;44(4):269-276. Randomized controlled trial of a gluten-free diet in patients with schizophrenia positive for antigliadin antibodies (AGA IgG): a pilot feasibility study. Kelly DL et al.

Veronika L Tchesnokova et al. Pandemic uropathogenic fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli have enhanced ability to persist in the gut and cause bacteriuria in healthy women, Clinical Infectious Diseases 2019, July 4, ciz547,

Claire Buchta Rosean et al. Pre-existing commensal dysbiosis is a host-intrinsic regulator of tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination in hormone receptor-positive breast cancerCancer Research 2019, July, canres.3464.2018 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3464.

Nat Med. 2019 Jul;25(7):1164-1174. doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0461-z. Epub 2019 Jun 24. Microbiota therapy acts via a regulatory T cell MyD88/RORγt pathway to suppress food allergy. Abdel-Gadir A et al.

(Also see Curr Opin Immunol. 2019 Jul 11;60:141-147. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2019.06.001. Regulation of oral immune tolerance by the microbiome in food allergy. Stephen-Victor E, Chatila TA.)


Karin Müller et al. ‘Poly(ADP ribose) links the DNA damage response and biomineralization.’ Cell Reports (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.038.

Human species-specific loss of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase enhances atherosclerosis via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Kunio Kawanishi, Chirag Dhar, Raymond Do, Nissi Varki, Philip L. S. M.Gordts, Ajit Varki

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jul 2019, 201902902, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1902902116.

Santosh Dhakal et al. Amish (Rural) vs. non-Amish (Urban) Infant Faecal Microbiotas Are Highly Diverse and Their Transplantation Lead to Differences in Mucosal Immune Maturation in a Humanized Germfree Piglet ModelFrontiers in Immunology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01509.

Clara Depommier et al. Supplementation with Akkermansia muciniphila in overweight and obese human volunteers: a proof-of-concept exploratory studyNature Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41591-019-0495-2.

Strategies to promote abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, an emerging probiotics in the gut, evidence from dietary intervention studies. Kequan Zhou.  J Funct Foods 2017, Jun; 33: 194–201. Published online 2017 Mar 29. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2017.03.045.

Neuron, Kim and Kwon et al.: “Transneuronal Propagation of Pathologic a-Synuclein from the Gut to the Brain Models Parkinson’s Disease”

Rían W. Manville, Geoffrey W. Abbott. Cilantro leaf harbors a potent potassium channel–activating anticonvulsantThe FASEB Journal, 2019; fj.201900485R DOI: 10.1096/fj.201900485R.

Obón-Santacana, Romaguera et al. Dietary Inflammatory Index, Dietary Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity, and Colorectal and Breast Cancer Risk (MCC-Spain Study)Nutrients, 2019; 11 (6): 1406 DOI: 10.3390/nu11061406

July 2019


Borrelia burgdorferi peptidoglycan is a persistent antigen in patients with Lyme arthritis. Brandon L. Jutras et al. PNAS 2019,  first published June 17:

Pre-existing commensal dysbiosis is a host-intrinsic regulator of tissue inflammation and tumor cell dissemination in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

Claire Buchta Rosean, Raegan R Bostic, Joshua C. M. Ferey, Tzu-Yu Feng, Francesca NAzar, Kenneth S Tung, Mikhail G Dozmorov, Ekaterina Smirnova, Paula D. Bos and Melanie R Rutkowski

Cancer Res, May 7, 2019 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3464.

Schwabl P et al (2018), Assessment of microplastic concentrations in human stool – Preliminary results of a prospective study, Presented at UEG Week 2018 Vienna, October 24, 2018. 
Liang Lu, Zhiqin Wan, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin. Polystyrene microplastics induce gut microbiota dysbiosis and hepatic lipid metabolism disorder in mice,

Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 631–632, 2018, Pages 449-458,

Role of vitamin D supplementation for primary prevention of cancer: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Varun Samji, Tarek Haykal, Yazan Zayed, Inderdeep Gakhal, Vijay Veerapaneni, Michelle Obeid, Babikir Kheiri, Sunil Badami, Ghassan Bachuwa, and Rizwan Danish. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2019 37:15_suppl, 1534-1534.

M Kyla Shea, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Richard F Loeser, Sarah L Booth. Vitamin K Status and Mobility Limitation and Disability in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition StudyThe Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glz108.

Perceptions of Constipation Among the General Public and People With Constipation Differ Strikingly From Those of General and Specialist Doctors and the Rome IV Criteria. Dimidi, Eirini PhD1; Cox, Camilla MSc1; Grant, Robert MSc2; Scott, S. Mark PhD3; Whelan, Kevin PhD. American Journal of Gastroenterology, June 4, 2019,

doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000267.

Heini Natri, Angela R. Garcia, Kenneth H. Buetow, Benjamin C. Trumble, Melissa A. Wilson. The Pregnancy Pickle: Evolved Immune Compensation Due to Pregnancy Underlies Sex Differences in Human DiseasesTrends in Genetics, 2019; 35 (7): 478 DOI: 10.1016/j.tig.2019.04.008.


Terry Wahls quote: The Seventy Percent Solution, Terry L. Wahls, MD. J Gen Intern Med 26(10):1215–6. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-010-1631-3.


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High sensitivity and interindividual variability in the response of the human circadian system to evening light. Andrew J. K. Phillips, Parisa Vidafar, Angus C. Burns, Elise M. McGlashan, Clare Anderson, Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Steven W. Lockley, Sean W.Cain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jun 2019, 116 (24) 12019-12024; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1901824116.

Kelsey E. McLimans, Bridget E Clark, Alexandra Plagman, Colleen Pappas, Brandon Klinedinst, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Auriel A Willette. Is CSF SOD1 a Biomarker of Tau but not Amyloid Induced Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 2019; DOI: 10.1089/ars.2019.7762.

Joint Analysis of Metabolite Markers of Fish Intake and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Swedish Adults.

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Blood test

A nanoelectronics-blood-based diagnostic biomarker for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

  1. Esfandyarpour, A. Kashi, M. Nemat-Gorgani, J. Wilhelmy, and R. W. Davis

PNAS first published April 29, 2019


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And theoretical background from:
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Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Hericium Erinaceus in rat brain: relevance to Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis        Trovato A, Siracusa R, Di Paola R, Scuto M, Ontario ML, Bua O, Di Mauro P, Toscano MA, Petralia CC, Maiolino L, Serra A, Cuzzocrea S, Calabrese V.. Immun Ageing. 13:23. doi: 10.1186/s12979-016-0078-8. Jul 9 2016.

Neurology, April 23, 2019; 92 (17). Reproductive period and risk of dementia in a diverse cohort of health care members. Paola Gilsanz et al. DOI:

Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Yashvee Dunneram, Darren C Greenwood, Victoria J Burley and Janet E Cade.

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 30 April 2018, doi: 10.1136/jech-2017-209887.

Gail A. Greendale, et al. Changes in body composition and weight during the menopause transitionJCI Insight, 2019; 4 (5) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.124865.

Muhleisen, A. L., & Herbst-Kralovetz, M. (2016). Menopause and the vaginal microbiome. Maturitas91, 42-50.

Mitchell CM et al. 2017. Associations between improvement in genitourinary symptoms of menopause and changes in the vaginal ecosystem. Menopause.

Front. Microbiol., 14 February 2019 |

Comparison of the Vaginal Microbiomes of Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women. Karol Gliniewicz et al.

Microb Ecol. 2013 Apr;65(3):773-80. doi: 10.1007/s00248-012-0154-3. Epub 2012 Dec 19. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

Ling Z et al.

Gregor Reid. “Has knowledge of the vaginal microbiome altered approaches to health and disease?” F1000Res. 2018; 7: 460. Published online 2018 Apr 13. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.13706.1.

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2019 Feb 1;366(4). doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnz025.

Vaginal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a conceptual analysis. Ma D et al.


Beibei Yang, Jinbao Wei, Peijun Ju, Jinghong Chen. Effects of regulating intestinal microbiota on anxiety symptoms: A systematic reviewGeneral Psychiatry, 2019; 32: e100056 DOI: 10. 1136/gpsych-2019-100056.

Anna M. Wang, Subechhya Pradhan, Jennifer M. Coughlin, Aditi Trivedi, Samantha L. DuBois, Jeffrey L. Crawford, Thomas W. Sedlak, Fredrick C. Nucifora, Gerald Nestadt, Leslie G. Nucifora, David J. Schretlen, Akira Sawa, Peter B. Barker. Assessing Brain Metabolism With 7-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry, 2019; 76 (3): 314 DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3637

Thomas W. Sedlak, Bindu D. Paul, Gregory M. Parker, Lynda D. Hester, Adele M. Snowman, Yu Taniguchi, Atsushi Kamiya, Solomon H. Snyder, Akira Sawa. The glutathione cycle shapes synaptic glutamate activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019; 116 (7): 2701 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817885116

Thomas W. Sedlak, Leslie G. Nucifora, Minori Koga, Lindsay S. Shaffer, Cecilia Higgs, Teppei Tanaka, Anna M. Wang, Jennifer M. Coughlin, Peter B. Barker, Jed W. Fahey, Akira Sawa. Sulforaphane Augments Glutathione and Influences Brain Metabolites in Human Subjects: A Clinical Pilot Study. Molecular Neuropsychiatry, 2017; 3 (4): 214 DOI: 10.1159/000487639

Changwei Li, Jiang He, Shengxu Li, Wei Chen, Lydia Bazzano, Xiao Sun, Luqi Shen, Lirong Liang, Ye Shen, Xiaoying Gu, Tanika N Kelly. Novel Metabolites Are Associated With Augmentation Index and Pulse Wave Velocity: Findings From the Bogalusa Heart StudyAmerican Journal of Hypertension, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz046

‘Training for a first-time marathon reverses vascular ageing’ presented during the Young Investigator Award session on Friday 3 May at EuroCMR 2019.

Fuehrer D, Fennessy C, Reese RJ. 2014. Runners With More Training Miles Finish Marathons Faster. Runners World. Available online at:

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Epigenomics. 2019 Feb;11(3):349-362. doi: 10.2217/epi-2018-0081. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Role of histone acetylation in gastric cancer: implications of dietetic compounds and clinical perspectives.

Calcagno DQ et al.

