A full online archive of references

November 2021

Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Results of the TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical TrialCirculation 2021, 144:1212–26, Sept 27. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055329.

Dental biofilm of symptomatic COVID-19 patients harbours SARS-CoV-2. J Clin Periodontol 2021 Jul;48(7):880-885. DOI: 10.1111/jcpe.13471.
Scrubbing Wipes to Dislodge Dental Biofilm Can Remove and Inactivate Viruses from Tooth Surface: Perspectives for Covid-19 Prevention. Biomedical J Scientific Technical Res 2021, July 28.
Mucosal Biofilms Are an Endoscopic Feature of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 2021, Oct;161(4):1245-1256.e20. Open Access. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.024.
Evidence of transmission from fully vaccinated individuals in a large outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Provincetown, Massachusetts. medRxiv 2021.10.20.21265137.
Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Results of the TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical TrialCirculation 2021, 144:1212–26, Sept 27. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055329.
Lactoferrin reduces the risk of respiratory tract infections: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Oct;45:26-32.  DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.08.019.
Aspirin Use is Associated with Decreased Mechanical Ventilation, ICU Admission, and In-Hospital Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2020; Published Ahead of Print DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005292.
The use of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is associated with a lower likelihood of COVID-19 infection. FEBS J 2021, 288: 5179-5189.

BEN BROWN – Atopic dermatitis

  1. Lee JH, Son SW, Cho SH. A Comprehensive Review of the Treatment of Atopic Eczema. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2016 May;8(3):181-90.
  2. Megna M, Napolitano M, Patruno C, et al. Systemic Treatment of Adult Atopic Dermatitis: A Review. Dermatol Ther  (Heidelb). 2016 Dec 26. doi: 10.1007/s13555-016-0170-1. [Epub ahead of print]
  3. Furue M, Chiba T, Tsuji G, et al.Atopic dermatitis: immune deviation, barrier dysfunction, IgE autoreactivity and  new therapies. Allergol Int. 2017 Jan 2. pii: S1323-8930(16)30171-X.
  4. Bieber T. Atopic dermatitis. Ann Dermatol. 2010 May;22(2):125-37.
  5. Werfel T, Allam JP, Biedermann T, et al. Cellular and molecular immunologic mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Aug;138(2):336-49.
  6. Chu H, Shin JU, Park CO, et al. Clinical Diversity of Atopic Dermatitis: A Review of 5,000 Patients at a Single Institute. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2017 Mar;9(2):158-168.
  7. Kim JE, Kim JS, Cho DH, Park HJ. Molecular Mechanisms of Cutaneous Inflammatory Disorder: Atopic Dermatitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jul 30;17(8).
  8. LeBovidge JS, Elverson W, Timmons KG, et al. Multidisciplinary interventions in the management of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Aug;138(2):325-34.
  9. Song H, Yoo Y, Hwang J, et al. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subspecies-level dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome underlying atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Mar;137(3):852-60
  10. Jyonouchi S, Brown-Whitehorn TA, Spergel JM. Association of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders with other atopic disorders. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2009 Feb;29(1):85-97
  11. Kim M, Choi KH, Hwang SW, Lee YB, Park HJ, Bae JM. Inflammatory bowel disease  is associated with an increased risk of inflammatory skin diseases: A population-based cross-sectional study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Jan;76(1):40-48.
  12. Orivuori L, Mustonen K, de Goffau MC, et al. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 May;45(5):928-39.
  13. Arisawa T, Arisawa S, Yokoi T, Kuroda M, Hirata I, Nakano H. Endoscopic and histological features of the large intestine in patients with atopic dermatitis.  J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Jan;40(1):24-30.
  14. Niwa Y, Sumi H, Akamatsu H. An association between ulcerative colitis and atopic dermatitis, diseases of impaired superficial barriers. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:999-1000
  15. Bischoff SC, Barbara G, Buurman W, Ockhuizen T, Schulzke JD, Serino M, Tilg H, Watson A, Wells JM. Intestinal permeability–a new target for disease prevention  and therapy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 18;14:189.
  16. Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A, Michaelsen KF. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;145(5):612-6.
  17. Iemoli E, Trabattoni D, Parisotto S, et al. Probiotics reduce gut microbial translocation and improve adult atopic dermatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;46 Suppl:S33-40.
  18. Darlenski R, Kazandjieva J, Hristakieva E, Fluhr JW. Atopic dermatitis as a systemic disease. Clin Dermatol. 2014 May-Jun;32(3):409-13.
  19. Thomsen SF. Epidemiology and natural history of atopic diseases. Eur Clin Respir J. 2015 Mar 24;2.
  20. Spergel JM. From atopic dermatitis to asthma: the atopic march. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105:99–106.
  21. Bieber T. Atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med 2008;358(14):1483–94
  22. Eyerich K, Huss-Marp J, Darsow U,et al. Pollen grains induce a rapid and biphasic eczematous immune response in atopic eczema patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145(3):213-23.
  23. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Feb;125(2  Suppl 2):S116-25.
  24. Auriemma M, Vianale G, Amerio P, Reale M. Cytokines and T cells in atopic dermatitis. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2013 Mar;24(1):37-44.
  25. Lucas RM, Gorman S, Geldenhuys S, et al. Vitamin D and immunity. F1000Prime Rep. 2014 Dec 1;6:118.
  26. van der Meulen TA, Harmsen H, Bootsma H, et al. The microbiome-systemic diseases connection. Oral Dis. 2016 Nov;22(8):719-734.
  27. Calder PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Apr;1851(4):469-84.
  28. Roesner LM, Werfel T, Heratizadeh A. The adaptive immune system in atopic dermatitis and implications on therapy. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016 Jul;12(7):787-96.
  29. Ji H, Li XK. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:2721469.
  30. Sivaranjani N, Rao SV, Rajeev G. Role of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in atopic dermatitis. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013 Dec;7(12):2683-5.
  31. Song S, Paek D, Park C, Lee C, Lee JH, Yu SD. Exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and urinary 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine in children with and without eczema. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Aug 1;458-460:408-13.
  32. Okayama Y. Oxidative stress in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005 Aug;4(4):517-9.
  33. Chang YS, Chiang BL. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Mar 29;17(4):462.
  34. Toyran M, Kaymak M, Vezir E, et al.  Trace element levels in children with atopic dermatitis. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22(5):341-4.
  35. Chung J, Kwon SO, Ahn H et al. Association between Dietary  Patterns and Atopic Dermatitis in Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms in Young Children. Nutrients. 2015 Nov 13;7(11):9440-52.
  36. Bengtsson A, Lundberg M, Avila-Cariño J, et al. Thiols decrease cytokine levels and down-regulate the expression of CD30 on human allergen-specific T helper (Th) 0 and Th2 cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001 Mar;123(3):350-60.
  37. Ahn K. The role of air pollutants in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Nov;134(5):993-9; discussion 1000.
  38. Kantor R, Kim A, Thyssen JP, Silverberg JI. Association of atopic dermatitis with smoking: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2016 Dec;75(6):1119-1125.
  39. Kim EH, Kim S, Lee JH, Kim J, Han Y, Kim YM, Kim GB, Jung K, Cheong HK, Ahn K. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 17;10(3):e0119501.
  40. Chang YS, Chou YT, Lee JH, et al. Atopic dermatitis, melatonin, and sleep disturbance. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):e397-405.
  41. Chang YS, Chiang BL. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Mar 29;17(4):462.
  42. Chang YS, Lin MH, Lee JH, et al. Melatonin Supplementation for Children With Atopic Dermatitis and Sleep Disturbance: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Jan;170(1):35-42.
  43. Senra MS, Wollenberg A. Psychodermatological aspects of atopic dermatitis. Br  J Dermatol. 2014 Jul;170 Suppl 1:38-43.
  44. Alexopoulos A, Chrousos GP. Stress-related skin disorders. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016 Sep;17(3):295-304.
  45. Buske-Kirschbaum A, Geiben A, Höllig H, et al. Altered  responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic adrenomedullary system to stress in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Sep;87(9):4245-51.
  46. Katta R, Schlichte M. Diet and dermatitis: food triggers. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014 Mar;7(3):30-6.
  47. Breuer K, Heratizadeh A, Wulf A, Baumann U, Constien A, Tetau D, Kapp A, Werfel T. Late eczematous reactions to food in children with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 May;34(5):817-24.
  48. Bath-Hextall F, Delamere FM, Williams HC. Dietary exclusions for established atopic eczema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005203.
  49. Lever R, MacDonald C, Waugh P, Aitchison T. Randomised controlled trial of advice on an egg exclusion diet in young children with atopic eczema and sensitivity to eggs. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1998 Feb;9(1):13-9.
  50. Norrman G, Tomicić S, Böttcher MF, Oldaeus G, Strömberg L, Fälth-magnusson K.  Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Oct;94(10):1384-8.
  51. Rokaite R, Labanauskas L, Balciūnaite S, Vaideliene L. Significance of dietotherapy on the clinical course of atopic dermatitis. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45(2):95-103.
  52. Hon KL, Poon TC, Pong NH, Wong YH, Leung SS, Chow CM, Leung TF. Specific IgG and IgA of common foods in Chinese children with eczema: friend or foe. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014 Dec;25(6):462-6.
  53. Worm M, Ehlers I, Sterry W, et al. Clinical relevance of food additives in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000 Mar;30(3):407-14
  54. Lee JM, Jin HJ, Noh G, Lee SS. Effect of processed foods on serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein among children with atopic dermatitis. Nutr Res Pract. 2011 Jun;5(3):224-9.
  55. Zauli D, Grassi A, Granito A, et al. Prevalence of silent coeliac disease in atopics. Dig Liver Dis. 2000 Dec;32(9):775-9.
  56. Ress K, Annus T, Putnik U, et al. Celiac disease in children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014 Jul-Aug;31(4):483-8.
  57. Ciacci C, Cavallaro R, Iovino P, et al. Allergy prevalence in adult celiac disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Jun;113(6):1199-203.
  58. Kim SH, Lee JH, Ly SY. Children with atopic dermatitis in Daejeon, Korea: individualized nutrition intervention for disease severity and nutritional status. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;25(4):716-728.
  59. Young MC. Elimination Diets in Eczema–A Cautionary Tale. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Mar-Apr;4(2):237-8.
  60. Kouda K, Tanaka T, Kouda M, Takeuchi H, Takeuchi A, Nakamura H, Takigawa M. Low-energy diet in atopic dermatitis patients: clinical findings and DNA damage.  J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2000 Sep;19(5):225-8.
  61. Tanaka T, Kouda K, Kotani M, Takeuchi A, Tabei T, Masamoto Y, Nakamura H, Takigawa M, Suemura M, Takeuchi H, Kouda M. Vegetarian diet ameliorates symptoms  of atopic dermatitis through reduction of the number of peripheral eosinophils and of PGE2 synthesis by monocytes. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2001 Nov;20(6):353-61.
  62. Nakamura H, Shimoji K, Kouda K, Tokunaga R, Takeuchi H. An adult with atopic dermatitis and repeated short-term fasting. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2003 Sep;22(5):237-40.
  63. Kim KS, Nam HJ. Detoxification combining fasting with fluid therapy for refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:561290.
  64. Betsi GI, Papadavid E, Falagas ME. Probiotics for the treatment or prevention of atopic dermatitis: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(2):93-103.
  65. Avershina E, Cabrera Rubio R, Lundgård K, Perez Martinez G, Collado MC, Storrø O, Øien T, Dotterud CK, Johnsen R, Rudi K. Effect of probiotics in prevention of  atopic dermatitis is dependent on the intrinsic microbiota at early infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Dec 5. pii: S0091-6749(16)31443-9.
  66. Panduru M, Panduru NM, Sălăvăstru CM, Tiplica GS. Probiotics and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Feb;29(2):232-42.
  67. Foolad N, Brezinski EA, Chase EP, Armstrong AW. Effect of nutrient supplementation on atopic dermatitis in children: a systematic review of probiotics, prebiotics, formula, and fatty acids. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Mar;149(3):350-5.
  68. Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Isolauri E. Probiotics during the first 7  years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Apr;119(4):1019-21
  69. Wickens K, Black P, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Crane J. A protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 against eczema in the first 2 years of life persists to age 4 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012Jul;42(7):1071-9.
  70. Kim JY, Kwon JH, Ahn SH, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Mar;21(2 Pt 2):e386-93.
  71. Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Sep;163(3):616-23.
  72. Gerasimov SV, Vasjuta VV, Myhovych OO, Bondarchuk LI. Probiotic supplement reduces atopic dermatitis in preschool children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(5):351-61.
  73. Fuchs-Tarlovsky V, Marquez-Barba MF, Sriram K. Probiotics in dermatologic practice. Nutrition. 2016 Mar;32(3):289-95.
  74. Kim SO, Ah YM, Yu YM, Choi KH, Shin WG, Lee JY. Effects of probiotics for the  treatment of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 Aug;113(2):217-26.
  75. Betsi GI, Papadavid E, Falagas ME. Probiotics for the treatment or prevention  of atopic dermatitis: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(2):93-103.
  76. Drago L, Iemoli E, Rodighiero V, Nicola L, De Vecchi E, Piconi S. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 (DSM 22775) treatment on adult atopic dermatitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2011 Oct-Dec;24(4):1037-48.
  77. Wang IJ, Wang JY. Children with atopic dermatitis show clinical improvement after Lactobacillus exposure. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Apr;45(4):779-87.
  78. Woo SI, Kim JY, Lee YJ, Kim NS, Hahn YS. Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010 Apr;104(4):343-8.
  79. Arslanoglu S, Moro GE, Schmitt J, et al. Early dietary intervention with a mixture of prebiotic oligosaccharides reduces the incidence of allergic manifestations and infections during the first two years of life. J Nutr. 2008;138(6):1091-1095.
  80. Shibata R, Kimura M, Takahashi H, Mikami K, Aiba Y, Takeda H, Koga Y. Clinical effects of kestose, a prebiotic oligosaccharide, on the treatment of atopic dermatitis in infants. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 Sep;39(9):1397-403.
  81. Morse NL, Clough PM. A meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of Efamol evening primrose oil in atopic eczema. Where do we go from here in light of more recent discoveries? Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2006 Dec;7(6):503-24.
  82. Horrobin DF. Essential fatty acid metabolism and its modification in atopic eczema. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):367S-72S.
  83. Simon D, Eng PA, Borelli S, Kägi R, Zimmermann C, Zahner C, Drewe J, Hess L, Ferrari G, Lautenschlager S, Wüthrich B, Schmid-Grendelmeier P. Gamma-linolenic acid levels correlate with clinical efficacy of evening primrose oil in patients  with atopic dermatitis. Adv Ther. 2014 Feb;31(2):180-8.
  84. Montserrat-de la Paz S, Marín-Aguilar F, García-Giménez MD, Fernández-Arche MA. Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical characterization of the unsaponifiable fraction. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 5;62(5):1105-10.
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  87. Senapati S, Banerjee S, Gangopadhyay DN. Evening primrose oil is effective in  atopic dermatitis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008 Sep-Oct;74(5):447-52.
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  106. Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A, Michaelsen KF. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;145(5):612-6
  107. Singer S, Koenekoop J, Meddings J, Powell J, Desroches A, Seidman EG. Pancreatic Enzyme Supplementation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies: An Open-Label Pilot Study. Paediatr Drugs. 2019 Feb;21(1):41-45. doi: 10.1007/s40272-018-0321-1. PMID: 30556101.
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  110. Evangelista MT, Abad-Casintahan F, Lopez-Villafuerte L. The effect of topical  virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Jan;53(1):100-8.
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GUT research update

Ruminiclostridium 5, Parabacteroides distasonis, and bile acid profile are modulated by prebiotic diet and associate with facilitated sleep/clock realignment after chronic disruption of rhythmsBrain, Behavior, and Immunity 2021, 97: 150. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.07.006.
T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase protects intestinal barrier function by restricting epithelial tight junction remodeling. J Clin Invest 2021 Sep 1;131(17):e138230. DOI: 10.1172/JCI138230.
Aberrant gut-microbiota-immune-brain axis development in premature neonates with brain damageCell Host & Microbe, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.004.
Genomic and functional characterization of a mucosal symbiont involved in early-stage colorectal cancerCell Host & Microbe 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.013.
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 Protects against Antibiotic-Induced Functional and Compositional Changes in Human Fecal MicrobiomeNutrients 2021; 13 (8): 2814 DOI: 10.3390/nu13082814.
Acetate enhances IgA. Nat Immunol 2021, 22, 1071.
Acetate differentially regulates IgA reactivity to commensal bacteriaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03727-5.
Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes. Nat Immunol 2017, May;18(5):552-562, doi: 10.1038/ni.3713.
Metabolite-based dietary supplementation in human type 1 diabetes is associated with microbiota and immune modulation. medRxiv 2021,.09.15.21263059; doi:
Bioaccumulation of therapeutic drugs by human gut bacteriaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03891-8.