Cynthia Larbey, Susan M. Mentzer, Bertrand Ligouis, Sarah Wurz, Martin K. Jones. Cooked starchy food in hearths ca. 120 kya and 65 kya (MIS 5e and MIS 4) from Klasies River Cave, South AfricaJournal of Human Evolution, 2019; 131: 210 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.015.

Ziad Al Nabhani, Sophie Dulauroy, Rute Marques, Clara Cousu, Shahed Al Bounny, François Déjardin, Tim Sparwasser, Marion Bérard, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Gérard Eberl. A Weaning Reaction to Microbiota Is Required for Resistance to Immunopathologies in the AdultImmunity, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.02.014

Multipotent fetal-derived Cdx2 cells from placenta regenerate the heart. Sangeetha Vadakke-Madathil, Gina LaRocca, Koen Raedschelders, JesseYoon, Sarah J. Parker, Joseph Tripodi, Vesna Najfeld, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Hina W. Chaudhry

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May 2019, 201811827; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1811827116.

Tamia A. Harris, Sureka Gattu, Daniel C. Propheter, Zheng Kuang, Shai Bel, Kelly A. Ruhn, Andrew L. Chara, Marshall Edwards, Chenlu Zhang, Jay-Hyun Jo, Prithvi Raj, Christos C. Zouboulis, Heidi H. Kong, Julia A. Segre, Lora V. Hooper. Resistin-like Molecule α Provides Vitamin-A-Dependent Antimicrobial Protection in the SkinCell Host & Microbe, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2019.04.004.

Desai T, Roberts M, Bottom L. Effects of Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on cardio-metabolic markers in metabolic syndrome participants: a pilot study. Journal of Functional Foods. 2019; 57: 286-298.

IN PRACTICE – Thalia Pellegrini

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 Zhang LZhang YJChen JHuang XLFang GSYang LJDuan YWang J. The association of HLA-B27 and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review .Microb Pathog. 2018 Apr;117:49-54

The relationship between Klebsiella infection and ankylosing spondylitis Baillière’s Clinical Rheumatology Volume 3, Issue 2, August 1989, Pages 321-338

May 2019


“Nutritional epidemiology is a scandal. It should just go to the waste bin”:

John Ioannidis second quote is here: Report by Sam Bloch.

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. John P. A. Ioannidis. PLoS Med. 2005 Aug; 2(8): e124. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124.

Ng K et al. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The SUNSHINE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Apr 9;321(14):1370-1379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.2402.



Hu XY et al. Andrographis paniculata (Chuān Xīn Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 4;12(8):e0181780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181780.

Leveraging Human Microbiome Features to Diagnose and Stratify Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 2019, in press.

Emily B. Hollister et al. doi:

Louise Saul, Iris Mair, Alasdair Ivens, Pamela Brown, Kay Samuel, John D. M. Campbell, Daniel Y. Soong, Nadine Kamenjarin, Richard J. Mellanby. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Restrains CD4 T Cell Priming Ability of CD11c Dendritic Cells by Upregulating Expression of CD31Frontiers in Immunology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00600


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  85. Pieczenik SR, Neustadt J. Mitochondrial dysfunction and molecular pathways of  disease. Exp Mol Pathol. 2007 Aug;83(1):84-92.
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  102. Myhill S, Booth NE, McLaren-Howard J. Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in the treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) – a  clinical audit. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2013;6(1):1-15.
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(4) G. Egger, A. Binns, and S. Rossner, Lifestyle Medicine, McGraw- Hill, Sydney, Australia, 2008.

(5) W. H. Herman, T. J. Hoerger, M. Brandle et al., “The cost effectiveness of lifestyle modification or metformin in preventing type 2 diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 323–332, 2005.

(6) G. Xie, X. Li, H. Li, andW. Jia, “Toward personalized nutrition: comprehensive phytoprofiling and metabotyping,” Journal of Proteomic Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1547–1559, 2013.

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(10) E.Mocchegiani, R.Giacconi, L.Costarelli et al., “Zinc deficiency and IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism in old people from different European countries: effect of zinc supplementation. ZINCAGE study,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 433–444, 2008.

(11) T. R. Neyestani, A. Djazayery, S. Shab- Bidar et al., “Vitamin D receptor Fok-I polymorphism modulates diabetic host response to vitamin D intake: need for a nutrigenetic approach,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 550–556, 2013.

(12) A. Fischer, C. Schmelzer, G. Rimbach, P. Niklowitz, T. Menke, and F. D¨oring, “Association between genetic variants in the Coenzyme Q10metabolism and Coenzyme Q10 status in humans,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 4, article 245, 2011.

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(19) U. Görman, J. C. Mathers, K. A. Grimaldi, J. Ahlgren, and K. Nordström, “Do we know enough? A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition,” Genes and Nutrition. In press.


Joe Pizzorno: “Mitochondria – Fundamental to Life and Health”. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2014 Apr; 13(2): 8–15.

  1. Wesselink et al. Feeding mitochondria: Potential role of nutritional components to improve critical illness convalescence. Clinical Nutrition 2018, Aug 31. pii: S0261-5614(18)32426-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.08.032.

Genes (Basel). 2018 Jan 9; 9(1). pii: E22. doi: 10.3390/genes9010022.

The Aging Mitochondria. Theurey PPizzo P.

Elsa Sanchez-Lopez et al. Choline Uptake and Metabolism Modulate Macrophage IL-1β and IL-18 ProductionCell Metabolism, April 11, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.011/.

Ale-Agha N, Goy C, Jakobs P, Spyridopoulos I, Gonnissen S, Dyballa-Rukes N, et al. (2018) CDKN1B/p27 is localized in mitochondria and improves respiration-dependent processes in the cardiovascular system–New mode of action for caffeine. PLoS Biol 16(6): e2004408.

Nasca C et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Aug 21;115(34):8627-8632. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1801609115. Epub 2018 Jul 30. Acetyl-l-carnitine deficiency in patients with major depressive disorder.


  1. Mohr D, Bowry VW, Stocker R. Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Jun 26;1126(3):247-54.
  2. Ross D et al. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1): chemoprotection, bioactivation, gene regulation and genetic polymorphisms. Chem Biol Interact. 2000 Dec 1;129(1-2):77-97.
  3. Kelsey KT, Ross D, Traver RD et al.  Ethnic variation in the prevalence of a common NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase polymorphism and its implications for anticancer chemotherapy.  Br J Cancer 1997;76:852–854.

‘Game-changing’ study may open door to new cancer therapies’: Jamie Morton, NZ Herald, Nov 21, 2018:

Martina Bajzikova et al. Reactivation of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase-Driven Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Restores Tumor Growth of Respiration-Deficient Cancer Cells. Cell Metabolism, Volume 29, Issue 2, 5 February 2019, Pages 399-416.e10. doi:


Vitamin D and magnesium

  1. Genetics of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis. Schlingmann, Karl P, Konrad, Martin and Seyberth, Hannsjorg W. 1, 2004, Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 19, pp. 13-25.
  2. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006, Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food and Water Compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium. Moshfegh, A, et al. s.l. : U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2009.
  3. Short-term magnesium deficiency downregulates telomerase, upregulates neutral sphingomyelinase and induces oxidative DNA damage in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to atherogenesis, cardiovascular diseases and aging. Shah, N.C, et al. 3, s.l. : International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vol. 7, pp. 497-514.
  4. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Grober, Uwe, Schmidt, Joachim and Kisters, Klaus. 9, s.l. : Nutrients, Vol. 7, pp. 8199-8226.
  5. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin. Nair, Rathish and Maseeh, Arun. 2, s.l. : Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2012, Vol. 3, pp. 118-126.
  6. Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes – Pitfalls and Possibilities. Prasad, Rashmi B and Groop, Leif. 1, s.l. : Genes, 2015, Vol. 6, pp. 87-123.
  7. Treatment of hypovitaminosis D in infants and toddlers. Gordon, CM, et al. s.l. : Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 2008, Vol. 93, pp. 2716-2721.
  8. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, et al. s.l. : JAMA, 2005, Vol. 293, pp. 2257-2264.
  9. Vitamin D and calcium intakes and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Anderson, LN, et al. s.l. : American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010, Vol. 91, pp. 1699-1707.
  10. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Wang, TJ and Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, et al. s.l. : Circulation, 2008, Vol. 117, pp. 503-511.
  11. Novel CYP27B1 gene mutations in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A. Demir, Korcan, et al. 7, s.l. : PLoS One, Vol. 10.
  12. Genome-wide association study of circulating vitamin D levels. Ahn, Jiyoung, et al. 13, s.l. : Human Molecular Genetics, Vol. 19, pp. 2739-2745.
  13. Inherited and acquired disorders of magnesium homeostasis. Wolf, Matthias Tilmann Florian. 2, s.l. : Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 2017, Vol. 29, pp. 187-198.
  14. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine. Gitelman Syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. [Online] [Cited: March 28, 2019.]
  15. Magnesium in cystic fibrosis – systemic review of the literature. Santi, M, et al. 2, s.l. : Paediatric Pulmonology, 2016, Vol. 51, pp. 196-202.
  16. Oral magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Gontijo-Amaral, Clesio, Guimaraes, Elizabet V and Camargos, Paulo. 1, s.l. : The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2012, Vol. 96, pp. 50-56.
  17. Magnesium Basics. Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm and Ketteler, Markus. 1, s.l. : Clinical Kidney Journal, 2012, Vol. 5, pp. i3-i14.
  18. Vitamin D, the gut microbiome and inflammatory bowel disease. Tabatabaeizadeh, Seyed-Amir, et al. 75, s.l. : Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2018, Vol. 23.
  19. Synergistic induction of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression by vitamin D and stilbenoids. Guo, C, et al. 3, s.l. : Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2014, Vol. 58, pp. 528-536.

Ramagopalan SV et al. A ChIP-seq-defined genome-wide map of vitamin D receptor binding: Associations with disease and evolution. Genome Res 2010, 20:1352-60.  doi:10.1101/gr.107920.110.

Qi Dai, Xiangzhu Zhu, JoAnn E Manson, Yiqing Song, Xingnan Li, Adrian A Franke, Rebecca B Costello, Andrea Rosanoff, Hui Nian, Lei Fan, Harvey Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Chang Yu, Martha J Shrubsole. Magnesium status and supplementation influence vitamin D status and metabolism: results from a randomized trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 108 (6): 1249 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy274

Wang, et al. Gut microbiota have blood types as human. Science Bulletin. Volume 63, Issue 20, 30 October 2018, Pages 1311-1313.


Metabolic health

A dataset quantifying polypharmacy in the United States. Katie J. Quinn and Nigam H. Shah. Sci Data. 2017; 4: 170167. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2017.167

Long-term conditions and multi-morbidity. The Kings Fund:

The prevalence and determinants of polypharmacy at age 69: a British birth cohort study. Mark James Rawle et al. BMC Geriatr 2018; 18: 118. doi: 10.1186/s12877-018-0795-2

Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2016. Araújo J, Cai J, Stevens J. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2019 Feb;17(1):46-52. doi: 10.1089/met.2018.0105.

Brain health

  1. McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., & Jenkins, R. (2009). Adult psychiatric morbidity in England, 2007: results of a household survey. The NHS Information Centre for health and social care.
  2. Praveetha Patalay, Suzanne H Gage, Changes in millennial adolescent mental health and health-related behaviours over 10 years: a population cohort comparison study, International Journal of Epidemiology, , dyz006,
  3. B. Bratsberg and O. Rogeberg, ‘Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018),
  4. ‘Metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid’ by Dr. Diane H. Morris, Flax Council,
  5. Vogiatzoglou A1, Refsum H, Johnston C, Smith SM, Bradley KM, de Jager C, Budge MM, Smith AD., ‘Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly’ Neurology 2008
  6. Smith, David. (2017). Two nutrients are better than one: B-vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of dementia. Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism. 8. 66. 10.1016/j.jnim.2017.04.018.

Alice L. Chen, Kenneth M. Lum, Pablo Lara-Gonzalez, Daisuke Ogasawara, Armand B Cognetta, Alan To, William H. Parsons, Gabriel M. Simon, Arshad Desai, Michael Petrascheck, Liron Bar-Peled, Benjamin F. Cravatt. Pharmacological convergence reveals a lipid pathway that regulates C. elegans lifespanNature Chemical Biology, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41589-019-0243-4.

Courtney R Chang, Monique E Francois, Jonathan P Little. Restricting carbohydrates at breakfast is sufficient to reduce 24-hour exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variabilityThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy261.

Adam Schaffner et al. Vitamin B12 modulates Parkinson’s disease LRRK2 kinase activity through allosteric regulation and confers neuroprotectionCell Research, 2019; 29 (4): 313 DOI: 10.1038/s41422-019-0153-8

Ng K et al. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The SUNSHINE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Apr 9;321(14):1370-1379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.2402.

In Focus - Medicinal Mushrooms May 2019

Digestion feature:

  1. The Global Fungal Red List Initiative (access: 29.03.2019)
  2. Lu L et al. PCR-based sensitive detection of medicinal fungi Hericium species from ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Aug;25(8):975-80.
  3. Wang M et al. Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake): a unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines. Food Funct. 2014 Dec;5(12):3055-64.
  4. Shang XD et al. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion’s Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(2):165-74.
  5. Liu JH et al. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of bioactive components isolated from Hericium erinaceus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Sep 10. pii: S0378-8741(15)30130-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.004. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Wang M et al. A polysaccharide from cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus and its anti-chronic atrophic gastritis activity. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015 Nov;81:656-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.08.043. Epub 2015 Aug 24.
  7. Wong JY et al. Gastroprotective Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:492976.
  8. Wang M et al. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced H2O2 in human gastric mucosa cell. PloS One. 2017 Jul 24;12(7):e0181546. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181546. eCollection 2017.
  9. Chen DL et al. Extracts from Hericium erinaceus relieve inflammatory bowel disease by regulating immunity and gut microbiota. Oncotarget. 2017;8(49):85838-57.
  10. Wang D. et al. A polysaccharide from cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus relieves ulcerative colitis by counteracting oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 Mar 15;125:572-579. doi: 10. 1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.092. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Sport feature:

1 Cordyceps Industry in China, Mycology An International Journal on fungal Biology

ISSN: 2150-1203 (Print) 2150-1211 (Online) Journal homepage:

 3 Life Sci. 2004 Dec 10;76(4):385-95. Pharmacological basis of ‘Yin-nourishing’ and ‘Yang-invigorating’ actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb.

Siu KM1, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Poon MK, Du Y, Ko KM.

4 Cordyceps can increase the ATP stores in the liver J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Jun;7(3):231-40)

5 Koh JH. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 May;26(5):691-4.


J Diet Suppl. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2018 Jan 13.

Published before final editing as: J Diet Suppl. : 1–13. Published online 2016 Jul 13. doi:  10.1080/19390211.2016.1203386 Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation. Katie R. Hirsch,1 Abbie E. Smith-Ryan,1,2 Erica J. Roelofs,1,3 Eric T. Trexler,1,2 and Meredith G. Mock1

7 Nicodemus K, Hagan R, Zhu J, Baker C. Supplementation with Cordyceps Cs-4 fermentation product promotes fat metabolism during prolonged exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2001;33:164.

Neurodegenerative feature:

Cohen N1, Cohen J1, Asatiani MD2, Varshney VK3, Yu HT4, Yang YC4, Li YH4, Mau JL5, Wasser SP6.

Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2014;16(3):273-91.

Chin J H, Vora N,The global burden of neurologic diseases (2012) Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14(5):427-46.

Kevin Spelman et al. (2017) Neurlogical Activity of Lion´s Mane (Hericium erinaceus). Journal Compilation

Lai, P.-L., Naidu, M., Sabaratnam, V., Wong, K.-H., David, R. P., Kuppusamy, U. R., … Malek, S. N. A. (2013). Neurotrophic properties of the Lion’s mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 15(6), 539–554.

Li, I.-C., Lee, L.-Y., Tzeng, T.-T., Chen, W.-P., Chen, Y.-P., Shiao, Y.-J., & Chen, C.-C. (2018). Neurohealth Properties of Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Enriched with Erinacines. Behavioural Neurology, 2018, 5802634.

Menken, M., TL, M., & JF, T. (2000). The global burden of disease study: Implications for neurology. Archives of Neurology, 57(3), 418–420. Retrieved from

Mori K1, Obara Y, Hirota M, Azumi Y, Kinugasa S, Inatomi S, Nakahata N (2008)Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Sep;31(9):1727-32.

Tsai-Teng, T., Chin-Chu, C., Li-Ya, L., Wan-Ping, C., Chung-Kuang, L., Chien-Chang, S., … Shiao, Y.-J. (2016). Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceusmycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease-related pathologies in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Journal of Biomedical Science, 23, 49.

Zhang, C.-C., Cao, C.-Y., Kubo, M., Harada, K., Yan, X.-T., Fukuyama, Y., & Gao, J.-M. (2017). Chemical Constituents from Hericium erinaceus Promote Neuronal Survival and Potentiate Neurite Outgrowth via the TrkA/Erk1/2 Pathway. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(8).

Promotional feature:

  1. Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, Lee JM, Bae SM, Sin JI, Kim YW, Namkoong SE, Lee IP (2004). Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14:589-94.
  2. Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, Lee JM, Bae SM, Sin JI, Kim YW, Namkoong SE, Lee IP (2004). Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14:589-94.
  3. Cui XY, Cui SY, Zhang J, Wang ZJ, Yu B, Sheng ZF, Zhang XQ, Zhang YH (2012). Extract of Ganoderma lucidum prolongs sleep time in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 139(3):796-800.
  4. Dai Yu-C, Yang Z-L, Cui B-K, et al (2009). Species diversity and utilization of medicinal mushrooms and fungi in China (review). Int J Med Mush: 11: 287−302.
  5. Horneber M1, Bueschel G, Dennert G, Less D, Ritter E, Zwahlen M. How many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012 Sep;11(3):187-203. doi: 10.1177/1534735411423920. Epub 2011 Oct 21.
  6. Li EK, Tam LS, Wong CK, Li WC, Lam CWK, Wachtel-Galor S, Benzie IFF, Bao YX, Leung PC, Tomlinson B (2007). Safety and Efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) and San Miao San Supplementation in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism (Arthritis Care & Research) 57, 1143–1150.
  7. Oba K, Teramukai S, Kobayashi M,·Matsui T,·Kodera Y,·Sakamoto Y (2007) Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curative resections of gastric cáncer. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 56, 905-911.
  8. Ohwada S, Ogawa T, Makita F, Tanahashi Y, Ohya T, Tomizawa N, Satoh Y, Kobayashi I, Izumi M, Takeyoshi I, Hamada K, Minaguchi S, Togo Y, Toshihiko T, Koyama T, Kamio M (2006). Beneficial effects of protein-bound polysaccharide K plus tegafur/uracil in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: analysis of immunological parameters. Oncol Rep 15:861-8.
  9. Okuno K, Uno K (2011). Efficacy of orally administered Lentinula edodes mycelia extract for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: a pilot study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 12(7):1671-4.
  10. Roca-Lema D, Martinez-Iglesias O, Fernández de Ana Portela C, Rodríguez-Blanco A, Valladares-Ayerbes M, Díaz-Díaz A, Casas-Pais A, Prego C, Figueroa A. In Vitro Anti-proliferative and Anti-invasive Effect of Polysaccharide-rich Extracts from Trametes Versicolor and Grifola Frondosa in Colon Cancer Cells. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(2):231-240. doi:10.7150/ijms.28811
  11. Sakamoto J, Morita S, Oba K, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, Nakazato H, Ohashi Y (2006) Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 55, 404-411.
  12. Standish LJ, Alschuler LN, Weaver M, Nezami M (2014). Botanical and mycological medicine in integrative oncology, in Integrative Oncology ed. Donald I. Abrans, Andrew Weil Oxford University Press.
  13. Torkelson CJ, Sweet E, Martzen MR, Sasagawa M, Wenner CA, Gay J, Putiri A, Standish LJ (2012). Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Trametes versicolor in Women with Breast Cancer. ISRN Oncol. 2012; 2012: 251632.
April 2019


Thermally Abused Frying Oil Potentiates Metastasis to Lung in a Murine Model of Late-Stage Breast Cancer. Anthony Cam et al. Cancer Prev Res March 18 2019. DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0220.

Takashi Mori, Naoki Koyama, Jun Tan, Tatsuya Segawa, Masahiro Maeda, Terrence Town. Combined treatment with the phenolics (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and ferulic acid improves cognition and reduces Alzheimer-like pathology in miceJournal of Biological Chemistry, 2019; 294 (8): 2714 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.004280.