LYME and BIOFILMS – Dr Marina Macdonald

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Bacterial Biofilm and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Disease. Antibiotics (Basel)  2020;9(2):59. DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9020059.
Effects of a Novel Probiotic Combination on Pathogenic Bacterial-Fungal Polymicrobial Biofilms
mBio 2019; DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00338-19.
Bacteriome and Mycobiome Interactions Underscore Microbial Dysbiosis in Familial Crohn’s Disease. mBio 2016, 7 (5):


Dietary DHA prevents cognitive impairment and inflammatory gene expression in aged male rats fed a diet enriched with refined carbohydratesBrain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2021; 98: 198 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.214.
An immunogenomic phenotype predicting behavioral treatment response: Toward precision psychiatry for mothers and children with trauma exposure. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2021, ISSN 0889-1591,
Phthalates and attributable mortality: A population-based longitudinal cohort study and cost analysis. Environmental Pollution 2021, 118021,

Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in the General Population. Circulation 2021, Sep 21;144(12):916-929. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055340.
Microbiota from young mice counteracts selective age-associated behavioral deficitsNature Aging, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s43587-021-00093-9.
Migraine improvement during short lasting ketogenesis: A proof-of-concept study. European Journal of Neurology 2014, 22. 10.1111/ene.12550.
Genetic Profile of Endotoxemia Reveals an Association With Thromboembolism and Stroke. Journal of the American Heart Association 2021; 0:e022482, Oct 20.
Nitric oxide controls proliferation of Leishmania major by inhibiting the recruitment of permissive host cells. Immunity 2021, ISSN 1074-7613, online Oct 22.
The effect of nitric-oxide-related supplements on human performance. Sports Med. 2012 Feb 1;42(2):99-117. DOI: 10.2165/11596860-000000000-00000.
Possible Involvement of Adipose Tissue in Patients With Older Age, Obesity, and Diabetes With Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) via GRP78 (BIP/HSPA5): Significance of Hyperinsulinemia Management in COVID-19. Diabetes  2021 (Oct), db201094.
Cold exposure protects from neuroinflammation through immunologic reprogramming.
Cell Metabolism 2021, October 22. DOI:
Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2014, 111(20):7379-7384, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322174111.
Efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet and its variations for preventing migraine in adolescents and adults: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 2021 Oct 19: nuab080. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuab080.

In Focus October 2021

Lissa Leader:

  1. Yousef, H., Alhajj, M., Sharma, S. ‘Anatomy, Skin (Integument), Epidermis’. [Updated 2020 Mar 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from:
  2. Salem, I., Ramser, A., Isham, N., and Ghannoum, MA (2018).’The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis’. Front. Microbiol. 9:1459. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01459
  3. Murphrey, MB., Miao, JH., Zito, PM. ‘Histology, Stratum Corneum’. [Updated 2021 May 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from:
  4. West, H. C., & Bennett, C. L. (2018). ‘Redefining the Role of Langerhans Cells as Immune Regulators Within the Skin’. Frontiers in immunology8, 1941.
  5. Wikramanayake, TC., Stojadinovic, O., and Marjana, TC (2014). ‘Epidermal Differentiation in Barrier Maintenance and Wound Healing’. Advances in Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2014 Mar 1; 3(3): 272–280. doi: 10.1089/wound.2013.0503
  6. Byrd, A., Belkaid, Y. & Segre, J. ‘The Human Skin Microbiome’. Nat Rev Microbiol 16, 143–155 (2018).
  7. Lee, SY., Lee, E., Park, YM., Hong, SJ. ‘Microbiome in the Gut-Skin Axis in Atopic Dermatitis’. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018; 10(4): 354-362. doi:10.4168/aair.2018.10.4.354
  8. Berger, A. ‘Th1 and Th2 Responses: What are They?’. BMJ. 2000; 321(7258): 424. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7258.424
  9. Rendon, A., Schäkel, K., ‘Psoriasis Pathogenesis and Treatment’. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6): 1475. Published 2019 Mar 23. doi:10.3390/ijms20061475
  10. Visser, MJE., Kell, DB., Pretorius, E., ‘Bacterial Dysbiosis and Translocation in Psoriasis Vulgaris’. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019; 9:7. Published 2019 Feb 4. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2019.00007
  11. Jäger, A., Kuchroo, VK. ‘Effector and Regulatory T-cell Subsets in Autoimmunity and Tissue Inflammation’. Scand J Immunol. 2010; 72(3): 173-184. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2010.02432.x
  12. Vaughn, AR., Notay, M., Clark, AK., Sivamani, RK. ‘Skin-Gut Axis: The Relationship Between Intestinal Bacteria and Skin Health’. World J Dermatol 2017; 6(4): 52-58
  13. Lambring, C. B., Siraj, S., Patel, K., Sankpal, U. T., Mathew, S., & Basha, R. (2019). ‘Impact of the Microbiome on the Immune System’. Critical reviews in immunology39(5), 313–328.
  14. Ellis SR, Nguyen M, Vaughn AR, et al. ‘The Skin and Gut Microbiome and its Role in Common Dermatologic Conditions’. Microorganisms 2019; 7(11): 550. Published 2019 Nov 11. doi:10.3390/microorganisms7110550 

Adrienne Benjamin:


2 Fonseca W, Lukacs NW & Ptaschinski C 2018. Factors Affecting the Immunity to Respriatory Syncytial Virus: From Epigenetics to Microbiome. Front Immunol (Feb 2018)

3 Lambert L et al 2014. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life. Front Immunol 5:466

4 Breton CV et al 2009. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure affects global and gene-specific DNA methylation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:462–7

5 Haberg SE et al 2009. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health. Arch Dis Child 94:180–4

6 Kristensen K et al (2015). Caesarean section and hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection: a population-based study. Pediatr Infect Dis J (2015) 34:145–8

7 Vissers M, de Groot R, & Ferwerda G (2014). Severe viral respiratory infections: are bugs bugging? Mucosal Immunol (2014) 7:227–38

8 Wiertsema SP 2021. The Interplay between the Gut Microbiome and the Immune System in the Context of Infectious Diseases throughout life and the Role of Nutrition in Optimizing Treatment Strategies. Nut 13;886

9 Aagaard K et al 2014 The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Sci Transl Med 6:237ra265

10 Rautava S et al 2012 Microbial contact during pregnancy, intestinal colonization and human disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Oct 9(10):565-76

1[1] Ker J & Hartert TV 2009. The atopic march: what’s the evidence? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 103:282–9.

12 Allen SJ et al 2014 Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 0:1-6

13 Kalliomäki M et al 2001. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357: 1076-1079

[1]4 Kim JY et al 2010 Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 21: e386-e393

[1]5 Enaud R et al 2020. The Gut-Lung Axis in Health and Respiratory Diseases: A Place for Inter-Organ and Inter-Kingdom Crosstalks. Front Cell Infect Microbiol

16 Madan JC et al 2012. Serial analysis of the gut and respiratory microbiome in cystic fibrosis in infancy: interaction between intestinal and respiratory tracts and impact of nutritional exposures. MBio 3, e00251–12

17 Gollwitzer ES et al 2014. Lung microbiota promotes tolerance to allergens in neonates via PD-L1. Nat. Med. 20, 642–647

18 Chiu L et al 2017. Protective microbiota: from localized to long-reaching co-immunity. Front. Immunol. 8:1678

[1]9 Ipci K et al 2017. The possible mechanisms of the human microbiome in allergic diseases. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 274, 617–626

20 Hauptmann M & Schaible UE 201). Linking microbiota and respiratory disease. FEBS Lett. 590, 3721–3738

21 Anand, S & Mande, SS 2018. Diet, microbiota and gut-lung connection. Front. Microbiol. 9:2147

22 De Filippo C et al 2010. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14691–14696

23 Garaiova I 2021. Probiotics with vitamin C for the prevention of upper respiratory tract symptoms in children aged 3-10 years: randomised controlled trial. Ben Microbes DOI 10.3920/BM2020.0185 

Gayathri Neault:

  1. Defining the Human Microbiome K Ursell, Jessica L Metcalf, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Rob Knight
  2. Gut Bacteria and mind control: to fix your brain, fix your gut!                                                                                                                                Professor Simon Carding, Norwich Medical School
  3. Current Understanding of Dysbiosis in Disease in Human and Animal Models Arianna K. DeGruttola, B.S., Daren Low, Ph.D.,  Atsushi Mizoguchi, M.D., Ph.D.,2 and Emiko Mizoguchi, M.D., Ph.D.
  4. Microbial syntrophy: interaction for the common good                                                                                                                     Brandon E. L. Morris, Ruth Henneberger, Harald Huber, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
  5. From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Bacterial Metabolites Ara Koh, Filipe De Vadder, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Fredrik Backhed
  6. Role of Normal Gut Microbiota Sai Manasa Jandhyala, Rupjyoti Talukdar, Chivkula Subramanyam, Harish Vuyyuru, Mitnala Sasikala and D Nageshwar Reddy
  7. Macronutrient metabolism by the human gut microbiome: major fermentation by-products and their impact on host health Kaitlyn Oliphant & Emma Allen-Vercoe
  8. Dysfunction of the Intestinal Microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease and treatment Xochitl C Morgan, Timothy L Tickle, Harry Sokol, Dirk Gevers, Kathryn L Devaney, Doyle V Ward, Joshua A Reyes, Samir A Shah, Neal LeLeiko, Scott B Snapper, Athos Bousvaros, Joshua Korzenik, Bruce E Sands, Ramnik J Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower
  9. Embracing the Gut Microbiota: the new frontier for inflammatory and infectious diseases                                                                           Lieke WJ van den Elsen,  Hazel C Poyntz,  Laura S Weyrich,  Wayne Young,  Elizabeth E Forbes-Blom
  10. The Immune Response to Prevotella bacteria in chronic inflammatory disease                                                                                Jeppe Madura Larsen
  11. The Structure and Function of the Human Small Intestinal Microbiota: Current Understanding and Future Directions                                                                                                                                                                                                     Arthur J Kastl Jr., Natalie A Terry, Gary D Wu, Lindsey G Albenberg
  12. The Duodenal Microbiome is altered in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
  13. Effects of Probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation Peera Hemarajata, James Versalovic

Samuel Peters:

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Lima, M. S., Ribeiro, P. P., Medeiros, J. M., Silva, I. F., Medeiros, A. C., & Dimenstein, R. (2012). Influence of postpartum supplementation with vitamin A on the levels of immunoglobulin A in human colostrum. Jornal de pediatria, 88(2), 115–118.

Mantis, N. J., Rol, N., & Corthésy, B. (2011). Secretory IgA’s Complex Roles in Immunity and Mucosal Homeostasis in the Gut. Mucosal Immunology, 4(6), 603.

Pabst, O., & Slack, E. (2019). IgA and the intestinal microbiota: the importance of being specific. Mucosal Immunology 2019 13:1, 13(1), 12–21.

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Phillips, L. K., & Horowitz, M. (2006). Stressful life events are associated with low secretion rates of immunoglobulin A in saliva in the middle aged and elderly. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 20(2), 191–197.

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Sirisinha, S. (2015). The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity. Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology, 33(2).

Sirisinha, S., Suskind, R., Edelman, L. R., Asvapaka, C., & Olson, R. E. (1975). Secretory and serum IgA in children with protein-calorie malnutrition. Pediatrics, 55(2), 166-170.

  • Dr Peter Koeppel
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Richard Stead:

¹ “Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Drives the Development of Colorectal Cancer”, Xiaoyan Fan, Yuelei Jin, Guang Chen, Xueqiang Ma, Lixia Zhang, Digestion 2021;102:508–515

² “Defining Dysbiosis for a Cluster of Chronic Diseases”, Lamont J. Wilkins, Manoj Monga & Aaron W. Miller, Scientific Reports Volume 9, Article number: 12918 (2019),

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Anne Catherine Færgemann:



































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Jordan Haworth:

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Andrew XXXX:




[1]             Ibid

[1]             Henderson, A.J.; Ollila, C.A.; Kumar, A.; Borresen, E.C.; Raina, K.; Agarwal, R.; Ryan, E.P. Chemopreventive properties of dietary rice bran: Current status and future prospects. Adv. Nutr. 2012, 3, 643–653.

[1]          Ghoneum, M. Enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by modified arabinoxylane from rice bran (MGN-3). Int. J. Immunother. 1998, 14, 89–99.

[1]          Ghoneum, M.; Brown, J. NK Immunorestoration and cancer patients by MGN-3, a modified aracbynoxylan rice bran (Study of 32 patients followed for up to 4 years). In Anti-Aging Medical Therapeutics Vol III; Klatz, R.M., Goldman, R., Eds.; Health Quest Publications: Marina del Rey, CA, USA, 1999; Chapter 30; pp. 217–226.

[1]          Ghoneum, M.; Agrawal, S. MGN-3 enhances generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells via upregulation of DEC-205 expression on dendritic cells. Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 2014, 27, 523–530.

[1]          Lissoni, P.; Messina, G.; Brivio, F.; Fumagalli, L.; Rovelli, F.; Maruelli, L.; Miceli, M.; Marchiori, P.; Porro, G.; Held, M.; et al. Modulation of the anticancer immunity by natural agents: Inhibition of T regulatory lymphocyte generation by arabinoxylan in patients with locally limited or metastatic solid tumors. Cancer Ther. 2008, 6, 1011–1016.

[1]          Ghoneum, M. From bench to bedside: The growing use of arabinoxylan rice bran in cancer immunotherapy. Austin Immunol. 2016, 1, 1006.

[1]          Ichihashi, K. Experience with administration of BioBran in patients with chronic rheumatism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004, 14, 459–463

[1]          Noaman, E.; Badr El-Din, N.K.; Bibars, M.A.; Abou Mossallam, A.A.; Ghoneum, M. Antioxidant potential by arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3, represents a mechanism for its oncostatic effect against murine solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2008, 268, 348–359.

[1]          Zhu, X.; Okubo, A.; Igari, N.; Ninomiya, K.; Egashira, Y. Modified rice bran hemicellulose inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in vitro via VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling pathways. Biosci. Microbiota Food Health 2017, 36, 45–53.

[1]          Hong, S. Development of immunostimulation materials from rice bran. Food Ind. Nutr. 2005, 10, 42–47.

[1]          The summary of MGM-3. In MGN-3 (Rice Bran Arabinoxylan Compound): Basic and Clinical Application to Integrative Medicine, 2nd ed.; BioBran Research Foundation: Tokyo, Japan, 2013; Chapter I-1; pp. 3–8.