Lei Feng, Irwin Kee-Mun Cheah, Maisie Mei-Xi Ng, Jialiang Li, Sue Mei Chan, Su Lin Lim, Rathi Mahendran, Ee-Heok Kua, Barry Halliwell. The Association between Mushroom Consumption and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in SingaporeJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-180959.

Associations of Dietary Cholesterol or Egg Consumption With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality. Victor W. Zhong, PhD1Linda Van Horn, PhD1Marilyn C. Cornelis, PhD1; et alJohn T. Wilkins, MD, MS1Hongyan Ning, MD, MS1Mercedes R. Carnethon, PhD1Philip Greenland, MD1Robert J. Mentz, MD2,3Katherine L. Tucker, PhD4Lihui Zhao, PhD1Arnita F. Norwood, PhD5Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM1Norrina B. Allen, PhD1

JAMA. 2019;321(11):1081-1095. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.1572.

The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in Helicobacter pylori

infection: a placebo-controlled, single-blind study. Martin Buckley et al. BMC Nutrition, 2018, 4:48:


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  2. Baxter AJ, Scott KM, Vos T, Whiteford HA. Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychol Med. 2013 May;43(5):897-910.
  3. Smith K. Mental health: a world of depression. Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):181.
  4. Dale E, Bang-Andersen B, Sánchez C. Emerging mechanisms and treatments for depression beyond SSRIs and SNRIs. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015 May 15;95(2):81-97.
  5. Pandarakalam JP. Challenges of Treatment-resistant Depression. Psychiatr Danub. 2018 Sep;30(3):273-284.
  6. Liu B, Liu J, Wang M, Zhang Y, Li L. From Serotonin to Neuroplasticity:
  7. Evolvement of Theories for Major Depressive Disorder. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017 Sep 28;11:305.
  8. Jentsch MC, Van Buel EM, Bosker FJ, Gladkevich AV, Klein HC, Oude Voshaar RC,  Ruhé EG, Eisel UL, Schoevers RA. Biomarker approaches in major depressive disorder evaluated in the context of current hypotheses. Biomark Med. 2015;9(3):277-97.
  9. Sarris J, Logan AC, Akbaraly TN, Amminger GP, Balanzá-Martínez V, Freeman MP,  Hibbeln J, Matsuoka Y, Mischoulon D, Mizoue T, Nanri A, Nishi D, Ramsey D, Rucklidge JJ, Sanchez-Villegas A, Scholey A, Su KP, Jacka FN; International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research. Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Mar;2(3):271-4.
  10. Manosso LM, Moretti M, Rodrigues AL. Nutritional strategies for dealing with depression. Food Funct. 2013 Dec;4(12):1776-93
  11. Gadad BS, Jha MK, Czysz A, Furman JL, Mayes TL, Emslie MP, Trivedi MH. Peripheral biomarkers of major depression and antidepressant treatment response: Current knowledge and future outlooks. J Affect Disord. 2018 Jun;233:3-14.
  12. Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment  of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Mar;18(2):61-71.
  13. Veronese N, Stubbs B, Solmi M, Ajnakina O, Carvalho AF, Maggi S. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation and the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychosom Med. 2018 Feb/Mar;80(2):154-159.
  14. Nasca C, Bigio B, Lee FS, Young SP, Kautz MM, Albright A, Beasley J, Millington DS, Mathé AA, Kocsis JH, Murrough JW, McEwen BS, Rasgon N. Acetyl-l-carnitine deficiency in patients with major depressive disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Aug 21;115(34):8627-8632.
  15. Deepmala, Slattery J, Kumar N, Delhey L, Berk M, Dean O, Spielholz C, Frye R.  Clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry and neurology: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Aug;55:294-321.
  16. Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011;36:78–86
  17. Conus P, Seidman LJ, Fournier M, Xin L, Cleusix M, Baumann PS, Ferrari C, Cousins A, Alameda L, Gholam-Rezaee M, Golay P, Jenni R, Woo TW, Keshavan MS, Eap CB, Wojcik J, Cuenod M, Buclin T, Gruetter R, Do KQ. N-acetylcysteine in a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial: Toward Biomarker-Guided Treatment in Early Psychosis. Schizophr Bull. 2018 Feb 15;44(2):317-327.
  18. McNamara RK, Strawn JR. Role of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric  Practice. PharmaNutrition. 2013 Apr;1(2):41-49.
  19. Kirkland AE, Sarlo GL, Holton KF. The Role of Magnesium in Neurological Disorders. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 6;10(6).
  20. Rajizadeh A, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Yassini-Ardakani M, Dehghani A. Effect of magnesium supplementation on depression status in depressed patients with magnesium deficiency: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2017 Mar;35:56-60.
  21. Zhang M, Robitaille L, Eintracht S, Hoffer LJ. Vitamin C provision improves mood in acutely hospitalized patients. Nutrition. 2011 May;27(5):530-3.
  22. Smith AD, Refsum H. Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016 Jul 17;36:211-39.
  23. Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review. Nutrients. 2016 Jan 27;8(2):68.
  24. Petrilli MA, Kranz TM, Kleinhaus K, Joe P, Getz M, Johnson P, Chao MV, Malaspina D. The Emerging Role for Zinc in Depression and Psychosis. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 30;8:414.
  25. Karakuła-Juchnowicz H, Szachta P, Opolska A, Morylowska-Topolska J, Gałęcka M, Juchnowicz D, Krukow P, Lasik Z. The role of IgG hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis and therapy of depressive disorders. Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb;20(2):110-118.
  26. Bayes A, Parker G. How to choose an antidepressant medication. Acta Psychiatr  Scand. 2019 Mar;139(3):280-291.

International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research consensus position statement: nutritional medicine in modern psychiatry. World Psychiatry. 2015 Oct; 14(3): 370–371, doi: 10.1002/wps.20223.

Daniel F. Zegarra-Ruiz, Asmaa El Beidaq, Alonso J. Iñiguez, Martina Lubrano Di Ricco, Silvio Manfredo Vieira, William E. Ruff, Derek Mubiru, Rebecca L. Fine, John Sterpka, Teri M. Greiling, Carina Dehner, Martin A. Kriegel. A Diet-Sensitive Commensal Lactobacillus Strain Mediates TLR7-Dependent Systemic AutoimmunityCell Host & Microbe, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.11.009

Christopher E. Zwilling, Tanveer Talukdar, Marta K. Zamroziewicz, Aron K. Barbey. Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and fMRI measures of network efficiency in the aging brain. NeuroImage, 2019; 188: 239 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.12.007

Limon et al. Malassezia Is Associated with Crohn’s Disease and Exacerbates Colitis in Mouse Models. Cell Host & Microbe, 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2019.01.007

Free fatty acids rewire cancer metabolism in obesity-associated breast cancer via estrogen receptor and mTOR signaling

Zeynep Madak-Erdogan et al. Cancer Research 2019, Published OnlineFirst March 12,
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2849.


Akihito Harusato, Emilie Viennois, Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Shingo Matsuyama, Hirohito Abo, Satoru Osuka, Nicholas W Lukacs, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh, Jian-Dong Li, Didier Merlin, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Timothy L. Denning. Early-life microbiota exposure restricts myeloid-derived suppressor cell-driven colonic tumourigenesisCancer Immunology Research, 2019; canimm.0444.2018 DOI: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-18-0444

Human Gut Microbiome Response Induced by Fermented Dairy Product Intake in Healthy Volunteers. Olesya Volokh et al. Nutrients. 4 Mar 2019.

 Association of Maternal Probiotic Supplementation With Human Milk Oligosaccharide Composition. Research Letter. Antti E. Seppo et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(3):286-288. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4835.

Vienna E. Brunt et al. Suppression of the gut microbiome ameliorates age-related arterial dysfunction and oxidative stress in miceThe Journal of Physiology, 2019; DOI: 10.1113/JP277336


A genome-wide cross trait analysis from UK Biobank highlights the shared genetic architecture of asthma and allergic diseases. Zhaozhong Zhu, Phil Hyoun Lee, et al.  Nature Genetics 2018, DOI:10.1038/s41588-018-0121-0.

Daniel Reker, Steven M. Blum, Christoph Steiger, Kevin E. Anger, Jamie M. Sommer, John Fanikos and Giovanni Traverso. Inactive” ingredients in oral medicationsScience Translational Medicine, 2019 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau6753

Healthy infants harbor intestinal bacteria that protect against food allergy

Taylor Feehley et al. Nature Medicine 2019, 25:448–53.

Histamine-releasing factor enhances food allergy.

Ando T et al. J Clin Invest. 2017 Dec 1;127(12):4541-4553. doi: 10.1172/JCI96525.

In Focus Supplement - April 2019

Sarah Oboh:

  1. Maintz, L and Novak, N. (2007) Histamine and histamine intolerance. Am J Clin Nutr. 85(5):1185-1196.
  2. Izquierdo-Casas, J. et al. (2018) Diamine oxidase (DAO) supplement reduces headache in episodic migraine patients with DAO deficiency: A randomized double-blind trial. Clin Nutr. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.01.013. [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Schmidt WU, Sattler J, Hesterberg R, et al. .Human intestinal diamine oxidase (DAO) activity in Crohn’s disease: a new marker for disease assessment? Agents Actions 1990;30:267–70.
  4. Mennigen R, Kusche J, Streffer C, Krakamp B. Diamine oxidase activities in the large bowel mucosa of ulcerative colitis patients. Agents Actions  1990;30:264–6.
  5. Guslandi, M. et al. (2003) A pilot trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in ulcerative colitis. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. Vol. 15 pp. 697 – 698.
  6. McFarland L.V., (2010), ‘Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients’. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 16(18):2202–2222. 
  7. Kotowska M. et al., (2005), ‘Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial’.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 21(5):583–590.
  8. Krämer, S. et al. (2008). Selective Activation of Human Intestinal Mast Cells by Escherichia coli Hemolysin. J Immunol. 181 (2) 1438-1445. 
  9. Hung, CR. (2005) Modulation of gastric hemorrhage and ulceration by oxidative stress and histamine release in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats. Inflammopharmacology. 13(1-3):235-48. 
  10. Vighi, G. et al (2008) Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clin. Exp. Immunol. Sept;153(1):3-6  
  11. Dev, S., Mizuguchi, H., Das, A. K., Matsushita, C., Maeyama, K., Umehara, H., … & Fukui, H. (2008). Suppression of histamine signaling by probiotic Lac-B: a possible mechanism of its anti-allergic effect. Journal of pharmacological sciences, 107(2), 159-166
  12. Galdeano CM et al., (2004) Role of viability of probiotic strains in their persistence in the gut and in mucosal immune stimulation. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97(4):673-81

Penny Shaw: (bland, J 2016) (Wallace, M 2014). (Detzel, C 2015) (Nebot-vivinus, M 2014) (Marchbank, T 2011) (Miller A, 1999) (Van der Hulst, 1993) (Deloose, 2016) (Nieuwenhuji, V et al, 1998) ( Miyano, et al 2013) (Adzet, T 1987) (Kraft, K 1998)

Aicacia Young:

  1. Mosca A, et al. Gut Microbiota Diversity and Human Diseases: Should We Reintroduce Key Predators in Our Ecosystem? Front Microbiol. 2016;7:455.
  2. Le Chatelier E, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546.
  3. Lingheim L, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168390.
  4. Chelakkot C, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Exp & Molecular Med. 2018;50:e450.
  5. Dao MC, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65:426-436.
  6. Schneeberger M, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:16643.
  7. Martin R, et al. Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 1226.
  8. Picard C, et al. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents – physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;22:495–512.
  9. Stenman LK, et al. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(4):437-445.
  10. Collado MC, et al. Imbalances in fecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active celiac disease. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:232.
  11. Gao X, et al. Obesity in school-aged children and its correlation with gut E. coli and Bifidobacteria: a case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:64.
  12. Akay HK, et al. The relationship between bifidobacterial and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3-year-old children in Turkey. Anaerobe. 2014;28:98-103.
  13. Possemiers S, et al. Evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis strain HU-58 in the SHIME technology platform. ProDigest Final Report. 2013: 1-40.
  14. Blatchford P, et al. Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomized controlled human trial. J Nutr Sci. 2017; 6: e52.
  15. Everard A, Lazarevic V, Derrien M, et al. Responses of Gut Microbiota and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism to Prebiotics in Genetic Obese and Diet-Induced Leptin-Resistant Mice. Diabetes. 2011 Nov; 60(11): 2775–2786.
  16. Finegold SM, et al. Xylooligosaccharide increases bifidobacteria but not lactobacilli in human gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2014;5(3):436-45.
  17. Depeint F, et al. Prebiotic evaluation of a novel galactooligosaccharide mixture produced by the enzymatic activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171, in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study 1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):785-91.
  18. Faure M, et al. Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1558-64.


  1. Citi S. Intestinal barriers protect against disease. Science. 2018;359(6380):1097-1098.
  1. Michielan A, et al. Intestinal Permeability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathogenesis, Clinical Evaluation, and Therapy of Leaky Gut. Mediators Inflamm. 2015; 2015:628157.
  1. Maes M, et al. The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29(1):117-24.
  1. Paiardini M, et al. Mucosal immune dysfunction in AIDS pathogenesis. AIDS Rev. 2008;10(1):36-46.
  1. Kandulski A, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease–from reflux episodes to mucosal inflammation. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(1):15-22.
  1. Liu H, et al. Early gut mucosal dysfunction in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2008;36(2):192-6.
  1. de Punder K, et al. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability. Front Immunol. 2015;6:223.
  1. Schmitz H, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) regulates the epithelial barrier in the human intestinal cell line HT-29/B6. Journal of Cell Science. 1999;112(1):137–146.
  1. Coskun M. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease. Front Med. 2014;1:24.
  1. Su L, et al. TNFR2 activates mlck-dependent tight junction dysregulation to cause apoptosis-mediated barrier loss and experimental colitis. Gastroenterology. 2013;145(2):407–415.
  1. Vinolo MAR, et al. Regulation of Inflammation by Short Chain Fatty Acids. Nutrients. 2011; 3(10): 858–876.
  1. Matsuoka K, et al. The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Semin Immunopathol. 2015; 37: 47–55.
  1. Detzel CJ, et al. Bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate binds pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds and prevents immune activation in an intestinal co-culture model. PloS one. 2015;10(4):e0120278.
  1. Faure M, et al. Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1558-64.
  1. Mosca A, et al. Gut Microbiota Diversity and Human Diseases: Should We Reintroduce Key Predators in Our Ecosystem? Front Microbiol. 2016;7:455.
  2. Le Chatelier E, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546.
  3. Lingheim L, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168390.
  4. Chelakkot C, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Exp & Molecular Med. 2018;50:e450.
  5. Dao MC, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65:426-436.
  6. Schneeberger M, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:16643.
  7. Martin R, et al. Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 1226.
  8. Picard C, et al. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents – physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;22:495–512.
  9. Stenman LK, et al. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(4):437-445.
  10. Collado MC, et al. Imbalances in fecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active celiac disease. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:232.
  11. Gao X, et al. Obesity in school-aged children and its correlation with gut E. coli and Bifidobacteria: a case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:64.
  12. Akay HK, et al. The relationship between bifidobacterial and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3-year-old children in Turkey. Anaerobe. 2014;28:98-103.
  13. Possemiers S, et al. Evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis strain HU-58 in the SHIME technology platform. ProDigest Final Report. 2013: 1-40.
  14. Blatchford P, et al. Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomized controlled human trial. J Nutr Sci. 2017; 6: e52.
  15. Everard A, Lazarevic V, Derrien M, et al. Responses of Gut Microbiota and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism to Prebiotics in Genetic Obese and Diet-Induced Leptin-Resistant Mice. Diabetes. 2011 Nov; 60(11): 2775–2786.
  16. Finegold SM, et al. Xylooligosaccharide increases bifidobacteria but not lactobacilli in human gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2014;5(3):436-45.
  17. Depeint F, et al. Prebiotic evaluation of a novel galactooligosaccharide mixture produced by the enzymatic activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171, in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study 1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):785-91.
  18. Mosca A, et al. Gut Microbiota Diversity and Human Diseases: Should We Reintroduce Key Predators in Our Ecosystem? Front Microbiol. 2016;7:455.
  19. Le Chatelier E, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546.
  20. Lingheim L, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168390.
  21. Chelakkot C, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Exp & Molecular Med. 2018;50:e450.
  22. Shin N, et al. An increase in the Akkermansia spp. population induced by metformin treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice. Gut. 2014;63:727-735.
  23. Dao MC, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65:426-436.
  24. Schneeberger M, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:16643.
  25. Matsuoka K, et al. The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Semin Immunopathol. 2015; 37: 47–55.
  26. Martin R, et al. Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 1226.
  27. Picard C, et al. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents – physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;22:495–512.
  28. Stenman LK, et al. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(4):437-445.
  29. Collado MC, et al. Imbalances in fecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active celiac disease. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:232.
  30. Gao X, et al. Obesity in school-aged children and its correlation with gut E. coli and Bifidobacteria: a case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:64.
  31. Akay HK, et al. The relationship between bifidobacterial and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3-year-old children in Turkey. Anaerobe. 2014;28:98-103.
  32. Possemiers S, Van de Genachte N. Evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis strain HU-58 in the SHIME technology platform. ProDigest Final Report. 2013: 1-40.

Adrienne Benjamin:

[1] Dukowicz AC, Lacy BE & Levine GM (2007) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review Gasterenterol Hepatol 3(2):112-122

2 Bures J et al (2010) Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome World J Gastroenterol 16(24):2978-2990

3 Pyleris E et al (2012) The Prevalence of Overgrowth by Aerobic Bacteria in the Small Intestine by Small Bowel Culture: Relationship with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Dig Dis Sci 57:1321-1329

4 Shah A et al (2019) Systematic Review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inflammatory bowel disease Aliment Pharmacol Ther 49:624-635

5 Ghoshal UD, Srivastava D (2014) Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype World J Gastroenterol 20(10):2482-2491

6 Salem A & Ronald BC (2014) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) J Gastroint Dig Syst 4:225

7 Dukowicz AC, Lacy BE & Levine GM (2007) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review Gasterenterol Hepatol 3(2):112-122

8 Quigley EMM (2019) The Spectrum of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) Curr Gastroenterol Rep

9 Grace, E et al (2013) Review article: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth – prevalence, clinical features, current and developing diagnostic tests, and treatment Aliment Pharmacol Ther 38:674-688

10 Choung RS et al (2011) Clinical predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by duodenal aspirate culture

11 Chen B et al (2017) Prevalence and predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: a systemic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol

12 Su T et al (2018) Meta-analysis: proton pump inhibitors moderately increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth J of Gastroenterol 53(1):27-36

13 Adike A & DiBaise JK (2017) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth – Nutritional Implications, Diagnosis, and Management Gastroenterol Clin N Am

14 Gewecke K, Nannen-Ottens S (2017) Bacterial overgrowth: nutrition as part of the therapeutic concept Ernahrungs Umschau 64(4):67-73; 64(5):74-78

15 Chen WC & Quigley EMM (2014) Probiotics, prebiotics & synbiotics in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth:

16 Shah SC et al (2013) Meta-analysis: antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013 28:925-934

17 Gatta L & Scarpignato C (2017) Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin is effective and safe for the treatment of small intestine bacterial overgrowth Aliment Pharmacol Ther 45:604-616

18 McIntosh K et al (2016) FODMAPs alter symptoms and the metabolome of patients with IBS: a randomised controlled trial Gut 0 :1-11

19 Magge S & Lembo A (2012) Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gastroenterol Hepatol 8(11):739-745

20 Altobelli E et al (2017) Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis Nutrients 9:940; doi:10.3390/nu9090940

21 Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ (2011) Stress and the gut: Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options J Physiol Pharmacol 62(6):591-599

22 Chedid V et al Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Global Adv Health Med 3(3):16-24

23 Zhong C et al (2017) Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence J Clin Gastroenterol 51:300-311


March 2019


Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Geoffrey Istas, Lisa Boschek, Rodrigo P Feliciano, Charlotte E Mills, Céline Boby, Sergio Gomez-Alonso, Dragan Milenkovic, Christian Heiss. Circulating anthocyanin metabolites mediate vascular benefits of blueberries: insights from randomized controlled trials, metabolomics, and nutrigenomicsThe Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glz047

Zgaga, L.; Laird, E.; Healy, M. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Measurement in Human Hair: Results from a Proof-of-Concept study. Nutrients 201911, 423.