[1]          Ghoneum  M,  Brown  J.  NK  immunorestoration  of  cancer  patients  by  MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan rice bran (study of 32 patients followed for up to 4 years). Watson RR, Preedy V, Zibadi S. In: Wheat and rice in disease prevention  and  health.  Anti-aging  medical  therapeutics.  Vol.  III.  Klatz  R, Goldman R. 1999; 217-226.

[1]          14. Ghoneum M. Immunostimulation and cancer prevention. 7th Int Congress on Anti-aging and Biomedical Technologies. December 11th-13th; Las Vegas, NV USA. 1999.

[1]          Effect of Long-term Administration of Immunomodulatory Food on Cancer Patients Completing Conventional Treatments. Hiroshi Tsunekawa, Tsunekawa Gastrointestinal Clinic, published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy Vol. 14/No.3.

[1]          Oral administration of hydrolyzed rice bran prevents the common cold syndrome in the elderly based on its immunomodulatory action. H. Maeda, K. lchihashi, T. Fujii, K. Omura, X. Zhu, M. Anazawa and K. Tazawa. BioFactors 21 (2004) 185-187

[1]          Arabinoxylan rice bran suppresses the viremia level in patients with chronic HCV infection: A randomized trial. Hosny Salama, Eman Medhat, Magda Shaheen, Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Tarneem Darwish and Mamdooh Ghoneum. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 1-7, 2016

[1]          Controlled pilot study for cancer patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome due to chemotherapy treated with BioBran (MGN-3- Arabinoxylane) and targeted radiofrequency heat therapy. Gabriel Petrovics, Gyula Szigeti, Szilárd Hamvas, Ágnes Máté, József Betlehem, Gabriella Hegyi. European Journal of Integrative Medicine,(607) 2016

[1]          The Effect of a Hydrolyzed Polysaccharide Dietary Supplement on Biomarkers in Adults with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. John E. Lewis , Steven E. Atlas, Oscar L. Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Olga Kromo, Laura A. Lantigua, Eduard Tiozzo , Judi M. Woolger, Sharon Goldberg, Armando Mendez , Allan E. Rodriguez, and Janet Konefal. Hindawi: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 1751583. 2018

October 2021


Cholesterol jabs:

An appeal for an objective, open, and transparent scientific debate about the origin of SARS-CoV-2. The Lancet 2021, September 17:


“Good for you, good for us, good for everybody A plan to reduce overprescribing to make patient care better and safer, support the NHS, and reduce carbon emissions”. Department of Health and Social Care. September 22, 2021:

Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Gut 2021. Published Online First: 06 September, doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325353.

A randomized controlled trial of pharmacist-led therapeutic carbohydrate and energy restriction in type 2 diabetes. Nat Commun 202, 12, 5367.

Language extinction triggers the loss of unique medicinal knowledge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  2021, 118 (24) e2103683118;

The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemicThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2021; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab270.

Gary Taubes quotes from “How a ‘fatally, tragically flawed’ paradigm has derailed the science of obesity”. STAT, Sept 13, 2021:

An observational and Mendelian randomisation study on vitamin D and COVID-19 risk in UK Biobank. Scientific Reports 2021, 11, 18262:

COVID data
PHE data reported in the Evening Standard, August 20:

Melatonin multifaceted pharmacological actions on melatonin receptors converging to abrogate COVID-19. J Pineal Res 2021, Aug; 71(1):e12732. DOI: 10.1111/jpi.12732.

Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and DiseaseNew England Journal of Medicine 2019; 381 (26): 2541 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1905136.
Time-restricted eating for the prevention and management of metabolic diseasesEndocrine Reviews, 2021; DOI: 10.1210/endrev/bnab027.


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Associations between wildfire smoke exposure during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth in CaliforniaEnvironmental Research, 2021; 111872 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111872

Photosynthetically Controlled Spirulina, but Not Solar Spirulina, Inhibits TNF-α Secretion: Potential Implications for COVID-19-Related Cytokine Storm Therapy.
Mar Biotechnol 2021, Feb;23(1):149-155; doi: 10.1007/s10126-021-10020-z. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Prospective options of algae-derived nutraceuticals as supplements to combat COVID-19 and human coronavirus diseases. Nutrition 2021 Mar;83:111089; doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.111089. Free online at

The Nutritional Efficacy of Chlorella Supplementation Depends on the Individual Gut Environment: A Randomised Control Study. Front Nutr 2021, 8, 270:

INFLAMMATION – Metagenics Institute

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Time to assume that health research is fraudulent until proven otherwise?
BMJ 2021, July 5.

“Broken Science. What happens when cancer doctors, psychologists, and drug developers can’t rely on each other’s research?” February 2016:

HARKing: hypothesizing after the results are known. Pers Soc Psychol Rev 1998, 2(3):196-217, doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0203_4.

Power and sample size. Methods Mol Biol 2007;404:377-408, doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-530-5_19.

“Most Scientific Findings Are Wrong or Useless. Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing”. August 2016:

“Saving Science”, by Prof Daniel Sarewitz:

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PLoS Medicine 2005:
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Offline: What is medicine’s 5 sigma? The Lancet 2015, 385, 9976, p1380April 11:  

“Reproducibility and reliability of biomedical research: improving research practice”. British Academy of Medical Sciences symposium report, October 2015:

“Landmark research integrity survey finds questionable practices are surprisingly common”, by Jop de Vrieze. Science July 7, 2021:

Prevalence of Research Misconduct and Questionable Research Practices: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sci Eng Ethics 2021, 27, 41:

Hundreds of thousands of zombie randomised trials circulate among us. Anaesthesia 2021, 76, 444–447: doi:10.1111/anae.15297.

Research Misconduct Policy in Biomedicine. Beyond the Bad-Apple Approach. By Prof Barbara K. Redman. (The MIT Press, 2013.)


Dysregulation of ILC3s unleashes progression and immunotherapy resistance in colon cancer. Cell 2021, August 17, doi:

Reinforcement learning links spontaneous cortical dopamine impulses to rewardCurrent Biology, 2021; doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.06.069.

The effectiveness and safety of isometric resistance training for adults with high blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysisHypertension Research, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41440-021-00720-3.

Impacts of deficiency in vitamin D derivatives on disease severity in adult bronchial asthma patients. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 18:102073. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102073.

Nucleus Type-Specific DNA Methylomics Reveals Epigenetic ‘Memory’ of Prior Adaptation in Skeletal MuscleFunction, 2021; doi: 10.1093/function/zqab038.

Vitamin C and scar strength: analysis of a historical trial and implications for collagen-related pathologies American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021, doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab262.

Time for nutrition in medical education. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020;; doi: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000049.

Increased risk of heart failure is associated with chronic habitual hypohydration that elevates serum sodium above 142 mmol/l suggesting lifelong optimal hydration as preventive measure. ESC Congress:
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Microbial Diversity and Abundance of Parabacteroides Mediate the Associations Between Higher Intake of Flavonoid-Rich Foods and Lower Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2021; DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17441.

Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Journal of the American Heart Association 2021;10:e020551.

Sex- and age-dependent outcomes of 9-hour time-restricted feeding of a Western high-fat high-sucrose diet in C57BL/6J mice. Cell Reports, 2021; 36 (7): 109543 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109543.








August 2021


Time to assume that health research is fraudulent until proven otherwise? BMJ 2021, July 5.

“Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption”, by Marcia Angell. The New York Review, January 15, 2009:

The knowledge system underpinning healthcare is not fit for purpose and must change. BMJ 2015; 350 doi:

Peer review: a flawed process at the heart of science and journals. J R Soc Med 2006 Apr; 99(4): 178–182. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.99.4.178

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PloS Medicine 2005:

Prevalence of questionable research practices, research misconduct and their potential explanatory factors: a survey among academic researchers in The Netherlands. MetaArXiv 2021, July 6. doi:10.31222/


K.Vita: a feasibility study of a blend of medium chain triglycerides to manage drug-resistant epilepsy. Brain Communications 2021, fcab160,

Rapid resolution of COVID-19 after faecal microbiota transplantation. Gut Published Online First: 06 July 2021. Doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325010.

Using an erythrocyte fatty acid fingerprint to predict risk of all-cause mortality: the Framingham Offspring CohortThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2021; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab195.

Evaluating microbiome-directed fibre snacks in gnotobiotic mice and humans. Nature 595, 91–95 (2021).

Characterizing long COVID in an international cohort: 7 months of symptoms and their impactEClinicalMedicine, 2021; 101019 DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101019.

SPMs: Disrupted Resolution Mechanisms Favor Altered Phagocyte Responses in Covid-19. Circulation Research

The Women’s Study for the Alleviation of Vasomotor Symptoms (WAVS), Menopause  2021, July 12, doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001812.

Vitamin K2 Holds Promise for Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment. Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2206;

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Environ Health 2021, 20, 84.



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CALM Study

 A modified Mediterranean dietary intervention for adults with major depression: Dietary protocol and feasibility data from the SMILES trialNutritional Neuroscience 2018, 21:7, 487-501. DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1312841.

Men and women
Sex differences in specific aspects of two animal tests of anxiety-like behavior
Psychopharmacology, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s00213-021-05893-w.



  1. Moltke J and Hindocha C (2021)

[5] Zuardi et al (1993).

[6] Bergamashi M et al (2011)

[7] Jadoon et al (2017)

[8] De Faria et al (2020)



[11] Geneva CANNABIDIOL (CBD) . n.d. Critical Review Report Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting

Dr Elisabeth Phillipps

  1. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J 2019, 23: 18-041.
  2. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series. J Clin Pharm Ther 2014, 39:564-566.
    3. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surg Neurol Int. 2018; 9: 91.

Gut microbiome heritability is nearly universal but environmentally contingentScience 2021. DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5483.

Immunoglobulin A–specific deficiency induces spontaneous inflammation specifically in the ileumGut, 2021; gutjnl-2020-322873 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322873.

Royal jelly enhances antigen-specific mucosal IgA response. Food Science and Nutrition 2013.

The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides. Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 500;

Cocoa and cocoa fibre differentially modulate IgA and IgM production at mucosal sitesBritish Journal of Nutrition 2016, 115(9), 1539-1546. DOI:10.1017/S000711451600074X.

Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates sIgA production and the phagocytic system of gnotobiotic mice. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2000, 89(3):404-14. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01128.x.

Caloric restriction disrupts the microbiota and colonization resistance. Nature 2021, 595, 272–277.

Hepatoenteric recycling is a new disposition mechanism for orally administered phenolic drugs and phytochemicals in rats. eLife 2021, 10:e58820 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.58820.

EMILY BLAKE – SIgA and immune resilience:

  1. Wang QQ, Xu R, Volkow ND. Increased risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality in people with mental disorders: analysis from electronic health records in the United States. World Psychiatry [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 21]; Available from:
  2. Russell MW, Moldoveanu Z, Ogra PL, Mestecky J. Mucosal Immunity in COVID-19: A Neglected but Critical Aspect of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Front Immunol [Internet]. 2020 Nov 30 [cited 2021 Jan 25];11:3221. Available from:
  3. Geerlings SY, Kostopoulos I, Vos WM De, Belzer C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract : When , Where , and How ? Microrganisms. 2018;6(75):1–26.
  4. Chairatana P, Nolan EM. Defensins, lectins, mucins, and secretory immunoglobulin A: microbe-binding biomolecules that contribute to mucosal immunity in the human gut [Internet]. Vol. 52, Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Taylor and Francis Ltd; 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. p. 45–56. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5233583/?report=abstract
  5. Mantis NJ, Rol N, Corthésy B. Secretory IgA’s complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 Nov;4(6):603–11.
  6. Corthésy B. Multi-faceted functions of secretory IgA at mucosal surfaces. Vol. 4, Frontiers in Immunology. Frontiers; 2013. p. 185.
  7. Nakajima A, Vogelzang A, Maruya M, Miyajima M, Murata M, Son A, et al. IgA regulates the composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota by promoting symbiosis between bacteria. J Exp Med [Internet]. 2018 Sep 1 [cited 2021 Jan 19];215(8):2019–34. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC6080902/?report=abstract
  8. Zocco MA, Ainora ME, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in the gut: Molecular aspects of their interaction. 2007;
  9. Engeland CG, Hugo FN, Hilgert JB, Nascimento GG, Junges R, Lim HJ, et al. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity. Brain Behav Immun [Internet]. 2016 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Jan 25];52:11–7. Available from:
  10. Campos-Rodríguez R, Godínez-Victoria M, Abarca-Rojano E, Pacheco-Yépez J, Reyna-Garfias H, Barbosa-Cabrera RE, et al. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A [Internet]. Vol. 7, Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. Frontiers Media SA; 2013 [cited 2021 Jan 25]. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3845795/?report=abstract
  11. Segerstrom SC, Miller GE. Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull [Internet]. 2004 Jul [cited 2020 Dec 21];130(4):601–30. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC1361287/?report=abstract
  12. Geerlings S, Kostopoulos I, de Vos W, Belzer C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: When, Where, and How? Microorganisms [Internet]. 2018;6(3):75. Available from:
  13. Tailford LE, Crost EH, Kavanaugh D, Juge N. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome. Front Genet. 2015 Mar 19;5(FEB):81.
  14. Sirisinha S. The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2015;33(2):71–8.
  15. Ohashi W, Fukada T. Contribution of Zinc and Zinc Transporters in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2019 [cited 2020 Mar 20]; Available from:
  16. Maataoui SB, Maataoui RB, Almesrar B, Hilali S. ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF PRICKLY PEAR (OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA) CLADODES EXTRACTS. Int J Adv Res [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 7];6(11):498–506. Available from:
  17. Bishehsari F, Magno E, Swanson G, Desai V, Voigt RM, Forsyth CB, et al. Alcohol and gut-derived inflammation. Alcohol Res Curr Rev [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Dec 21];38(2):e-1-e-9. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5513683/?report=abstract
  18. Volstatova T, Marchica A, Hroncova Z, Bernardi R, Doskocil I, Havlik J. Effects of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on mucin expression and secretion in the Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell model. Food Sci Nutr [Internet]. 2019 Feb 1 [cited 2020 Mar 4];7(2):492–8. Available from:
  19. Corfield AP. The Interaction of the Gut Microbiota with the Mucus Barrier in Health and Disease in Human. Microorganisms. 2018;6(3):78.
  20. Macfarlane GT, Steed H, Macfarlane S. Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104(2):305–44.
  21. Anhê FF, Pilon G, Roy D, Desjardins Y, Levy E, Marette A. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols: A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome? Gut Microbes [Internet]. 2016;7(2):146–53. Available from:
  22. Shang Q, Song G, Zhang M, Shi J, Xu C, Hao J, et al. Dietary fucoidan improves metabolic syndrome in association with increased Akkermansia population in the gut microbiota of high-fat diet-fed mice. J Funct Foods. 2017 Jan 1;28:138–46.
  23. Qamar A, Aboudola S, Warny M, Michetti P, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates intestinal immunoglobulin a immune response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in mice. Infect Immun [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2020 Dec 21];69(4):2762–5. Available from:
  24. McFarland L V. Systematic review and meta-analysis of saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients [Internet]. Vol. 16, World Journal of Gastroenterology. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. p. 2202–22. Available from:
  25. Menchetti L, Traina G, Tomasello G, Casagrande-Proietti P, Leonardi L, Barbato O, et al. Potential benefits of colostrum in gastrointestinal diseases. Front Biosci. 2016;8:331–51.
  26. Główka N, Woźniewicz M. Potential use of Colostrum Bovinum supplementation in athletes – A review. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2019 Jul 1;18(2):115–23.
  27. Head K, Kelly G. Nutrients and Botanicals for Treatment of Stress: Adrenal Fatigue, Neurotra…: EBSCOhost. Altern Med Rev [Internet]. 2009;14(2):114–40. Available from:


Bacteroides-dominant gut microbiome of late infancy is associated with enhanced neurodevelopment. Gut Microbes 2021, 13: 1.
Dietary alteration of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for headache reduction in adults with migraine: randomized controlled trialBMJ, July 1, 2021; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n1448.