Chronic Inflammation Permanently Reshapes Tissue-Resident Immunity in Celiac Disease. Toufic Mayassi et al. Cell 2019, 176: 5. DOI:

Adjunctive vitamin D in tuberculosis treatment: meta-analysis of individual participant data. David A. Jolliffe, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Christian Wejse, Rubhana Raqib, Md. Ahsanul Haq, Nawal Salahuddin, Peter K. Daley, Anna P. Ralph, Thomas R. Ziegler and Adrian R. Martineau. European Respiratory Journal, Published online February 6, 2019.

Ascorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross‐over trial. Shaun A. Mason et al. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, First published: 04 November 2018.

Lund KS, Siersma V, Brodersen J, et al. Efficacy of a standardised acupuncture approach for women with bothersome menopausal symptoms: a pragmatic randomised study in primary care (the ACOM study). BMJ Open 2019;9:e023637. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023637.


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  19. Jarrett BY, Lujan ME. Impact of hypocaloric dietary intervention on ovulation  in obese women with PCOS. Reproduction. 2016 Oct 31. pii: REP-16-0385. (Epub ahead of print)
  20. Frary JM, Bjerre KP, Glintborg D, Ravn P. The effect of dietary carbohydrates  in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review. Minerva Endocrinol. 2016 Mar;41(1):57-69.
  21. Sordia-Hernández LH, Ancer Rodríguez P, Saldivar Rodriguez D, Trejo Guzman S,Servín Zenteno ES, Guerrero González G, Ibarra Patiño R. Effect of a low glycemic diet in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and anovulation – a randomized controlled trial. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(4):555-559.
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  24. McGrice M, Porter J. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017 Feb 27;9(3).
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  26. Vagi SJ, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Sjödin A, Calafat AM, Dumesic D, Gonzalez L, Kato K, Silva MJ, Ye X, Azziz R. Exploring the potential association between brominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates, and bisphenol A in polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2014 Oct 28;14:86.
  27. Yang Q, Zhao Y, Qiu X, Zhang C, Li R, Qiao J. Association of serum levels of typical organic pollutants with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a case-control  study. Hum Reprod. 2015 Aug;30(8):1964-73.
  28. Kandaraki E, Chatzigeorgiou A, Livadas S, Palioura E, Economou F, Koutsilieris M, Palimeri S, Panidis D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E. Endocrine disruptors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): elevated serum levels of bisphenol A in women with PCOS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E480-4.
  29. Zhou W, Fang F, Zhu W, Chen ZJ, Du Y, Zhang J. Bisphenol A and Ovarian Reserve among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Dec 27;14(1).
  30. Hyland C, Bradman A, Gerona R, Patton S, Zakharevich I, Gunier RB, Klein K. Organic diet intervention significantly reduces urinary pesticide levels in U.S. children and adults. Environ Res. 2019 Jan 29. pii: S0013-9351(19)30024-6.
  31. Rudel RA, Gray JM, Engel CL, et al. Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jul;119(7):914-20. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003170.
  32. He C, Lin Z, Robb SW, Ezeamama AE. Serum Vitamin D Levels and Polycystic Ovary syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2015 Jun 8;7(6):4555-77.
  33. Wehr E, Pieber TR, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Effect of vitamin D3 treatment on glucose metabolism and menstrual frequency in polycystic ovary syndrome women: a  pilot study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011 Nov;34(10):757-63.
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  35. Irani M, Seifer DB, Grazi RV, Irani S, Rosenwaks Z, Tal R. Vitamin D Decreases Serum VEGF Correlating with Clinical Improvement in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with PCOS: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2017 Mar 28;9(4).
  36. Jamilian M, Foroozanfard F, Rahmani E, Talebi M, Bahmani F, Asemi Z. Effect of Two Different Doses of Vitamin D Supplementation on Metabolic Profiles of Insulin-Resistant Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Nutrients. 2017 Nov 24;9(12).
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  42. Fruzzetti F, Perini D, Russo M, Bucci F, Gadducci A. Comparison of two insulin sensitizers, metformin and myo-inositol, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome  (PCOS). Gynecol Endocrinol. 2017 Jan;33(1):39-42.
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HYBRID DIET – Patrick Holford

  1. Sarah J. Hallberg et al Effectiveness and Safety of a Novel Care Model for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes at 1 Year: An Open-Label, Non-Randomized, Controlled Study

Diabetes Therapy April 2018, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 583–612.

  1. Courchesne-Loyer A, et al., ‘Inverse relationship between brain glucose and ketone metabolism in adults during short-term moderate dietary ketosis: A dual tracer quantitative positron emission tomography study.’ 2017 Jul;37(7):2485-2493; see also Cunnane SC et al., ‘Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.’J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017 Jul;37(7):2485-2493
  3. Wang C1 et al Endo-lysosomal dysfunction: a converging mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases.Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2018 Feb;48:52-58.
  4. E. White, ‘Autophagy, metabolism, and cancer’, Clinical Cancer Research (2015), 21(22):5037–5046.
  5. Bueno NB et al Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013 Oct;110(7):1178-87.


  1. David S. Ludwig The case against carbohydrates gets stronger LA Times Nov 14, 2018
  2. J.M. Chan, et al., ‘Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study’, Science (1998), vol 279(5350):563–566; see also M.J. Gunter et al., ‘Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2009), vol 101(1):48–60.=
  3. Vandenberghe et al., ‘Tricaprylin alone increases plasma ketone response more than coconut oil or other medium-chain triglycerides: an acute crossover study in healthy adults’, Current Developments in Nutrition (2017), vol 1(4):e000257.
    10. C. Ebbeling et al., ‘Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial’ British Medical Journal 2018;363:k4583
  4. P.M. Johnson and P.J. Kenny, ‘Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats’, Nature Neuroscience (2010), vol 13(5)–635–641.


Kim Vriens et al. Evidence for an alternative fatty acid desaturation pathway increasing cancer plasticityNature, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-0904-1.

Jeewon Garcia-So, Xinwen Zhang, Xiaohua Yang, Mara Roxana Rubinstein, De Yu Mao, Jan Kitajewski, Kang Liu, Yiping W. Han. 

Omega-3 fatty acids suppress Fusobacterium nucleatum–induced placental inflammation originating from maternal endothelial cellsJCI Insight, 2019; 4 (3) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.125436.

Poorna ChandraRao Yalagala, Dhavamani Sugasini, Sridevi Dasarathi, Kalipada Pahan, Papasani V. Subbaiah. Dietary lysophosphatidylcholine-EPA enriches both EPA and DHA in the brain: Potential treatment for depressionJournal of Lipid Research, 2018; jlr.M090464 DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M090464.

Association of reported fish intake and supplementation status with the omega-3 index.

K.H. Jackson et al. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids

Vol142, March 2019, 4-10: DOI:

Marine fish oil is more potent than plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of mammary tumors. JiajieLiu et al. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Volume 55, May 2018, Pages 41-52

LYME – Dr Bill Rawls.

  1. Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, et al. Randomized Trial of Longer-Term Therapy for Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(13):1209-1220.
    2.Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Vancova M, et al. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microb Infect. 2016;22(3):267. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
    3. Perez-Cobas AE, Gosalbes MJ, Friedrichs A, et al. Gut microbiota disturbance during antibiotic therapy, a multi-omic approach. Gut. 2013;62(11):1591-1601. Epub 2012 Dec 12.
    4. Morgun A, Dzutsev A, Dong X, et al. Uncovering effects of antibiotics on the host and microbiota using transkingdom gene networks. Gut. 2015;64(11):1732-1742. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
    5. Kalghatgi S, Spina CS, Costello JC, et al. Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Mammalian cells. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5(192):192ra85.
    6. Macfarlane S, Woodmansey EJ, Macfarlane GT. Colonization of mucin by human intestinal bacteria and establishment of biofilm communities in a two-stage continuous culture system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71(11):7483-7492.
    7. Macfarlane S, Dillon JF. Microbial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102(5):1187-1196.
    8. Macfarlane S, Bahrami B, Macfarlane GT. Mucosal biofilm communities in the human intestinal tract. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2011;75:111-143.


Ting Fu et al. FXR Regulates Intestinal Cancer Stem Cell ProliferationCell, 2019; 176 (5): 1098 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.036.

Xin Wu, Jing Shi, Wan-xia Fang, Xiao-yu Guo, Ling-yun Zhang, Yun-peng Liu, Zhi Li. Allium vegetables are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer: A hospital-based matched case-control study in ChinaAsia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2019; DOI: 10.1111/ajco.13133


Lupus nephritis is linked to disease-activity associated expansions and immunity to a gut commensal. Doua Azzouz et al. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. Published Online First: 19 February 2019. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214856.

 Old age-associated phenotypic screening for Alzheimer’s disease drug candidates identifies sterubin as a potent neuroprotective compound from Yerba santa

Wolfgang Fischer, Antonio Currais, Zhibin Liang, Antonio Pinto and Pamela Maher.

Redox Biology, Volume 21, February 2019, 101089

open access:

Haruki Nakamura, Akinori Hara, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Thao Thi Thu Nguyen, Yasuhiro Kambayashi, Sakae Miyagi, Yohei Yamada, Keita Suzuki, Yukari Shimizu, Hiroyuki Nakamura. Relationship between Dietary n-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Hypertension: Effect of Glycated Hemoglobin LevelsNutrients, 2018; 10 (12): 1825 DOI: 10.3390/nu10121825

Stephen J. Carter, Gary R. Hunter, J. Walker Blackston, Nianjun Liu, Elliot J. Lefkowitz, William J. Van Der Pol, Casey D. Morrow, Jesseca A. Paulsen, Laura Q. Rogers. Gut microbiota diversity associates with cardiorespiratory fitness in post-primary treatment breast cancer survivorsExperimental Physiology, 2019; DOI: 10.1113/EP087404.

Philip Strandwitz, Ki Hyun Kim, Darya Terekhova, Joanne K. Liu, Anukriti Sharma, Jennifer Levering, Daniel McDonald, David Dietrich, Timothy R. Ramadhar, Asama Lekbua, Nader Mroue, Conor Liston, Eric J. Stewart, Marc J. Dubin, Karsten Zengler, Rob Knight, Jack A. Gilbert, Jon Clardy, Kim Lewis. GABA-modulating bacteria of the human gut microbiotaNature Microbiology, 2018; DOI: 10.1038/s41564-018-0307-3.

Asher Preska Steinberg, Sujit S Datta, Thomas Naragon, Justin C Rolando, Said R Bogatyrev, Rustem F Ismagilov. High-molecular-weight polymers from dietary fibre drive aggregation of particulates in the murine small intestineeLife, 2019 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.40387.001.

Luoping Zhang, Iemaan Rana, Rachel M. Shaffer, Emanuela Taioli, Lianne Sheppard. Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting EvidenceMutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2019.02.001.

Petra Bacher et al. Human Anti-fungal Th17 Immunity and Pathology Rely on Cross-Reactivity against Candida albicansCell, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.041.

Puneet Seth, Paishiun N. Hsieh, Suhib Jamal, Liwen Wang, Steven P. Gygi, Mukesh K. Jain, Jeff Coller, Jonathan S. Stamler. Regulation of MicroRNA Machinery and Development by Interspecies S-NitrosylationCell, Feb. 21, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.037

AONM Advertorial:

1. Moutailler S, Valiente Moro C, Vaumourin E, Michelet L, Tran FH, Devillers E, et al. (2016)
Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3):
2. Johnson, L., Wilcox, S., Mankoff, J., & Stricker, R. B. (2014). Severity of chronic Lyme disease
compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey. PeerJ, 2, e322.
3. Birtles, R. J., Laycock, G., Kenny, M. J., Shaw, S. E. & Day, M. J. (2002). Prevalence of
Bartonella species causing bacteraemia in domesticated and companion animals in the
United Kingdom. Vet Rec 151, 225–229.
5. Davies, S, Abdullah, S, Helps, C, Tasker, S, Newbury, H & Wall, R 2017, ‘Prevalence of ticks
and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain’
Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 244, pp. 129-135
7. Mansfield, K. L., Jizhou, L., Phipps, L. P., & Johnson, N. (2017). Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in
the Twenty-First Century. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 7, 298

February 2019


Martami F et al The effects of a multispecies probiotic supplement on inflammatory markers and episodic and chronic migraine characteristics: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Cephalalgia. Jan 2019.

Christian Timbol, James Baraniuk. Chronic fatigue syndrome in the emergency departmentOpen Access Emergency Medicine, 2019; Volume 11: 15 DOI: 10.2147/OAEM.S176843

Qi Dai, Xiangzhu Zhu, JoAnn E Manson, Yiqing Song, Xingnan Li, Adrian A Franke, Rebecca B Costello, Andrea Rosanoff, Hui Nian, Lei Fan, Harvey Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Chang Yu, Martha J Shrubsole. Magnesium status and supplementation influence vitamin D status and metabolism: results from a randomized trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 108 (6): 1249 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy274

Anne Marie Uwitonze, Mohammed S. Razzaque. Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and FunctionThe Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 2018; 118 (3): 181 DOI: 10.7556/jaoa.2018.037

Chester R, Khondoker M, Shepstone L, et al. Self-efficacy and risk of persistent shoulder pain: results of a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis

Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 09 January 2019. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099450.

Kate L Mandeville, Rosie Barker, Alice Packham, Charlotte Sowerby, Kielan Yarrow, Hannah Patrick. Financial interests of patient organisations contributing to technology assessment at England’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: policy review.BMJ. DOI: 10.1136/BMJ.K5300

Hall, K et al. COMT modifies alpha-tocopherol effects in cancer prevention: gene-supplement interactions in two randomized clinical trialsJNCI, 2019 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djy204.

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Oral Vitamin C (500 mg/day) to Pregnant Smokers Improves Infant Airway Function at 3 Months (VCSIP): A Randomized Trial.

McEvoy CT et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Dec 7. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201805-1011OC. [Epub ahead of print].

Noah Snyder-Mackler, Joaquín Sanz, Jordan N. Kohn, Tawni Voyles, Roger Pique-Regi, Mark E. Wilson, Luis B. Barreiro, and Jenny Tung. Social status alters chromatin accessibility and the gene regulatory response to glucocorticoid stimulation in rhesus macaquesPNAS, 2018 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811758115.

December 2018


Estimation of global insulin use for type 2 diabetes, 2018–30: a microsimulation analysis. Sanjay Basu et al. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2018. Published online Nov 20. DOI:

Expenditures and Prices of Antihyperglycemic Medications in the United States: 2002-2013. Xinyang Hua et al. JAMA. 2016;315(13):1400-1402. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0126

Gonzalez, PS et al. Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy. Nature 2018, Nov 21. DOI:

Carole A. Federico, Taiji Wang, Adélaïde Doussau, Jeffrey S. Mogil, Dean Fergusson, Jonathan Kimmelman. Assessment of Pregabalin Postapproval Trials and the Suggestion of Efficacy for New IndicationsJAMA Internal Medicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5705.

Blue light exposure decreases systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and improves endothelial function in humans. Manuel Stern et al. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2018; 204748731880007 DOI: 10.1177/2047487318800072

BEN BROWN – Nature


  1. United Nations. The World’s Cities in 2016.
  2. Natural England. Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment: 2015 to 2016. Results for the seventh year of the MENE survey which provides data on how people use the natural environment in England. 2015.
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  7. White MP, Elliott LR, Taylor T, Wheeler BW, Spencer A, Bone A, Depledge MH, Fleming LE. Recreational physical activity in natural environments and implications for health: A population based cross-sectional study in England. Prev Med. 2016 Oct;91:383-388.
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participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Mar 1;45(5):1761-72.

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  8. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Inagaki H, Hirata Y, Li YJ, Hirata K, Shimizu T, Suzuki H,  Katsumata M, Wakayama Y, Kawada T, Ohira T, Matsui N, Kagawa T. A day trip to a forest park increases human natural killer activity and the expression of anti-cancer proteins in male subjects. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010 Apr-Jun;24(2):157-65.
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  10. Nishimura Y, Takahashi K, Mase A, Kotani M, Ami K, Maeda M, Shirahama T, Lee S, Matsuzaki H, Kumagai-Takei N, Yoshitome K, Otsuki T. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant  Indoor Air-Conditions. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 14;10(7):e0132373.
  11. Lee S, Yamamoto S, Nishimura Y, Matsuzaki H, Yoshitome K, Hatayama T, Ikeda M, Yu M, Sada N, Kumagai-Takei N, Otsuki T. Decrease in Serum Amyloid a Protein Levels Following Three-month Stays in Negatively Charged Particle-dominant Indoor Air Conditions. Biomed Environ Sci. 2018 May;31(5):335-342.
  12. Chevalier G, Sinatra ST, Oschman JL, Sokal K, Sokal P. Earthing: health implications of reconnecting the human body to the Earth’s surface electrons. J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:291541.
  13. Ghaly M, Teplitz D. The biological effects of grounding the human body during sleep, as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain and stress. J Altern Complement Med 2004 10(5):767-776.
  14. Sinatra ST, et al. Electric Nutrition: The Surprising Health and Healing Benefits of Biological Grounding (Earthing). Altern Ther Health Med. 2017 Sep;23(5):8-16.
  15. Probandt D, Eickhorst T, Ellrott A, Amann R, Knittel K. Microbial life on a sand grain: from bulk sediment to single grains. ISME J. 2018 Feb;12(2):623-633.
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  17. Trends Microbiol. 2015 Jun;23(6):354-66
  18. Hirano S, Yokota Y, Eda M, Kuda T, Shikano A, Takahashi H, Kimura B. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Tennozu-SU2 on Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Human  Enterocyte-Like HT-29-Luc Cells and BALB/c Mice. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins.  2017 Mar;9(1):64-70.
  19. Komano Y, Shimada K, Naito H, Fukao K, Ishihara Y, Fujii T, Kokubo T, Daida H. Efficacy of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 on immunity and fatigue during consecutive high intensity exercise in male athletes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Aug 2;15(1):39.
  20. Obregon-Tito AJ, Tito RY, Metcalf J, Sankaranarayanan K, Clemente JC, Ursell LK, Zech Xu Z, Van Treuren W, Knight R, Gaffney PM, Spicer P, Lawson P, Marin-Reyes L, Trujillo-Villarroel O, Foster M, Guija-Poma E, Troncoso-Corzo L, Warinner C, Ozga AT, Lewis CM. Subsistence strategies in traditional societies distinguish gut microbiomes. Nat Commun. 2015 Mar 25;6:6505.
  21. Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations.

Sonnenburg ED, Smits SA, Tikhonov M, Higginbottom SK, Wingreen NS, Sonnenburg JL. Nature 2016, Jan 14;529(7585):212-5

  1. Logan AC, Jacka FN, Prescott SL. Immune-Microbiota Interactions: Dysbiosis as a Global Health Issue. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Jan;16(2):13.

 NUTRIGENOMICS – Kara Fitzgerald

  1. Understanding the regulatory and transcriptional complexity of the genome through structure. Tim R. Mercer and John S. Mattick. Genome Res. 2013 Jul; 23(7): 1081–1088.

doi: 10.1101/gr.156612.113.

  1. Lobo, I. (2008) Epistasis: Gene interaction and the phenotypic expression of complex diseases like Alzheimer’s. Nature Education1(1):180.
  2. Major Heart Disease Genes Prove Elusive. Jennifer Couzin-Frankel. Science 04 Jun 2010: Vol. 328, Issue 5983, pp. 1220-21. DOI: 10.1126/science.328.5983.1220.
    4. The Elusive ALS Genes. Ken Garber. Science 04 Jan 2008: Vol. 319, Issue 5859, pp. 20
    DOI: 10.1126/science.319.5859.20.
    5. Genes and Autoimmune Diseases — A Complex Inheritance. Highlights of the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; October 26-30, 2004; Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Sara M Mariani, PhD. MedGenMed. 2004; 6(4): 18.
  3. Combined effect of CYP1B1COMTGSTP1, and MnSODgenotypes and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. J Gynecol Oncol. 2011 Jun 30; 22(2): 110–119.

doi: 10.3802/jgo.2011.22.2.110.

  1. Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci. Fredrick R. Schumacher et al. Nature Genetics, 2018, 50: 928–936.
  2. Heather M. Ochs-Balcom et al. Physical activity modifies genetic susceptibility to obesity in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 2018; 1 DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001134.

Ossenkoppele R, Rabinovici GD, Smith R, et al. Discriminative Accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir Positron Emission Tomography for Alzheimer Disease vs Other Neurodegenerative Disorders. JAMA, 2018; 320 (11): 1151–1162 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2018.12917.