Quantitative mapping of human hair greying and reversal in relation to life stresseLife, 2021; 10 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.67437.

Enterically derived high-density lipoprotein restrains liver injury through the portal veinScience, 2021; 373 (6553): eabe6729 DOI: 10.1126/science.abe6729.

Maternal cecal microbiota transfer rescues early-life antibiotic-induced enhancement of type 1 diabetes in miceCell Host & Microbe, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.06.014.

Distribution of dietary protein intake in daily meals influences skeletal muscle hypertrophy via the muscle clockCell Reports, 2021; 36 (1): 109336 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109336.

CBD and oral ulcers: Xingying Qi, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, presented the findings  – Cannabidiol Promotes Oral Ulcer Healing by Inactivating CMPK2-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome – at the virtual 99th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) and the 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), on July 21-24, 2021.


Food Supplements Consumer Research, 2018 report for the FSA:

July 2021


“6 ways the FDA’s approval of Aduhelm does more harm than good”, by Prof Sam Gandy, June 15, 2021.


Using an erythrocyte fatty acid fingerprint to predict risk of all-cause mortality: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021,

Blood omega-3 fatty acids and death from COVID-19: A pilot study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Mar;166:102250, doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2021.102250.

What COVID-19 is doing to the heart, even after recovery. September 3, 2020.

Obesity and the pandemic: And Mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes: early international evidence, April 12, 2020.

COVID Infection Fatality Rates:

Associations between body-mass index and COVID-19 severity in 6·9 million people in England: a prospective, community-based, cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol  2021 Jun; 9(6):350-359. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00089-9. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Covid-19: Highest death rates seen in countries with most overweight populations. BMJ 2021, 372, doi: (Published 04 March 2021).

A Time Frame for Testing Negative for SARS-COV2 in People with Obesity. Obes Facts 2020, 13:528-533. DOI: 10.1159/000511738.

Exhaled aerosol increases with COVID-19 infection, age, and obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021, Feb,118 (8) e2021830118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021830118.

Are face masks effective? The evidence.

Influenza and obesity: its odd relationship and the lessons for COVID-19 pandemic. Acta Diabetol 2020, Jun;57(6):759-764. DOI: 10.1007/s00592-020-01522-8.

Swiss Policy Research:
Observational Study on 255 Mechanically Ventilated Covid Patients at the Beginning of the USA Pandemic. (Pre-print, not peer-reviewed). MedRxiv 2021.05.28.21258012. DOI:

Treatment with Zinc is Associated with Reduced In-Hospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study. Res Sq [Preprint] 2020, Oct DOI: 10.21203/  


Substituting Cannabidiol for Opioids and Pain Medications Among Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Large Online SurveyThe Journal of Pain 2021.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2021.04.011.

Generation of systemic antitumour immunity via the in situ modulation of the gut microbiome by an orally administered inulin gel. Nature Biomedical Engineering 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41551-021-00749-2.

Short-Term Western Diet Intake Promotes IL-23‒Mediated Skin and Joint Inflammation Accompanied by Changes to the Gut Microbiota in MiceJournal of Investigative Dermatology 2021; 141 (7): 1780 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2020.11.032.

Clinical impact of a pharmacist + health coach chronic disease management program in a rural free clinic. J Am Pharm Assoc 2021; doi:

Echinacea reduces antibiotic usage in children through respiratory tract infection prevention: a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 2021, 26, 33:

Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010, 340:c2096:  doi:10.1136/bmj.c2096.

Hericium erinaceus and Coriolus versicolor Modulate Molecular and Biochemical Changes after Traumatic Brain Injury. Antioxidants 2021;10:898.

  1. Vogel:

Ogal M et al. Echinacea reduces antibiotic usage in children through respiratory tract infection prevention: a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res. 2021; 26: 33 www.

Ridge KW , Hand K , Sharland M , et al. Infections and the rise of antimicrobial resistance. London: Department of Health, 2011

Public Health England. English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance report, 2016

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prescribing of antibiotics for self-limiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care (Clinical Guideline 69). 2008.

Little P , Stuart B , Hobbs FD , et al. Antibiotic prescription strategies for acute sore throat: a prospective observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2014;14:2139. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70294-9

Spinks A , Glasziou PP , Del Mar CB. Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;139:CD000023.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000023.pub4

Kenealy T , Arroll B. Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;4:CD000247.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000247.pub3

Costelloe C , Metcalfe C , Lovering A , et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;340:c2096.doi:10.1136/bmj.c2096

Tobler M, et al: Characteristics of whole fresh plant extracts. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitMedizin,1994.


Resveratrol trial:

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  2. Toledo, F. G. S. and B. H. Goodpaster [October 2013].  The role of weight loss and exercise in correcting skeletal muscle mitochondrial abnormalities in obesity, diabetes and aging. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, V. 379, Issues  1-2, pp. 30-34.
  3. Salehi, B. et al. [September 2019]. Resveratrol: A Double-Edged Sword in Health Benefits. Biomedicines, V. 6, № 3, p. 91. Retrieved November 29, 2020 from:
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Evaluation of Thiamine as Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19 Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter Propensity Score Matched Study. In Review at Critical Care 2021, June. DOI: 10.21203/

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Prospective Biomarkers from Plasma Metabolomics of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Implicate Redox Imbalance in Disease Symptomatology. Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 90;

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June 2021


mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2018, 17, 261–279.


Association of Loneliness and Wisdom With Gut Microbial Diversity and Composition: An Exploratory StudyFrontiers in Psychiatry, 2021; 12. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.648475.

Potential reversal of epigenetic age using a diet and lifestyle intervention: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Aging (Albany NY) 2021, Apr 12;13(7):9419-9432. DOI: 10.18632/aging.202913.

High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Inflammatory Capacity and Incident Cardiovascular EventsCirculation, 2021. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050808.

“Up to 8,700 patients died after catching Covid in English hospitals”. By Denis Campbell and Anna Bawden. The Guardian, May 24, 2021.

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humansNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4.

Prevalence of Immunosuppressive Drug Use Among Commercially Insured US Adults, 2018-2019JAMA Network Open, 2021; 4 (5): e214920 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4920.

β-sitosterol reduces anxiety and synergizes with established anxiolytic drugs in miceCell Reports Medicine, 2021; 2 (5): 100281 DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100281.


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Daily probiotic use is associated with a reduced rate of upper respiratory tract symptoms in overweight and obese people. DDW 2021; Abstract 739.

Probiotics reduce self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in overweight and obese adults: Should we be considering probiotics during viral pandemics? Gut Microbes 2021,

A randomised controlled study shows supplementation of overweight and obese adults with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduces bodyweight and improves well-being.
Scientific Reports 2020; 10(1): 4183.

Potential beneficial role of probiotics on the outcome of COVID-19 patients: An evolving perspective. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021,15(1):295-301, doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.12.040.


Colonization of the Caenorhabditis elegans gut with human enteric bacterial pathogens leads to proteostasis disruption that is rescued by butyratePLOS Pathogens, 2021; 17 (5): e1009510 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009510.

Whole-genome sequencing analysis of semi-supercentenarianseLife, 2021; 10 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.57849.

Pericardial Fat and the Risk of Heart FailureJournal of the American College of Cardiology, 2021; 77 (21): 2638 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.003.




May 2021


High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequalae of COVID-19. Nature 2021, April 22.

Avoiding the Coming Tsunami of Common, Chronic Disease: What the Lessons of the COVID-19 Pandemic Can Teach Us. Circulation 2021, April 6. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053461.

A guideline to limit indoor airborne transmission of COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021, Apr 27, 118 (17) e2018995118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018995118.


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Disruption of the blood−brain barrier in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Brain 2021.  DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab055.

Study presented virtually at ENDO 2021, Washington, DC, March 20, 2021:
Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 InfectionThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, Oct 27, 106, 3, e1343–e1353,

Post-covid syndrome in individuals admitted to hospital with covid-19: retrospective cohort study. Brit Med J 2021, March 31, 372:n693, doi:

Maternal DHA supplementation influences sex-specific disruption of placental gene expression following early prenatal stressBiology of Sex Differences, 2021; 12 (1). DOI: 10.1186/s13293-020-00356-x.

Disordered eating in a population‐based sample of young adults during the COVID‐19 outbreakInternational Journal of Eating Disorders, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/eat.23505.

Aluminium and Tau in Neurofibrillary Tangles in Familial Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, 2021; 5 (1): 283 DOI: 10.3233/ADR-210011.

Nutrition in Crisis
Higher consumption of red and processed meat is associated with adverse cardiovascular magnetic resonance morpho-functional phenotypes: A study of 19,408 UK Biobank participants. Presented April 15 at ESC Preventive Cardiology 2021, an online scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Effect of varying quantities of lean beef as part of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern on lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa375.

Betaine ameliorates schizophrenic traits by functionally compensating for KIF3-based CRMP2 transportCell Reports 2021; 35 (2): 108971. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108971.

Ultraviolet A Radiation and COVID‐19 Deaths in the USA with replication studies in England and ItalyBritish Journal of Dermatology 2021, Apr 8. DOI: 10.1111/bjd.20093.

Postprandial glycaemic dips predict appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals. Nat Metab (2021). 

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Musculoskeletal involvement of COVID-19: review of imagingSkeletal Radiology, Feb. 18, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s00256-021-03734-7.

Pathogenic, glycolytic PD-1 B cells accumulate in the hypoxic RA jointJCI Insight, 2020; 5 (21) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.139032.

The Influence of Specific Bioactive Collagen Peptides on Knee Joint Discomfort in Young Physically Active Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, Feb 5;13(2):523,  doi: 10.3390/nu13020523.

Vegan Diet and Bone Health—Results from the Cross-Sectional RBVD Study. Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 685;

Partial Replacement of Animal Proteins with Plant Proteins for 12 Weeks Accelerates Bone Turnover Among Healthy Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Nutrition 2021, 151, Jan, 11–19,

Stabilization of Damaged Articular Cartilage with Hydrogel‐Mediated Reinforcement and SealingAdvanced Healthcare Materials, 2021; 2100315 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202100315.

Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan; 105(1): 136–143, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138594.

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Oral Administration of Polymer Hyaluronic Acid Alleviates Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study over a 12-Month Period. Scientific World Journal 2012; 2012: 167928. .


Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women. Science 2021, April 22, eabe9985. DOI: 10.1126/science.abe9985.

Potential Role of Vitamin B6 in Ameliorating the Severity of COVID-19 and Its Complications. Front Nutr., 29 October 2020 |

Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression. N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1402-1411. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032994.

High-throughput fitness screening and transcriptomics identify a role for a type IV secretion system in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease-associated Escherichia coliNature Communications 2021; 12 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-22306-w.

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Sulfoquinovose is a select nutrient of prominent bacteria and a source of hydrogen sulfide in the human gutThe ISME Journal, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41396-021-00968-0.

Dietary cocoa ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and increases markers of antioxidant response and mitochondrial biogenesis in high fat-fed miceThe Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2021; 92: 108618 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108618.


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Rationale of Probiotic Supplementation during Pregnancy and Neonatal Period. Nutrients 2018, Nov 6;10(11):1693,  doi: 10.3390/nu10111693. 

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Botanical Medicines Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Artemisia annua, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Alchornea cordifolia Demonstrate Inhibitory Activity Against Babesia duncani. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol 2021, March 8:

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Trends in fall‐related mortality and fall risk increasing drugs among older individuals in the United States,1999–2017Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/pds.5201.

Debaryomyces is enriched in Crohn’s disease intestinal tissue and impairs healing in mice. Science 2021, March 12, 1154-1159. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd0919.



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Ames and Williams:
Supplements and Tuning Up Metabolism, Bruce N. Ames, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 11, November 2004:
A theory of evolutionary allocation of scarce micronutrients by enzyme triage: adequate micronutrient nutrition to delay the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006; 103:17589–17594.


Obesity and Brain Vulnerability in Normal and Abnormal Aging: A Multimodal MRI Study’.  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports 2021, 1 Jan. 65–77:
Integrated analysis of behavioral, epigenetic, and gut microbiome analyses in AppNL-G-FAppNL-F, and wild type mice. Scientific Reports 2021, 11, 4678:
Cannabidiol Ameliorates Cognitive Function via Regulation of IL-33 and TREM2 Upregulation in a Murine Model of Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2021; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-210026.
Cognitive Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis 2021, 80(1):233-244. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-201100.

Hippocampal transcriptome-wide association study and neurobiological pathway analysis for Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS Genet 2021, 17(2): e1009363.

Bredesen ingredients:
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2. UCLA study, released at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, held Nov. 8–12, 2003, in New Orleans, LA, used positron-emission tomography (PET) and found that for subjects taking gingko biloba, improved recall correlated with better brain function in key brain memory centres.
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6. Evidence on the Health Benefits of Supplemental Propolis. Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2705;
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Higher airborne pollen concentrations correlated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates, as evidenced from 31 countries across the globeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021; 118 (12): e2019034118 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019034118.

Has the Prevalence of Peanut Allergy Changed Following Earlier Introduction of Peanut? The EarlyNuts StudyJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2021; 147 (2): AB236 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.009.

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One-Year Aerobic Exercise Reduced Carotid Arterial Stiffness and Increased Cerebral Blood Flow in Amnestic Mild Cognitive ImpairmentJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2021, 80 (2): 475-492.

Identification of bacteria-derived HLA-bound peptides in melanomaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03368-8

Paper Notebooks vs. Mobile Devices: Brain Activation Differences During Memory RetrievalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2021; 15 DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2021.634158.

Differential Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue Following Weight Loss Induced by Diet or Bariatric SurgeryThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2021; DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab072.

Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on the gut microbiota in extremely preterm infants in a randomized placebo-controlled trialCell Reports Medicine, 2021; 100206 DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100206.

Green tea extracts containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulate facial development in Down syndrome. Scientific Reports 2021, 114715:




March 2021


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MEA Statement: NHS England Guidance on the Management of Post-Covid Fatigue Syndromes.


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SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System. Stroke 2020;51:2002–2011.

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Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(2):e210369. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369.

Daily Mail, February 13, 2021:

Therapeutic 8 g/day of vitamin C increases recovery rate from SARS-CoV-2 infection by 71% (P = 0.036) based on the randomized trial by Thomas et al. (2021). Prof Harri Hemilä comment:

Vitamin C review article: Vitamin C – An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients 2020, Dec 7;12(12):3760, doi: 10.3390/nu12123760.

EGCG binds intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of p53 and disrupts p53-MDM2 interactionNature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21258-5.

An Antioxidant Enzyme Therapeutic for COVID‐19Advanced Materials, 2020; 2004901 DOI: 10.1002/adma.202004901.

Dietary table grape protects against UV photodamage in humans: 1. clinical evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2021. Doi:

Effects of an Antioxidant-enriched Multivitamin in Cystic Fibrosis. A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial.  American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2018, Sept 1, Vol 198, Issue 5, .


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Citrus Polyphenols in Brain Health and Disease: Current Perspectives. Front Neurosci.,19 February 2021,

Vitamin C and Covid-19.  Front. Med 2021, 18 January 2021 |

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 serology levels in pregnant women and their neonates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.016

Fructose reprogrammes glutamine-dependent oxidative metabolism to support LPS-induced inflammation. Nature Communications 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21461-4.

Air pollution exposure is linked with methylation of immunoregulatory genes, altered immune cell profiles, and increased blood pressure in children. Scientific Reports 2021; 11 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-83577-3.

The one-carbon pool controls mitochondrial energy metabolism via complex I and iron-sulfur clusters. Science Advances 2021; 7 (8): eabf0717 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf0717.

Food anaphylaxis in the United Kingdom: analysis of national data, 1998-2018. BMJ 2021; n251 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n251.