Adam P Spira, Yang An, Mark N Wu, Jocelynn T Owusu, Eleanor M Simonsick, Murat Bilgel, Luigi Ferrucci, Dean F Wong, Susan M Resnick. Excessive daytime sleepiness and napping in cognitively normal adults: associations with subsequent amyloid deposition measured by PiB PET. Sleep, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsy152.

Ross S. Mancini, Yanfei Wang, Donald F. Weaver. Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2018; 12 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00735.


Nutritional status, brain network organization, and general intelligence

Marta K.Zamroziewicz et al. NeuroImage, Volume 161, 1 November 2017, Pages 241-250.

Maternal Dietary Choline Status Influences Brain Gray and White Matter Development in Young Pigs. Austin T Mudd et al. Current Developments in Nutrition, 2: 6, 1 June 2018,


Makrides, L Duley, SF Olsen. Fish oil and other prostaglandin precursor supplementation during pregnancy for reducing pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Cochrane Review, 2018 DOI:

Long-term intake of vegetables and fruits and subjective cognitive function in US men.

Changzheng Yuan, Elinor Fondell, Ambika Bhushan, Alberto Ascherio, Olivia I. Okereke, Francine Grodstein, Walter C. Willett. Neurology 2018, first published Nov 21, 2018, DOI:

Angele M. De Silva, Rían W. Manville, Geoffrey W. Abbott. Deconstruction of an African folk medicine uncovers a novel molecular strategy for therapeutic potassium channel activationScience Advances, 2018; 4 (11): eaav0824 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav0824

 Wahl D et al. Comparing the Effects of Low-Protein and High-Carbohydrate Diets and Caloric Restriction on Brain Aging in Mice. Cell Rep. 2018 Nov 20;25(8):2234-2243.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.10.070.

Salas-Huetos A et al. The Effect of Nutrients and Dietary Supplements on Sperm Quality Parameters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Advances in Nutrition, 2018; 9(6), 833-848. DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmy057.

Calorie restriction
1.  Cash A. Oxaloacetic Acid Supplementation as a Mimetic of Calorie Restriction. Open Longevity Science. 2009;3:22-7.

  1. Williams DS, Cash A, Hamadani L, Diemer T. Oxaloacetate supplementation increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans through an AMPK/FOXO-dependent pathway. Aging Cell. 2009;8(6):765-8.
  2. Shintani H, Shintani T, Ashida H, Sato M. Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients. 2018;10(12): open access at
  3. Lane, M.A; Ingram, D.K; Roth, G.S. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose feeding in rats mimics physiologic effects of calorie restriction. J. Anti Aging Med. 1998, 1, 327-337.

Gut-brain mechanism
1. Pellegrini C et al (2018) Interplay among gut microbiota, intestinal mucosal barrier and enteric neuro-immune system: a common path to neurodegenerative diseases? Acta Neuropathol 136:345. doi:10.1007/s00401-018-1856-5.

  1. Kaelberer et al (2018) A gut-brain neural circuit for nutrient sensory transduction. Science 361(6408):eaat5236. doi:10.1126/science.aat5236.
  2. Bohórquez and Liddle (2015) The gut connectome: making sense of what you eat. J Clin Invest125(3):888–890. doi:10.1172/JCI81121.


  1. Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegansand increases muscle function in rodents. Dongryeol Ryu et al. Nature Medicine 2016, 22: 879–88.
  2. Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials. Carine Dion, Eric Chappuis, and Christophe Ripoll. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016, 13: 28, doi:  10.1186/s12986-016-0086-x.
November 2018


 Precision identification of diverse bloodstream pathogens in the gut microbiome. Tamburini FB, Andermann TM, Tkachenko E, Senchyna F, Banaei N, Bhatt AS. Nat Med. 2018 Oct 15. doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0202-8.

Development of the Highly Processed Food Withdrawal Scale. Appetite 2018,

Vol 131, 1 December, 148-154.

Bruce N. Ames. Prolonging healthy ageing: Longevity vitamins and proteins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809045115 

Bruce N. Ames. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of ageing through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. PNAS November 21, 2006 103 (47) 17589-17594;


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  2. Da Costa K.A., Badea M., Fischer L.M., Zeisel S.H. Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase in choline-deficient humans: Mechanistic studies in C2C12 mouse myoblasts. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;80:163–170.
  3. Da Costa K.A., Niculescu M.D., Craciunescu C.N., Fischer L.M., Zeisel S.H. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006;84:88–94.
  4. Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):615-23.
  5. Bidulescu A, Chambless LE, Siega-Riz AM, Zeisel SH, Heiss G. Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Nutr J 2009, 8(1): 14.
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  8. Ganz AB, Klatt KC, Caudill MA. Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 4;9(8).
  9. Ganz AB, Shields K, Fomin VG, Lopez YS, Mohan S, Lovesky J, Chuang JC, Ganti A, Carrier B, Yan J, Taeswuan S, Cohen VV, Swersky CC, Stover JA, Vitiello GA, Malysheva OV, Mudrak E, Caudill MA. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the  expense of betaine synthesis. FASEB J. 2016 Oct;30(10):3321-3333.
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  12. Zeisel SH. The supply of choline is important for fetal progenitor cells.Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2011 Aug;22(6):624-8.
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  15. Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Laurent C, Rasmussen SA. Maternal nutrient intakes and risk of orofacial clefts. Epidemiology. 2006;17:285–91.
  16. Zeisel SH. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline. Int J Womens Health. 2013 Apr 22;5:193-9.
  17. Jiang X, West AA, Caudill MA. Maternal choline supplementation: a nutritional  approach for improving offspring health? Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2014 May;25(5):263-73.
  18. Ross RG, Hunter SK, McCarthy L, Beuler J, Hutchison AK, Wagner BD, Leonard S,  Stevens KE, Freedman R. Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology related to later schizophrenia risk. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Mar;170(3):290-8.
  19. Ross RG, Hunter SK, Hoffman MC, McCarthy L, Chambers BM, Law AJ, Leonard S, Zerbe GO, Freedman R. Perinatal Phosphatidylcholine Supplementation and Early Childhood Behavior Problems: Evidence for CHRNA7 Moderation. Am J Psychiatry. 2016 May 1;173(5):509-16.
  20. Ideraabdullah FY, Zeisel SH. Dietary Modulation of the Epigenome. Physiol Rev. 2018 Apr 1;98(2):667-695.
  21. Stephenson J, Heslehurst N, Hall J, Schoenaker DAJM, Hutchinson J, Cade JE, Poston L, Barrett G, Crozier SR, Barker M, Kumaran K, Yajnik CS, Baird J, Mishra  GD. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health. Lancet. 2018 May 5;391(10132):1830-1841.


Mingfei Zhao, Brian W Whitcomb, Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe, JoAnn E Manson, Susan E Hankinson, Bernard A Rosner, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson. Physical activity is not related to risk of early menopause in a large prospective studyHuman Reproduction, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dey267.

Yashvee Dunneram, Darren Charles Greenwood, Victoria J Burley, Janet E Cade. Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort StudyJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2018; DOI: 10.1136/jech-2017-209887

  1. Reduce hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms: a beneficial proprietary Siberian rhubarb root extract, Kristen Haabala, ND, and Mark Kaye, DC. Naturopathic Doctor News and Review, posted Dec 7, 2012:
    2. A Non-Hormone Approach to Menopause Management, by Stephanie Clark. Life Extension Magazine, October 2018.

Fiona S Atkinson, Dale Hancock, Peter Petocz, Jennie C Brand-Miller. The physiologic and phenotypic significance of variation in human amylase gene copy number. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 108 (4): 737 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy164

  1. Falchi et al. Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity. Nature Genetics, 2014 DOI: 10.1038/ng.2939

Endogenous metabolites of vitamin E limit inflammation by targeting 5-lipoxygenase. Nature Communications, 2018; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06158-5.

Suleiman Furmli, Rami Elmasry, Megan Ramos, Jason Fung. Therapeutic use of intermittent fasting for people with type 2 diabetes as an alternative to insulinBMJ Case Reports, 2018; bcr-2017-221854 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-221854

White J, Xiong S, Malvin N, Khoury-Hanold W, Heuckeroth R, Stappenbeck T, Diamond MS. Intestinal dysmotility syndromes following system infection by flaviviruses. Cell. Oct, 4, 2018.


October 2018

Jørgensen L, Gøtzsche P, Jefferson T. The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias. BMJ Evid Based Med 2018, Jul 27.
Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2018;5:CD009069.pmid:29740819.

Index of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine industry clinical study programmes and non-industry funded studies: a necessary basis to address reporting bias in a systematic review. Syst Rev 2018;7:8. doi:10.1186/s13643-018-0675-z pmid:29347995.

HPV vaccine safety: Cochrane launches urgent investigation into review after criticisms. BMJ 2018; 362 doi: (Published 09 August 2018).

Greenhalgh T, Howick J, Maskrey N; Evidence Based Medicine Renaissance Group. Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis? BMJ. 2014 Jun 13;348:g3725. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3725.

 Resveratrol Supplementation Reduces Pain and Inflammation in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Treated with Meloxicam: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. Published Online ahead of print Journal of Medicinal Food, August 30, 2018: (Free access to October 17.)

Cell 2018 Sep 6;174(6):1388-1405.e21. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.041.

Personalized Gut Mucosal Colonization Resistance to Empiric Probiotics Is Associated with Unique Host and Microbiome Features.

A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of a multi-strain probiotic formulation

(Bio-Kult®) in the management of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

Ishaque et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2018, 18:71:

Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Gastroenterology, Volume 153, Issue 2, August 2017, Pages 448-459.e8.

Does probiotic consumption reduce antibiotic utilization for common acute infections? A systematic review and meta-analysis 

European Journal of Public Health, cky185,

Published: 14 September 2018.

Qingqing Zhang, Yucheng Wu, Xiaoqiang Fei. Effect of probiotics on body weight and body-mass index: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trialsInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2016; 67 (5): 571 DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2016.1181156.

Elmira Akbari, Zatollah Asemi, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Gholam Ali Hamidi, Mahmoud Salami. Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Metabolic Status in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind and Controlled TrialFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2016; 8 DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2016.00256

Anna G. Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Fredrik Bäckhed, Mattias Lorentzon. Lactobacillus reuteri reduces bone loss in older women with low bone mineral density – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trialJournal of Internal Medicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1111/joim.12805.


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