Rural-urban differences in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Web (February 24, 2021).


The Long Haul of COVID-19 Recovery: Immune Rejuvenation versus Immune Support. Integrative Medicine 2020, 19, 6, December.

February 2021


State of the Nation – SIMON MARTIN WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer – aka The Global Cancer Observatory.
Every two minutes someone in the UK is diagnosed with cancer:

Delineating the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with cancer and cancer services. Health Data Research UK, May 13, 2020.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer deaths due to delays in diagnosis in England, UK: a national, population-based, modelling study. The Lancet Oncology 2020, Open Access, July 20. DOI:

UK incidence of cancer:

Diabetes in the UK: 2019. Diabet Med 2020, Jan 4, 37, 242–7:

 “Around three-quarters of people aged 45-74 in England are overweight or obese”: (

NHS England 2020:

“Air pollution a cause in girl’s death, coroner rules in landmark case”. Sandra Laville, The Guardian, Dec 16 2020.

Heart disease:

Long Term Conditions Compendium of Information: Third Edition, Department of Health, 2012, quoted in

The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort. BMC Med 2019, 17, 145:,or%20another%20longstanding%20respiratory%20illness.


Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Ann. Intensive Care 2021, 11, 5:

Characterizing Long COVID in an International Cohort: 7 Months of Symptoms and Their Impact. medRxiv 2020, doi:


BEN BROWN – COVID and resilience

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Zwickey: Covid-19: What We Know Now About Spread, Shedding Period, Symptoms, and Effects of Pollen,  a follow-up interview with Heather Zwickey, PhD. Natural Medicine Journal, April 2020 Vol. 12 Issue 4.

GI symptoms in Chinese patients: Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study.

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Disease: Implications for the Gastroenterologist. Digestive Diseases 2020:

Involvement of digestive system in COVID-19: manifestations, pathology, management and challenges. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020; 13: doi: 10.1177/1756284820934626.


UV-LED disinfection of Coronavirus: Wavelength effectJournal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2020, 212: 112044 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.112044.

Triptolide targets super-enhancer networks in pancreatic cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblastsOncogenesis 2020, 9 (11). DOI: 10.1038/s41389-020-00285-9.

Targeting CD38-dependent NAD+ metabolism to mitigate multiple organ fibrosisiScience 2021; 24 (1): 101902 DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101902.

Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal painNature 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03118-2.

Effect of green-Mediterranean diet on intrahepatic fat: the DIRECT PLUS randomised controlled trial. Gut, 2021. Published online first: 18 January. Open Access, doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323106.

The Effect of Wolffia globosa Mankai, a Green Aquatic Plant, on Postprandial Glycemic Response: A Randomized Crossover Controlled TrialDiabetes Care, 2019; 42 (7): 1162 DOI: 10.2337/dc18-2319.

Circulating mitochondrial DNA is an early indicator of severe illness and mortality from COVID-19JCI Insight 2021. DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.143299.

January 2021


Diverse Functional Autoantibodies in Patients with COVID-19.

medRxiv 2020.12.10.20247205; doi:
Pre-print, not peer-reviewed.

Prothrombotic autoantibodies in serum from patients hospitalized with COVID-19Science Translational Medicine, Nov. 2, 2020; DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd3876.

Antimalarial Drug Shortages During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from the Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey. Research presented at ACR Convergence 2020, the American College of Rheumatology’s annual meeting.

Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19.

Science, 2020 Oct 23, 370, Issue 6515, eabd4585. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4585.

Effect of gut microbiota on depressive-like behaviors in mice is mediated by the endocannabinoid systemNat Commun 2020, 11, 6363.

Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19. Nature 2020, Dec 11:

Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of Stevia Extract, Stevioside, Rebaudioside A and Their Aglycon Steviol. Molecules 2020, 25, 5480:

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) lowers sugar-induced postprandial glycaemia independently and in a product with fermented quinoa: A randomised crossover trialBritish Journal of Nutrition 2020, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S0007114520004468.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES CohortThe Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2020; 33 (6): 842. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200110.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES CohortThe Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2020; 33 (6): 842. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200110.

Reversal of the Pathophysiological Responses to Gram-Negative Sepsis by Megadose Vitamin C. Critical Care Medicine 2020, Nov 25, Online First, doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004770.

Dried urine and salivary profiling for complete assessment of cortisol and cortisol metabolites. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology 2020, 22, 100243.


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Coronosomnia – UC Davis

The acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on insomnia and psychological symptoms. Sleep Med 202, S1389-9457(20)30261-6. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2020.06.005.

D, K, COVID and heart disease: Dr TRYGVE BERGELAND
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Worldwide Prevalence and Burden of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Results of Rome Foundation Global Study. Gastroenterology 2020 Apr 12; S0016-5085(20)30487-X.

Association between Brachyspira and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

Gut 2020, Online First: 11 November. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321466.  

Controlled Delivery of Bile Acids to the Colon. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology 2020, December, 11: 12, e00229. DOI: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000229.

Allergy-Related Diseases During Childhood And Risk Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome at 16 Years: a Swedish Birth Cohort Study. Presented at UEG Week Virtual 2020. Related: The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Epidemiology 2014:; Epidemiology and burden of chronic constipation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology.2011:

Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled multi-centre study to assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Enterosgel® in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) in adults. Trials 2020, 21, 122:


β-Carotene Oxygenase 1 Activity Modulates Circulating Cholesterol Concentrations in Mice and Humans. Journal of Nutrition 2020, 150: 8, 2023–30:

β-carotene conversion to vitamin A delays atherosclerosis progression by decreasing hepatic lipid secretion in mice.  Journal of Lipid Research 2020, 61(11):1491-1503. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.RA120001066.

Therapeutic responses to Roseomonas mucosa in atopic dermatitis may involve lipid-mediated TNF-related epithelial repair. Science Translational Medicine 2020. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz8631.

Exercise training reveals micro-RNAs associated with improved cardiac function and electrophysiology in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarctionJournal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 2020; 148: 106 DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.08.015.

Effects of a Fat-Rich Diet on the Spontaneous Release of Acetylcholine in the Neuromuscular Junction of MiceNutrients 2020, 12, 3216. Published online 2020 Oct 21. doi: 10.3390/nu12103216.

December 2020


Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Bruce N. Ames.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2006, 103 (47) 17589-17594; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0608757103.


“Dame Sally Davies: obesity scourge led to 50,000 Covid death toll”. The Times, Nov 15, 2020:

Higher egg consumption associated with increased risk of diabetes in Chinese adults – China Health and Nutrition SurveyBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520003955.

Metabolic Profiling of High Egg Consumption and the Associated Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle‐Aged Finnish MenMolecular Nutrition & Food Research  2018; 1800605 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201800605.

Prof Richard Feinman: Nutrition in Crisis: Flawed Studies, Misleading Advice and the Real Science of Human Metabolism, (Chelsea Green Publishing, 2019).

“The Problem with Epidemiological Studies”, by Georgia Ede, MD. Online at her diagnosis:Diet website:

Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2020. dgaa733,

Upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection might help to reduce COVID-19 transmission in buildings: a feasibility studyPeerJ, 2020; 8: e10196 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10196

Dietary flavanols improve cerebral cortical oxygenation and cognition in healthy adultsScientific Reports, 2020; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76160-9.

Structure and function of virion RNA polymerase of a crAss-like phage, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2921-5 ,

Alterations in the Intestinal Morphology, Gut Microbiota, and Trace Mineral Status Following Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Seed Extracts. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3020.

Distinct Fecal and Plasma Metabolites in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Modulation after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

mSphere Oct 2020, 5 (5) e00314-20; DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00314-20

Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Lipopolysaccharide as Mediators Between Gut Dysbiosis and Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2020,  78, 2, 683-697.

Prebiotic Xylo-Oligosaccharides Ameliorate High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Rats. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3225.


Frontline Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance:

Low level of Vitamin C and dysregulation of Vitamin C transporter might be involved in the severity of COVID-19 InfectionAging and Disease, 2020; DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0918.

Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery
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Lymphopenia predicts disease severity of COVID-19: a descriptive and predictive study. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 2020, 5, Article number: 33.  

Broadly-targeted autoreactivity is common in severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Preprint, medRxiv 2020, ID: ppmedrxiv-20216192.

Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides on the Adult Gut Microbiota and Barrier Function. 
Nutrients. 2020

November 2020


Aspirin Use is Associated with Decreased Mechanical Ventilation, ICU Admission, and In-Hospital Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Anesthesia & Analgesia: October 21, 2020 – Ahead of Print.


How menaquinone-7 deficiency influences mortality and morbidity among COVID-19 patients. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 2020, 15 Sep, 29:101792. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2020.101792.  

Reduced Vitamin K Status as A Potentially Modifiable Prognostic Risk Factor in COVID-19. Preprints 2020, 2020040457, doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0457.v1.

Lower nocturnal blood glucose response to a potato-based mixed evening meal compared to rice in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Nutrition 2020, doi:

Vitamin C and vitamin C plus E improve the immune function in the elderly.

Experimental Gerontology 2020, 111118,

Global, regional, and national burden of ischaemic heart disease and its attributable risk factors, 1990-2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2020, doi:10.1093/ehjqcco/qcaa076.

2GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2019, 393:1958-1972.

Data shows the average age of death from coronavirus is 82.4 years.  David Rose. Daily Mail, 8 October 2020.

Stats are from the continuingly updated website of The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine of the University Oxford, that includes contributions from Prof Carl Heneghan and Dr Jason Oke, Senior Statistician at the Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences.,

Disorders of human coenzyme q10 metabolism: An overview. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020, 21(18): 6695:

Older age and frailty are the chief predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to an acute medical unit in a secondary care setting- a cohort study
BMC Geriatrics 2020, 10-16. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-01803-5.

Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75-year olds: opportunities for successful ageing. BMC Geriatr 20, 96 (2020).

Is there scope for a novel mycelium category of proteins alongside animals and plants? Foods 2020, 9(9): 1151:


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Faecal microbiota transplantation from mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits sleep disturbances in naïve mice. Experimental Neurology 2020, 334, 113439:

Sleep fragmentation increases blood pressure and is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and fecal metabolome in ratsPhysiological Genomics 2020,  52 (7): 280. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00039.2020.

Mucosal or systemic microbiota exposures shape the B cell repertoireNature, 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2564-6.

Associations of equol‐producing status with white matter lesion and amyloid‐β deposition in cognitively normal elderly JapaneseAlzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 2020. DOI: 10.1002/trc2.12089.

Circadian Host-Microbiome Interactions in Immunity. Front Immunol 2020 Aug 14;11:1783. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01783.


Additive effects of green tea and coffee on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes RegistryBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 2020; 8 (1): e001252 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001252.

An Antioxidant Enzyme Therapeutic for COVID‐19Advanced Materials, 2020; 2004901 DOI: 10.1002/adma.202004901.

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Pro-Homeostatic Lipid Mediators in Ocular Hypertension – A Human Experimental ModelJ. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2979.
Supplementing Glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) in Ageing HIV Patients Improves Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Inflammation, Endothelial Dysfunction, Insulin Resistance, Genotoxicity, Strength, and Cognition: Results of an Open-Label Clinical TrialBiomedicines 20208, 390.


Nuclear receptor REVERBα is a state-dependent regulator of liver energy metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2020, Oct, 117 (41) 25869-25879.

Optimization of antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities and ganoderic acid content of differentially dried Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry 2021, 335, 127645:

Understand variability of COVID-19 through population and tissue variations in expression of SARS-CoV-2 host genesInformatics in Medicine Unlocked, Oct. 12, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.imu.2020.100443.

Urbanization and market integration have strong, nonlinear effects on cardiometabolic health in the TurkanaScience Advances 2020; 6 (43): eabb1430 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb1430.

InFocus - Immune Health, Nov 2020


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October 2020

Effect of Omega-3 Dosage on Cardiovascular Outcomes
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.08.034.

British Heart Foundation: › files › medical-information-sheet.

British Dietetic Association:


BBC: Fish oil supplements for a healthy heart ‘nonsense’ – BBC News

Trans-ethnic analysis reveals genetic and non-genetic associations with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. medRxiv 2020, 09.04.20188318; PREPRINT. doi:

Zinc supplementation affects favorably the frequency of migraine attacks: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J 2020, 19, 101:

Effects of fermented human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota and barrier function in adults. Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2808; DOI: 10.3390/nu12092808

Paul Bastard et al. Auto-antibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19Science, Sept. 24, 2010; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4585

Qian Zhang et al. Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19Science, Sept. 24, 2020; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4570

Andrographis-mediated chemosensitization through activation of ferroptosis and suppression of β-catenin/Wnt-signaling pathways in colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis, 2020, bgaa090,


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Histamine & Nutrigenomics

Comas-Basté O, Sánchez-Pérez S, Veciana-Nogués MT, Latorre-Moratalla M, Vidal-Carou MDC. Histamine Intolerance: The Current State of the Art. Biomolecules. 2020;10(8):1181. Published 2020 Aug 14. doi:10.3390/biom10081181

Mlcek J, Jurikova T, Skrovankova S, Sochor J. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response. Molecules. 2016;21(5):623. Published 2016 May 12. doi:10.3390/molecules21050623

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Hormones & Histamine

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Foer D, Buchheit KM. Presentation and natural history of progestogen hypersensitivity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019;122(2):156-159. doi:10.1016/j.anai.2018.10.023

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 A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin stormeLife, 2020; 9 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.59177.

SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. PLoS ONE 2020, 15(9): e0239252:

A randomized controlled study of weighted chain blankets for insomnia in psychiatric disordersJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2020; 16 (9): 1567 DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.8636.

Curcumin Can Decrease Tissue Inflammation and the Severity of HSV-2 Infection in the Female Reproductive MucosaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020; 21 (1): 337 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21010337.

Fecal microbiota transplantation from mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits sleep disturbances in naïve miceExperimental Neurology, 2020; 334: 113439 DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113439.

September 2020




Chinese restaurant:,at%20its%20entrance%20this%20week.

COVID deaths per million, August 24:

Obesity and vaccine response:

Research summary for Prof Melinda Beck, who has a new paper in process:  


The Effect of a Multivitamin and Mineral Supplement on Immune Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled TrialNutrients, 2020; 12 (8): 2447 DOI: 10.3390/nu12082447


Revealing the targets and mechanisms of vitamin A in the treatment of COVID-19. Aging 2020; 12:15784-15796.

COVID-19 pandemic and admission rates for and management of acute coronary syndromes in England. Lancet 2020,  396, 10248, P381-389, August 8:

Excess Cardiac Arrest in the Community During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions 2020, 13 (16), 1968–9:

Eggs: buried in the new guidelines available at

Antibiotic use and the development of inflammatory bowel disease: a national case-control study in SwedenThe Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30267-3.

Metabolic Syndrome and Viral Pathogenesis: Lessons from Influenza and CoronavirusesJournal of Virology, 2020; DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00665-20.

Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2020; 17 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9.

 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term (R)-α-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Promotes Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults without Altering Baseline Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations.The Journal of Nutrition, 2020, nxaa203,


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Air pollution and asthma

Air pollution and family related determinants of asthma onset and persistent wheezing in children: nationwide case-control studyBMJ, 2020; m2791 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m2791.


In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa  Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Preprints 2020, 2020040315.

Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNACannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2020; DOI: 10.1089/can.2020.0043.

The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychopharmacology 2020, first published online August 7.

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Drug-Drug InteractionsMedical Cannabis and Cannabinoids 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1159/000507998.


  1. Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and diseaseMol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52(7):780-788. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200700075.
  2. Mitochondria in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.Immunity. 2015;42(3):406-417. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.02.002.
  3. Role of mitochondria in steroidogenesis.Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26(6):771-790. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2012.05.002.
  4. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death: Potential TherapeuticsAnnu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017;57:437-454. doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010716-105001.
  5. Metabolic features and regulation of the healing cycle – a new model for chronic disease pathogenesis and treatmentMitochondrion. 2019;46:278-297. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2018.08.001.
  6. Metabolic features of the cell danger response. Mitochondrion 2014, 16, May, 7-17.
7. HIF1-α-mediated gene expression induced by vitamin B1 deficiencyInt J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(3):188-197. doi:10.1024/0300-9831/a000159.

  1. “Oxygenation, Nutrition and Cancer”, by Derrick Lonsdale MD, FACN, CNS:

  1. Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(1):52-57. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328332f9b7,
  2. Changes in Plasma Acylcarnitine and Lysophosphatidylcholine Levels Following a High-Fructose Diet: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in Healthy WomenNutrients. 2018;10(9):1254, doi:10.3390/nu10091254.
  3. Mechanisms of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(3):465-472. doi:10.1139/H09-045
  4. Exercise Modifies the Gut Microbiota with Positive Health Effects.

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017, ID 3831972:


Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with extensive abdominal aortic calcification in elderly women: a cross-sectional studyBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520002706.

Trajectories of childhood adversity and mortality in early adulthood: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet, 2020; 396 (10249): 489 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30621-8.

Influence of cinnamon on glycaemic control in subjects with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Endocrine Society 2020, publishd online July 212. DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa094.

Gut Microbiota in T1DM-Onset Pediatric Patients: Machine Learning Algorithms to Classify Microganisms Disease-Linked. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, published online July 21:

Resolution Response – Dr BARRY SEARS

Dietary Technologies to Optimize Healing from Injury-Induced Inflammation. Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 2020, 19, 1-12. Open Access available at

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August 2020


Do vitamin D supplements help prevent respiratory tract infections?

BMJ 2017; 356 doi:


Brain delivery of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. EBio Medicine 2020, Open Access, publishe July 17. DOI:

Women’s Health in the UK – Dietary and Health Challenges across the Life Cycle with a Focus on Micronutrients. J Virol Mycol 2020, 4: 118. DOI: 10.29011/2688-8750.100018.

Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID‑19 (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2020, 46, 17-26.

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

medRxiv 2020, pre-print, 05.02.20080036; doi:

Influence of cinnamon on glycaemic control in subjects with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Endocrine Society 2020, publishd online July 212. DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa094.

Gut Microbiota in T1DM-Onset Pediatric Patients: Machine Learning Algorithms to Classify Microganisms Disease-Linked. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, published online July 21:

Investigating Ketone Bodies as Immunometabolic Countermeasures Against Respiratory Viral Infections. Med 2020.


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Lustig: additional material from SIMON MARTIN

Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2011;4(3):146-162. DOI : 10.2174/1874473711104030146.

Hyper‐Palatable Foods: Development of a Quantitative Definition and Application to the US Food System Database. Obesity 2019; 27 (11): 1761. DOI: 10.1002/oby.22639.

Why it can be hard to stop eating even when you’re full: Some foods may be designed that way”, by Tera Fazzino and Kaitlyn Rohde. The Conversation, December 6, 2019:



  1. An Oral Formulation of the Probiotic, Bacillus subtilisHU58, was Safe and Well Tolerated in a Pilot Study of Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy. Sayed Yossef et al. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020, 1463108:
  2. Probiotic Bacillus Spores Protect Against Acetaminophen Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats. Neag, et al. Nutrients 2020, Mar; 12(3): 632. DOI: 10.3390/nu12030632.
  3. “A synbiotic concept containing spore-forming Bacillusstrains and a prebiotic fiber blend consistently enhanced metabolic activity by modulation of the gut microbiome in vitro.”Duysburgh, Cindy et al. International journal of pharmaceutics: X, vol. 1 100021. 6 Jul. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.ijpx.2019.100021.


MtcB, a member of the MttB superfamily from the human gut acetogen Eubacterium limosum, is a cobalamin-dependent carnitine demethylase. Duncan J. Kountz et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2020; jbc.RA120.012934.  DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.012934.

High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel DiseaseCell Host & Microbe 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.001.

Standard gastroenterologist versus multidisciplinary treatment for functional gastrointestinal disorders (MANTRA): an open-label, single-centre, randomised controlled trial.  The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2020, July 14, 2020DOI:

The small intestine shields the liver from fructose-induced steatosis. Nat Metab 2020, 2, 586–93:

Fitness trade-offs incurred by ovary-to-gut steroid signalling in DrosophilaNature 2020, July 8. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2462-y.



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  2. Effects of blackcurrant extract on arterial functions in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.Takanobu Okamoto et al. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2020, 42:7, 640-647, DOI: 10.1080/10641963.2020.1764015.
  3. Why So Many People with Diabetes Stop Taking Metformin”:


The Gut Microbiota in Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study. Cell Metabolism 2020, online July 10:


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Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19Nat Med 26, 1017–1032 (2020).

Food & mood: a review of supplementary prebiotic and probiotic interventions in the treatment of anxiety and depression in adults. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020, bmjnph-2019-000053. DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000053.

Oxytocin reverses Aβ-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in miceBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2020, 528 (1): 174 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.046.

Antiviral and virucidal effects of curcumin on transmissible gastroenteritis virus in vitro. Journal of General Virology 2020; DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001466.

Evidence for improved systemic and local vascular function after long‐term passive static stretching training of the musculoskeletal system. J Physiol 2020: doi:10.1113/JP279866.

Effects of 4- and 6-h Time-Restricted Feeding on Weight and Cardiometabolic Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with ObesityCell Metabolism, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.018

Avocado (Persea americana) pulp improves cardiovascular and autonomic recovery following submaximal running: a crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Sci Rep 10, 10703 (2020).

July 2020


Estimated Inactivation of Coronaviruses by Solar Radiation With Special Reference to COVID‐19. Jose‐Luis Sagripanti and C. David Lytle. Accepted for publication in Photochemistry and Photobiology 2020:


Obesity and covid-19: the role of the food industry. Tan M, He FJ, MacGregor GA. BMJ 2020, 369, Editorial. DOI: June 10.

Air Pollution as a Contributor to the Inflammatory Activity of Multiple Sclerosis/ Andrea Cortese, Luca Lova, Patrizia Comoli et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020, PREPRINT May 11. DOI: 10.21203/

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote astrocyte differentiation and neurotrophin production independent of cAMP in patient-derived neural stem cells. Jiang-Zhou Yu et al. Molecular Psychiatry 2020, DOI: 10.1038/s41380-020-0786-5.

Randomized Trial of Lactin-V to Prevent Recurrence of Bacterial Vaginosis. Craig R. Cohen et al. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1906-1915. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1915254.

Do arsenic levels in rice pose a health risk to the UK population? Manoj Menon et al. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2020, 197, 110601.

Between-centre differences for COVID-19 ICU mortality from early data in England. Zhaozhi Qian et al. Accepted for publication in Intensive Care Medicine. Preprint:

Prone Positioning in Awake, Nonintubated Patients With COVID-19 Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Alison E. Thompson et al.  JAMA Intern Med 2020; doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3030.  

COVID and blood type:

Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals. Robbiani DF et al. Nature 2020.

“The end of exponential growth: The decline in the spread of coronavirus”, by Isaac Ben-Israel. The Times of Israel, April 19 , 2020:

Hydrocortisone, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine (HAT Therapy) for the Treatment of Sepsis. Focus on Ascorbic Acid. Paul E Marik. Nutrients 2018, Nov 14;10(11):1762.

DOI: 10.3390/nu10111762


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  30. Cohen J, Wei Z, Phang J, Laprairie RB, Zhang Y. Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;37(1):28-34.
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Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis – back to the future? Bowe WP, Logan AC. Gut Pathog.2011 Jan 31;3(1):1. Free online at

The effect on the skin of emotional and nervous statestheoretical and practical consideration of a gastro-intestinal mechanism. Stokes J, Pillsbury D. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1930;22(6):962–993. doi:10.1001/archderm.1930.01440180008002.


Hookworm Treatment for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis. Radu Tanasescu et al. JAMA Neurology 2020; DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1118

Patient genetics is linked to chronic wound microbiome composition and healing. Craig D. Tipton et al. PLOS Pathogens, 2020; 16 (6): e1008511 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008511

The Neurobiology of Social Distance, Danilo Bzdok, Robin I.M. Dunbar.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2020:

Vitamin K status, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A participant-level meta-analysis of 3 US cohorts. Shea, MK et al.  Am J Clin Nutr 2020.

Daily listening to Mozart reduces seizures in individuals with epilepsy: A randomized control study. Marjan Rafiee et al. Epilepsia Open, 2020; 5 (2): 285 DOI: 10.1002/epi4.12400.

Copper(II)-binding equilibria in human blood. Kirsipuu, T., Zadorožnaja, A., Smirnova, J. et al. Sci Rep 2020, 10, 5686.

A dual effect of ursolic acid to the treatment of multiple sclerosis through both immunomodulation and direct remyelination. Yuan Zhang et al.

PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000208117, 2020.

Chromatin Priming Renders T Cell Tolerance-Associated Genes Sensitive to Activation below the Signaling Threshold for Immune Response Genes. Sarah L. Bevington et al. Cell Reports 2020; 31 (10): 107748 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107748.

A neurotransmitter produced by gut bacteria modulates host sensory behaviour. Michael P. O’Donnell et al. Nature, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2395-5.

June 2020


“More is less and less is more? Breaking the cycle of polypharmacy with deprescribing”, by Dr Henry J. Woodford is Chair of the British Geriatric Society’s Medicine Optimisation SIG. January 21 2020:  

 “Reflections on the COVID-19 Pandemic”, by Dr Jeff Bland, PhD:


The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients. Ali Daneshkhah et al. medRxiv 2020, posted April 30. 2020:

Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Michael F. Holick et al. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2011, Volume 96, Issue 7, 1 July, 1911-30:

Persistent organic pollutant exposure and coeliac disease: a pilot study. Abigail Gaylord et al. Environmental Research 2020; 109439.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109439.

Niacin Cures Systemic NAD Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metabolism 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008.

C9orf72 suppresses systemic and neural inflammation induced by gut bacteria.  Nature 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2288-7.

In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Wang B et al. Preprints 2020, 2020040315. DOI: 10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1. Pre-print manuscript, not peer-reviewed.

Ketogenic Diets Alter the Gut Microbiome Resulting in Decreased Intestinal Th17 Cells. Qi Yan Ang et al. Cell 2020, May 20: DOI:

Association of social relationships with incident cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Gronewold J, Kropp R, Lehmann N et al. EAN Virtual Congress 2020. 


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Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk

Sheldon Cohen et al. PNAS 2012, April 2:  


Gut microbiota may underlie the predisposition of healthy individuals to COVID-19. Wanglong Gou et al. Pre-print: not peer-reviewed. medRxiv 2020.04.22.20076091; doi:

Gut Microbes Could Predict How Seriously Ill A Covid-19 Patient Might Get, Preliminary Study Suggests. By Kashmira Gander. April 28, 2020.

Genetic and metabolic links between the murine microbiome and memory. Jian-Hua Mao et al. Microbiome 2020, 8 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-020-00817-w.

Microbiota-induced type I interferons instruct a poised basal state of dendritic cells. Schaupp L et al. Cell 2020 May 6. doi:

Prof Glenn Gibson:

Can probiotics and prebiotics go viral? Prof Glenn Gibson.

March 18, 2020.

Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial.
De Vrese M et al. Clin Nutr 2005 Aug;24(4):481-91. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

Probiotics for Preventing Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Qiukui Hao et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015, Feb 3;(2):CD006895,  doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub3.

2019 Novel coronavirus infection and gastrointestinal tract. Qin Yan Gao et al. J Digestive Diseases 2020, First published:25 February 2020.

“Can bacteria help humans fight COVID-19?” Gregor Reid,

Professor, Western University and Lawson Institute. Nature Research Microbiology March 17, 2020:

“Coronavirus: Australian scientists map how immune system fights virus”.

March 17 2020:


Effects of blackcurrant extract on arterial functions in older adults: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Okamoto T et al. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2020, May 12: DOI: 10.1080/10641963.2020.1764015.

Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant on Blood Pressure, Cognitive Function and Functional Performance in Older Adults. Cook MD et al. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics 2020, online Jan 6. DOI:


Circulating plasma concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in men and women with heart failure and effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone inhibitors. Adriaan A Voors et al. European Heart Journal, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa373.

Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: novel biomarker in heart failure with implications for COVID-19. Marc A Pfeffer, Gavin Y Oudit. European Heart Journal, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa414.

Euro Heart J special issue:

Sugar‐Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the California Teachers Study. Lorena S. Pacheco et al. Journal of the American Heart Association 2020: DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014883.

Reductive Stress Causes Pathological Cardiac Remodeling and Diastolic Dysfunction. Gobinath Shanmugam et al. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2020:  DOI: 10.1089/ars.2019.7808.

The Mediterranean diet, plasma metabolome, and cardiovascular disease risk Liming Liang et al.  European Heart Journal 2020. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa209.


“Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials”. Carine Dion et al. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016; 13: 28. DOI: 10.1186/s12986-016-0086-x.

“Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers”. Udani JK et al. Nutr J. 2010, Aug 26;9:32. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-32.

Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents. Ryu D et al. Nat Med. 2016;22(8):879‐888. DOI:10.1038/nm.4132


Synergistic effect of fasting-mimicking diet and vitamin C against KRAS mutated cancers. Maira Di Tano et al. Nature Communications, 2020; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16243-3.

Glutathione Restricts Serine Metabolism to Preserve Regulatory T Cell FunctionCell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (5): 920 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.03.004.

Effect of yoga as add-on therapy in migraine (CONTAIN)Neurology, 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009473 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009473

Effect of Acupuncture for Postprandial Distress Syndrome: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020, May 12.

Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in miceScience, 2020; 368 (6491): 620 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8899.

Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring CohortThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa079.

Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study on the nutritional efficacy of a food for special medical purposes (FSMP) and a dietary supplement in reducing the symptoms of veisalgia. Bernhard Lieb, Patrick Schmitt.  BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020. DOI:

May 2020

Quote of the Month

“On Covid-19, a Respected Science Watchdog Raises Eyebrows”, by Michael Schulson, April 24:
COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California.

Eran Bendavid et al. medRxiv 2020.04.14.20062463 (pre-print). DOI:

Also see report at

Self‐reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in Covid‐19.

Carol H. Yan et al. Allergy & Rhinology 2020, April 24:


Digestion of Intact Gluten Proteins by Bifidobacterium Species: Reduction of Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Responses. Natália Ellen Castilho de Almeida et al.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2020, 68, 15, 4485-92. March 20, 2020DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01421.

COVID-19, pneumonia & inflammasomes – the melatonin connection. Doris Loh. March 14, 2020.

Vitamin D on Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 (COVITD-19):

Vitamin D deficiency in Spain. Reality or myth? Navarro Valverde C, Quesada Gómez JM. Rev Osteoporos Metab Miner 2014; 6 (1) suplemento: 5-10.

Zinc in Infection and Inflammation. Gammoh NZ, Rink L. Nutrients. 2017 Jun 17;9(6). pii: E624. doi: 10.3390/nu9060624.

Is Quercetin a Safer Alternative to Hydroxychloroquine?

“Absolutely not”: Press Association, April 3, 2020

New analysis recommends less reliance on ventilators to treat coronavirus patients. Sharon Begley.

Respiratory Support in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Patients, with a Focus on Resource-Limited Settings. Arjen M. Dondorp et al.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2020.  Available online: 21 April. DOI:

Assessment of coupled Zn concentration and natural stable isotope analyses of urine as a novel probe of Zn status.  Rebekah E. T. Moore et al. Metallomics, 2019,11, 1506-1517.

Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Peter Forster et al. PNAS  April 8, 2020.

Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. David Welch et al. Scientific Reports 2018, volume 8, Article number: 2752.

Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: “The Cure That Time Forgot”? Michael R. Hamblin.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 996: 295–309. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-56017-5_25.

PMID: 29124710

Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75 year olds: opportunities for successful ageing. SJ Gordon, N Baker, M Kidd, A Maeder and KA Grimmer. BMC Geriatrics 2020, April.  DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-1490-7.

Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Philipp Schreiner et al.

ImmunoHorizons 2020, 4 (4) 201-215. DOI: 10.4049/immunohorizons.2000006.

Free online at:


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  1. Acute Oral Toxicity Test
    Test: LD50
    Lab: AMA Laboratories, New York, USA (Ref: WP96-BERN1/LD504881.DP). (Animal Experiment involving rats to determine any potential toxicity of MGN-3. Above material can be classified as non-toxic according to the reference. LD50 > 36.0g / kg.)
  2. Experience with Administration of Biobran in Patients with Chronic Rheumatism
    Author: Kenichi Ichihashi (Ichihashi Clinic)
    Journal: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy Vol. 14/No.4
  3. Anti-HIV activity in vitro of MGN-3, an activated arabinoxylan from rice bran
    Author: M. Ghoneum
    Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Journal 243, 25-29 (1998), Article No. RC978047. (This is a detailed write up of the abstract Ghoneum presented in July 1996 at the International Conference on AIDS in Vancouver.)
  4. Modified Rice Bran Improves Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM Adult Rats Given Streptozotocin as Neonates
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  5. Hyrolyzed rice bran reduces the aggravation of protein metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Presenters: Kitamura N., Ohara I., (Aichi Gakusen University) and Maeda H. (Daiwa Pharmaceutical)
    Event: 45th Annual Meeting of the American College of Nutrition in California. Kitamura 2004
  6. Therapeutic Effects of Biobran, Modified Arabinoxylan Rice Bran, in Improving Symptoms of Diarrhea Predominant or Mixed Type Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study
    Authors: Takeshi Kamiya, Michiko Shikano, Mamoru Tanaka, Keiji Ozeki, Masahide Ebi, Takahito Katano, Shingo Hamano, Hirotaka Nishiwaki, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Yoshinori Mori, Eiji Kubota, Satoshi Tanida, Hiromi Kataoka, Noriaki Okuda, and Takashi Joh
    Journal: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014, Article ID 828137, 6 pages
  7. Evaluation of the effects of asthma prevention and symptom reduction by enzymatically modified rice-bran foods in asthmatic model mice
    Presenters: Kanbayashi H. and Endo Y., Department of Pathological Molecular Medicine, McMaster University
    Event: 52nd Conference of Japanese Society of Allergology, Jokohama, Japan
  8. Protective effect of low molecular fraction of MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, on acute liver injury by inhibition of NF-kB and JNK/MAPK expression
    Presenters: Surina Zheng, Shunsuke Sugita, Shizuka Hirai, Yukari Egashira
    Event: International Immunopharmacology 14 (2012) 764–769
  9. Biobran-augmented maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Authors: D. Cholujova, J. Jakugikova, J. Sedlak
    Journal: Neoplasma 56, 2, 2009.
  10. Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro by the Biological Response Modifier Arabinoxylan Rice Bran (MGN-3/Biobran)
    Authors: M. Ghoneum and S. Agrawal
    Journal: Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, Vol.24, no.4, 941-948 (2011)
  11. Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Activity of Aged Mice by Modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN3/Biobran)
    Authors: Ghoneum, Abedi
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  12. Evalutation of flow cytometry-based assay for natural killer cell activity in clinical settings
    Authors: Valiathan, Lewis, Melillo, Leonard, Alis, Asthana
    Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2011; 1365-3083
  13. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN3/Biobran) enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Perez-Martinez, Valentin, Fernandez, Hernandez-Jimenez, Lopez-Collezo, Zerbes, Schworer, Nunez, Martin, Sallis, Diaz, Handgretinger and Pfeiffer.
    Journal: Cytotherapy, 2015, 0:1-2.
  14. An Open-label, randomized clinical trial to assess the immunomodulatory activity of a novel oligosaccharide compound in healthy adult
    Authors: K. H. Ali, A. B. Melillo, S. M. Leonard, D. Asthana, Judi M. Woolger, A. H. Wolfson, H. R. McDaniel, J. E. Lewis
    Journal: Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7): 265-279
  15. Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan rice bran, enhances NK cell activity in geriatric subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ahmed F. Elsaid, Magda Shaheen and Mamdooh Ghoneum. Exp Ther Med. 2018 Mar;15(3):2313-2320. doi: 10.3892/etm.2018.5713. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
  16. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) alleviates radiation-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction of mice in a mitochondrion-dependent manner.  Zhao Z, Cheng W, Qu W, Wang K. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Apr;124:109855. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.109855. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Novel potent decameric peptide of Spirulina platensis reduces blood pressure levels through a PI3K/AKT/eNOS-dependent mechanism. Albino Carrizzo et al. Hypertension 2019;73:449–57.

Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus. Mark F. McCarty, James J. DiNicolantonio, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2020,

An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly. McCarty MF, DiNicolantonio JJ. Age (Dordr) 2015, Oct;37(5):96. doi: 10.1007/s11357-015-9823-8. Epub 2015 Sep 11.


1 C Wu et al, ‘Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China.’ JAMA Internal Medicine, (2020), published online.  []; see also Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel-associated transmission cluster

  2. Read Doris Loh’s article at
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  1. #
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12 Read more on the cytokine storm here

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16. Little et al, Ibuprofen, paracetamol, and steam for patients with respiratory tract infections in primary care: pragmatic randomised factorial trial. British Medical Journal, (2013), 347:f6041. []

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Microbiome analyses of blood and tissues suggest cancer diagnostic approach. Gregory D. Poore et al. Nature 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2095-1.

Cécilia Samieri et al. Using network science tools to identify novel diet patterns in prodromal dementiaNeurology 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009399 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009399.

Impairment of Glycolysis-Derived l-Serine Production in Astrocytes Contributes to Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease. Juliette Le Douce et al. Cell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (3): 503 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.02.004.

The citrus flavonoid nobiletin confers protection from metabolic dysregulation in high-fat-fed mice independent of AMPK. Nadya M. Morrow, Amy C. Burke, Joshua P. Samsoondar, Kyle E. Seigel, Andrew Wang, Dawn E. Telford, Brian G. Sutherland, Conor O’Dwyer, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Murray W. Huff. Journal of Lipid Research, 2020; 61 (3): 387 DOI: 10.1194/jlr.RA119000542.

Dietary prebiotics alter novel microbial dependent fecal metabolites that improve sleep. Robert S. Thompson, Fernando Vargas, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M. Berg, Monika Fleshner. Scientific Reports, 2020; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60679-y

April 2020



Gut Dysbiosis during Influenza Contributes to Pulmonary Pneumococcal Superinfection through Altered Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

Sencio V et al. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 3;30(9):2934-2947.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.013.

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Associations of habitual fish oil supplementation with cardiovascular outcomes and all cause mortality: evidence from a large population based cohort study. Li Zhi-Hao, Zhong Wen-Fang, Liu Simin, Kraus Virginia Byers, Zhang Yu-Jie, Gao Xiang et alBMJ 2020; 368 :m456.

Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19, James H Diaz. Journal of Travel Medicine, taaa041,


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Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Thevarajan, I., Nguyen, T.H.O., Koutsakos, M. et al. Nat Med (2020).

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Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 3 months of life may reduce the risk of respiratory allergies and some asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Galya Bigman. Acta Paediatrica, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/apa.15162

Structure of intact IgE and the mechanism of ligelizumab revealed by electron microscopy. Rasmus K Jensen, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Brian Mølgaard, Wolfgang Pfützner, Christian Möbs, Edzard Spillner, Gregers R Andersen. Allergy, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/all.14222

VIRUS – Simon Martin

Prof Michael Levitt interview:,7340,L-3800632,00.html.

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Ebola antibodies: The Barcelona Institute for Global Health, ISGlobal –

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BLOOD TYPE – Peter D’Adamo

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Neuropharmacology. Vol 55, Issue 5, October 2008, Pages 639-64.

Characterization of Chemical Constituents in Scutellaria baicalensis with Antiandrogenic and Growth-Inhibitory Activities toward Prostate Carcinoma.

Michael Bonham et al. Clin Cancer Res May 15 2005 (11) (10) 3905-3914; DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1974.

Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) inhibits inflammation and proliferation on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Bo-RamJin et al.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 235, 10 May 2019, Pages 481-488.


A Cardiovascular Disease-Linked Gut Microbial Metabolite Acts via Adrenergic Receptors. Ina Nemet, Prasenjit Prasad Saha, Nilaksh Gupta, Weifei Zhu, Kymberleigh A. Romano, Sarah M. Skye, Tomas Cajka, Maradumane L. Mohan, and others

Cell 2020Vol. 180, Issue 5, p862–877.e22, March 5.

Multi-omics Analysis of the Intermittent Fasting Response in Mice Identifies an Unexpected Role for HNF4α. Luke Hatchwell, Dylan J. Harney, Michelle Cielesh, Kieren Young, Yen Chin Koay, John F. O’Sullivan, Mark Larance. Cell Reports, 2020; 30 (10): 3566 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.051.

Propionic acid shapes multiple sclerosis disease course by immunomodulatory mechanism. Alexander Duscha, Aiden Haghikia et al. Cell 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.035.

Biphasic chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to the microbiota metabolite indole. Jingyun Yang, Ravi Chawla, Kathy Y. Rhee, Rachit Gupta, Michael D. Manson, Arul Jayaraman, Pushkar P. Lele. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020; 201916974 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916974117

Zebrafish-Based Screening of Antiseizure Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Magnolia officinalis Extract and Its Constituents Magnolol and Honokiol Exhibit Potent Anticonvulsant Activity in a Therapy-Resistant Epilepsy Model. Jing Li, Daniëlle Copmans, Michèle Partoens, Borbála Hunyadi, Walter Luyten, Peter de Witte. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 2020; 11 (5): 730. DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00610.

IN PRACTICE – Jenny Phillips

  1. 2012 Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

  1. 2014 Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

  1. 2019 Insulin resistance is a cardiovascular risk factor in humans
  2. 2015 Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and colorectal adenomas: A meta-analysis

  1. 2019 Insulin resistance in prostate cancer patients and predisposing them to acute ischemic heart disease
  2. 2017 Insulin Resistance and Neurodegeneration: Progress Towards the Development of New Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease
  3. 2016 Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome


Case history

  1. Damasiewicz-Bodzek, A., Wielkoszyński, T. (2008) Serologic markers of celiac disease in psoriatic patients. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology; Sep2008, Vol. 22 Issue 9, p1055-1061.
    2. Bolla AM, Caretto A, Laurenzi A, Scavini M, Piemonti L (2019) Low carb diets in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients May; 11(5):962.
  2. Caldesi & Phillips (2019) The diabetes weight-loss cookbook Kyle books.

References In Focus gut:

Christina Georgallou:


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Chua MC et al., “Effect of synbiotic on the gut microbiota of Cesarean delivered infants. A randomised, double blind, multicenter study,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, pp. 65 (1): 102-106, 2017.


Kosuwon P et al., “A synbiotic mixture of scGOS/lcFOS and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V increases faecal Bifidobacterium in healthy young children,” Beneficial Microbes, pp. 541-552, 2018.


Patole et al., “Effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V supplementation on faecal Bifidobacteria in preterm neonates- a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” PLoS one, p. 9 (3): e89511, 2014.


Davidson L E et al., “Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65 , no. 4, p. 501, 2011.


Schultz M et al., “Immunomodulatory consequences of oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in healthy volunteers,” Jounral of Dairy Research, vol. 70, no. 2, p. 165, 2003.


Hikaru U et al., “Bifidobacteria prevents preterm infants from developing infection and sepsis,” International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, pp. 5 (1) 33-36, 2010.


Satoh Y et al., “Bifidobacteria prevents nectrotising enterocolitis and infection in preterm infants.,” International Journal of Probiotics & Prebiotics, p. 2; 49, 2007.


“Pharmaceutical Services Neotiating Comittee,” PSNC, May 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 Feb 2020].


Van der Aa et al., “Synbiotics prevent asthma-like symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis,” Allergy , pp. 170-177, 2011.


Stojkovic A et al., “CLinical trial (consort compliant): Optimal time period to achieve the effects on synbiotic- controlled wheezing and respiratory infections in young children,” Serbian journal of management , vol. 144, no. (1-2), pp. 38-45, 2016.


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Hattori K et al., “Effects of administration of bifidobacteria on faecal microflora and clinical symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis,” Arerugi, pp. 5, 387, 2003.


Wolke D., “Systematic review and meta analysis: fussing and crying duractions and prevalence of colic in infants,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 185, pp. 55-61, 2017.


Chau K et al., “Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938,” J. Pediatr, vol. 166, pp. 74-78, 2014.


Savino F et al., “Preventative effects of oral probiotic on intantile colic: a prospective, randomised, blinded, controlled trial using Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938,” Beneficial Microbes, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 245-251, 2015.


Cazzola, “Efficacy of a synbiotic supplementation in the prevention of common winter diseases in children: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study,” Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease, vol. 4, no. (5), pp. 271-8, 2010.

[22] Taniuchi S et al., “Administration of Bifidobacterium to infants with atopic dermatitis: changes in faecal microflora and clinical symptoms,” The Journal of Applied Research, pp. 5 (2): 387-396, 2005.


Aicacia Young/Karen Jones:

Alzheimer’s Society (2020) Facts for the media [online]. Available from: (Accessed 12 March 2020).

Anon (2020) Alzheimer’s disease [online]. Available from: (Accessed 12 March 2020).

Blatchford, P. et al. (2017) Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomised controlled human trial. Journal of Nutritional Science. [Online] 6.

Bourassa, M. et al. (2016) Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?. Neuroscience Letters. [Online] 6256-63.

Chelakkot, C. et al. (2018) Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. [Online] 50 (2), e450-e450.

Faure, M. et al. (2006) Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. The Journal of Nutrition. [Online] 136 (6), 1558-1564.

Friedland, R. et al. (2020) What Are the Molecular Mechanisms by Which Functional Bacterial Amyloids Influence Amyloid Beta Deposition and Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. [Online] 21 (5), 1652.

Holzer, P. & Farzi, A. (2014) Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. [Online] 195-219.

Kaliannan, K. et al. (2015) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia. Scientific Reports. [Online] 5 (1), .

Kaliannan, K. et al. (2015) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia. Scientific Reports. [Online] 5 (1), .

Liu, H. et al. (2018) Butyrate: A Double-Edged Sword for Health?. Advances in Nutrition. [Online] 9 (1), 21-29.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Mancuso, C. & Santangelo, R. (2018) Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota modifications: The long way between preclinical studies and clinical evidence. Pharmacological Research. [Online] 129329-336.

McFarlin, B. et al. (2017) Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology. [Online] 8 (3), 117.

Poulose, S. et al. (2012) Anthocyanin-rich Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Fruit Pulp Fractions Attenuate Inflammatory Stress Signaling in Mouse Brain BV-2 Microglial Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 60 (4), 1084-1093.

Powell, N. et al. (2017) The mucosal immune system: master regulator of bidirectional gut–brain communications. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. [Online] 14 (3), 143-159.

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Reddy, V. et al. (2020) Polyphenols in Alzheimer’s Disease and in the Gut–Brain Axis. Microorganisms. [Online] 8 (2), 199.

Schwartz, M. & Deczkowska, A. (2016) Neurological Disease as a Failure of Brain–Immune Crosstalk: The Multiple Faces of Neuroinflammation. Trends in Immunology. [Online] 37 (10), 668-679.

Serra, D. et al. (2020) Polyphenols in the management of brain disorders: Modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. [Online] 1-27.

Shen, H. et al. (2020) New mechanism of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated by gut microbiota. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online] 100109884.

Shen, H. et al. (2020) New mechanism of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated by gut microbiota. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online] 100109884.

Sylvia, K. & Demas, G. (2018) A gut feeling: Microbiome-brain-immune interactions modulate social and affective behaviors. Hormones and Behavior. [Online] 9941-49.

Yang, J. et al. (2015) Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study. Frontiers in Physiology. [Online] 6.

Zhao, Y. et al. (2017) Microbiome-Derived Lipopolysaccharide Enriched in the Perinuclear Region of Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Frontiers in Immunology. [Online] 8.


Humphrey Baccus:

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  6. Geerlings, S., Kostopoulos, I., de Vos, W. & Belzer, C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: When, Where, and How? Microorganisms 6, 75 (2018).
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  8. Naofumi Yoshida et al. Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei Reduce Gut Microbial Lipopolysaccharide Production and Inhibit Atherosclerosis. (2018). doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033714
  9. Vereecke, L. & Elewaut, D. Ruminococcus on the horizon in arthritic disease. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 13, (2017).
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  12. Anh, F. F. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols : A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome ? 7, 146–153 (2016).
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  16. Sirisinha, S. The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity.
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  19. Bijak, M. Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.)—Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism. Molecules 22, 1–11 (2017).
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  22. Hickl, J. et al. Mediterranean herb extracts inhibit microbial growth of representative oral microorganisms and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. (2018). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207574
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March 2020


Pale Rider: the Spanish Flu of 1918 and how it changed the world, by Laura Spinney (Public Affairs, Hachette Book Group, New York, 2017).

Mortality Attributable to Influenza in England and Wales Prior to, during and after the 2009 Pandemic. Helen K. Green. PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e79360.

Published online 2013 Dec 11. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079360


NAD Repletion Rescues Female Fertility during Reproductive Aging. Michael J. Bertoldo et al. Cell Reports, 2020; 30 (6): 1670. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.01.058.

Evaluation of natural and botanical medicines for activity against growing and non-growing forms of B. burgdorferi. Feng Jie et al. Frontiers in Medicine 2020, Feb 20, Vol 7.      

Also see:      

The stress polarity signaling (SPS) pathway serves as a marker and a target in the leaky gut barrier: implications in aging and cancer. Pradipta Ghosh et al.

Life Science Alliance 2020 DOI: 10.26508/lsa.201900481.

L-( )-Ergothioneine Significantly Improves the Clinical Characteristics of Preeclampsia in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Rat Model. Rachel D. Williamson et al. Hypertension 2020; 75 (2): 561. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.13929.

The biology of ergothioneine, an antioxidant nutraceutical. Irina Borodina et al. Nutrition Research Reviews 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0954422419000301.

New nutraceutical combination reduces blood pressure and improves exercise capacity in hypertensive patients via a nitric oxide–dependent mechanism.

Albino Carrizzo et al. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020, 9:e014923.

Originally published 20 Feb 2020.


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Nutrition for doctors
Cuerda et al – A clinical nutrition education in medical schools: results of an ESPEN survey – Clin Nutr 2017, 36:915-6.
 Cuerda et al – Nutrition education in medical schools (NEMS). An ESPEN position paper – Clinical Nutrition 2019, 38: 969-974.


Human osteoarthritic synovial fluid increases excitability of mouse dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons: an in-vitro translational model to study arthritic pain. Chakrabarti, S et al. Rheumatology; 13 August 2019; DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez331

Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. G. Shaw, A. Lee-Barthel, M. L. Ross, B. Wang, K. Baar.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016; DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138594

Stress Relaxation and Targeted Nutrition to Treat Patellar Tendinopathy.

Baar K. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2019, Jul 1;29(4):453–457. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0231.

Expansion of intestinal Prevotella copri correlates with enhanced susceptibility to arthritis. Scher JU, Sczesnak A, Longman RS, et al. Elife. 2013;2:e01202.
The oral and gut microbiomes are perturbed in rheumatoid arthritis and partly normalized after treatment. Zhang X, Zhang D, Jia H, et al. Nat Med. 2015;21(8):895-905.

The therapeutic effect of probiotics on rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

Mohammed AT et al. Clin Rheumatol. 2017 Dec;36(12):2697-2707. DOI: 10.1007/s10067-017-3814-3. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Time for a gut check: evidence for the hypothesis that HLA-B27 predisposes to ankylosing spondylitis by altering the microbiome. Rosenbaum JT, Davey MP. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63(11):3195-8.


Cerebrospinal fluid influx drives acute ischemic tissue swelling. Mestre H, Du T, Sweeney AM, Liu G, Samson AJ, Peng W, et al. Science 2020, Jan 30; DOI: 10.1126/science.aax7171.

Associations of Fish Oil Supplement Use with Testicular Function in Young Men.

Jensen TK et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Jan 3;3(1):e1919462. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.19462.

Measurement of chemical emission rates from cigarette butts into air. Gong et al. Indoor Air 2020, DOI: 10.1111/ina.12648.

Effects of the microalgae Chlamydomonas on gastrointestinal health. Francis J. Fields, Franck Lejzerowicz, Dave Schroeder, Soo M. Ngoi, Miller Tran, Daniel McDonald, Lingjing Jiang, John T. Chang, Rob Knight, Stephen Mayfield. Journal of Functional Foods  2020; 65: 103738. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2019.103738.

Hypothesis: Bacterial induced inflammation disrupts the orderly progression of the stem cell hierarchy and has a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. A.K. Marwaha, J.A. Morris, R.J. Rigby. Medical Hypotheses, 2020; 136: 109530 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109530.

Obese adolescents with PCOS have altered biodiversity and relative abundance in gastrointestinal microbiota. Beza Jobira et al. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020. DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgz263.

Taurine treatment of retinal degeneration and cardiomyopathy in a consanguineous family with SLC6A6 taurine transporter deficiencyHuman Molecular Genetics 2019; DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddz303.

January 2020


Potential of Manuka Honey as a Natural Polyelectrolyte to Develop Biomimetic Nanostructured Meshes With Antimicrobial PropertiesFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2019; 7 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00344

Researchers identify novel biomarkers to accurately measure dietary intake of key flavanols: studies were published in Nature Scientific Reports and are freely available on their website here:

Could a gene-environment interaction between NAPRT1 risk allele and pre-natal niacin deficiency explain 4 medical mysteries of schizophrenia research?  Fuller-Thomson, E., Mehta, R. Letter to the editor.  Schizophrenia Research 2019, available online 12 December.

Lipoteichoic acid from the cell wall of a heat killed Lactobacillus paracasei D3-5 ameliorates aging-related leaky gut, inflammation and improves physical and cognitive functions: from C. elegans to mice. GeroScience 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11357-019-00137-4

Ten-Hour Time-Restricted Eating Reduces Weight, Blood Pressure, and Atherogenic Lipids in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.11.004.

Validation of a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for cytochrome P450 probe substrates caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and alprazolam in human serum reveals drug contamination of serum used for research. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2019; 112983 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2019.112983.


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Water Science – NIKKI GRATRIX


  2. TEDx Talk by Gerald Pollack for more info:



* The upper-airway microbiota and loss of asthma control among asthmatic children. Nature Communications 2019, 10, 5714. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13698-x.

* Rectal Microbiome Composition Correlates with Humoral Immunity to HIV-1 in Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques. Sonny R. Elizaldi et al. mSphere 2019; 4 (6) DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00824-19.

* Cognitive performance in relation to hydration status and water intake among older adults, NHANES 2011–2014. Bethancourt, H.J., Kenney, W.L., Almeida, D.M. et al. Eur J Nutr (2019) doi:10.1007/s00394-019-02152-9.

* Mitochondrial DNA stress signalling protects the nuclear genome. Nature Metabolism, 2019; 1 (12): 1209 DOI: 10.1038/s42255-019-0150-8.

* High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019,  DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz275.

* Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2019; 16 (12): 1478 DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201907-538CME

* Relative D3 vitamin deficiency and consequent cognitive impairment in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease: Potential involvement of collapsin response mediator protein-2. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Dec 12:107910. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107910.

* Carotenoid metabolism at the intestinal barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Nov 30:158580. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.158580.

* Biotin Supplementation Ameliorates Murine Colitis by Preventing NF-κB Activation.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Nov 28. pii: S2352-345X(19)30166-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.11.011. Free full text.

* BPA: have flawed analytical techniques compromised risk assessments? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30381-X.

* Enriched Marine Oil Supplements Increase Peripheral Blood Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators Concentrations and Reprogram Host Immune Responses: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Circulation Research 2019, 12 Dec, Open access.

* Sexual dimorphism in immune development and in response to nutritional intervention in neonatal piglets. Frontiers in Immunology 2019: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02705.  

December 2019


Association of the Functional Medicine Model of Care with Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes. Beidelschies M, Alejandro-Rodriguez M, Ji X, Lapin B, Hanaway P, Rothberg MB. JAMA Netw Open 2019, 2(10):e1914017. doi:

Discrepancies in the Registries of Diet vs Drug Trials. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB, Heymsfield SB. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2(11):e1915360. doi:

Attenuation of capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and secondary hyperalgesia during exposure to an immersive virtual reality environment. Sam W. Hughes et al. PAIN Reports 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000000790.

Is running associated with a lower risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and is the more the better? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Zeljko Pedisic et al. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019; bjsports-2018-100493 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100493

Incidence of necrotising enterocolitis before and after introducing routine prophylactic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotics. Claire Robertson et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood – Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 2019; fetalneonatal-2019-317346 DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-317346.

Coupled electrophysiological, hemodynamic, and cerebrospinal fluid oscillations in human sleep. Nina E. Fultz et al. Science,  01 Nov 2019, 366, Issue 6465, 628-631, doi: 10.1126/science.aax5440.
The Glymphatic System: A Beginner’s Guide. Jessen NA et al. Neurochem Res 2015, Dec;40(12):2583-99. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1581-6.

Senolytics in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Results from a first-in-human, open-label, pilot study. Jamie N. Justice et al. EBioMedicine 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.12.052.

Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Li Y et al. Nutrients 2016, Mar 15;8(3):167,  doi: 10.3390/nu8030167.

Senolytics decrease senescent cells in humans: Preliminary report from a clinical trial of Dasatinib plus Quercetin in individuals with diabetic kidney disease.

Hickson, LaTonya J. et al. EBioMedicine 2019,47, 446–456.

IHCAN chat – Marta Anhelush

  1. Teitella M, Richardson B. DNA methylation in the immune system. Clinical Immunology. 2003;109:2–5.
  2. Pacis A et al. Bacterial infection remodels the DNA methylation landscape of human dendritic cells. Genome Res. 2015, Dec;25(12):1801-11.
  3. Partearroyo T et al. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid imbalance modifies NK cytotoxicity, lymphocytes B and lymphoprolipheration in aged rats. Nutrients. 2013;5(12):4836–4848.
  4. Tserel L et al. Age-related profiling of DNA methylation in CD8+ T cells reveals changes in immune response and transcriptional regulator genes. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13107.
  5. Gallagher JC. Vitamin D and Aging. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. 2013;42(2):319-332.


  1. David Boothe W, Tarbox JA, Tarbox MB. Atopic Dermatitis: Pathophysiology. Adv  Exp Med Biol. 2017;1027:21-37.
  2. Di Meglio P, Villanova F, Nestle FO. Psoriasis. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Aug 1;4(8).
  3. Holmes AD, Spoendlin J, Chien AL, Baldwin H, Chang ALS. Evidence-based update  on rosacea comorbidities and their common physiologic pathways. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Jan;78(1):156-166.
  4. Kim JE, Kim JS, Cho DH, Park HJ. Molecular Mechanisms of Cutaneous Inflammatory Disorder: Atopic Dermatitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jul 30;17(8).
  5. Bland J. Functional Medicine: An Operating System for Integrative Medicine. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015 Oct;14(5):18-20.
  6. Eyerich K, Eyerich S. Immune response patterns in non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018 May;32(5):692-703.
  7. Ely PH. The bowel bypass syndrome: a response to bacterial peptidoglycans. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1980;2:473-487.
  8. Ely PH. Is psoriasis a bowel disease? Successful treatment with bile acids and bioflavonoids suggests it is. Clin Dermatol. 2018 May – Jun;36(3):376-389.
  9. Singer S, Koenekoop J, Meddings J, Powell J, Desroches A, Seidman EG.

Pancreatic Enzyme Supplementation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies: An Open-Label Pilot Study. Paediatr Drugs. 2019 Feb;21(1):41-45.

  1. Nguyen TA, Leonard SA, Eichenfield LF. An Update on Pediatric Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies. J Pediatr. 2015 Sep;167(3):752-6.
  2. Moreno FJ. Gastrointestinal digestion of food allergens: effect on their allergenicity. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007 Jan;61(1):50-60.
  3. Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Evaluation of the gut mucosal barrier: evidence for increased antigen transfer in children with atopic eczema. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996 Apr;97(4):985-90.
  4. Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A, Michaelsen KF. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;145(5):612-6.
  5. Mack DR, Flick JA, Durie PR, Rosenstein BJ, Ellis LE, Perman JA. Correlation of intestinal lactulose permeability with exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. J Pediatr. 1992 May;120(5):696-701.
  6. Bowe WP, Logan AC. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis -back to the future? Gut Pathog. 2011 Jan 31;3(1):1.
  7. Bowe W, Patel NB, Logan AC. Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis: from anecdote to translational medicine. Benef Microbes. 2014 Jun 1;5(2):185-99.
  8. Kim J, Ko Y, Park YK, et al. Dietary effect of lactoferrin-enriched fermented milk on skin surface lipid and clinical improvement of acne vulgaris. Nutrition. 2010 Sep;26(9):902-9.
  9. Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I,et al. Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to  moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013 Mar-Apr;17(2):114-22.
  10. Fabbrocini G, Bertona M, Picazo Ó, et al. Supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus SP1 normalises skin expression of genes implicated in insulin signalling and improves adult acne. Benef Microbes. 2016 Nov 30;7(5):625-630.
  11. Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. Lancet. 2012 Jan 28;379(9813):361-72.
  12. Kurokawa I, Danby FW, Ju Q, et al. New developments in our understanding of acne pathogenesis and treatment. Exp Dermatol. 2009 Oct;18(10):821-32.
  13. Zouboulis CC, Jourdan E, Picardo M. Acne is an inflammatory disease and alterations of sebum composition initiate acne lesions. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014 May;28(5):527-32.

Research briefs

Gerrit Müller, Charlotte Lübow, Günther Weindl. Lysosomotropic beta blockers induce oxidative stress and IL23A production in Langerhans cellsAutophagy, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1686728

The Influence of Ketogenic Diets on Psoriasiform-Like Skin Inflammation. Felix Locker et al. The Influence of Ketogenic Diets on Psoriasiform-Like Skin InflammationJ Investigative Dermatology 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.07.718.

Association of Vitamin A Intake With Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk in the United States. Kim J, Park MK, Li W, Qureshi AA, Cho E. JAMA Dermatol 2019, 155 (11): 1260–68. doi:

Real-World Prevalence of Prurigo Nodularis and Burden of Associated Diseases.

Huang AH et al. J Invest Dermatol 2019, Aug 15. pii: S0022-202X(19)32690-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.07.697. [Epub ahead of print]


  1. Candida auris: The recent emergence of a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen 

Kaitlin Forsberg et al. Medical Mycology 2019, Volume 57, Issue 1, January, Pages 1–12,

  2. Perfect, John R. The Antifungal Pipeline: A Reality Check. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2017, 16, May, 603:
  3. Fisher, Matthew C., et al. Worldwide Emergence of Resistance to Antifungal Drugs Challenges Human Health and Food Security. Science 2018, 360, 6390, May, 739. doi:10.1126/science.aap7999.
  4. Natural history of Candidaspecies and yeasts in the oral cavities of infants

C.Russell, K.M.Lay. Archives of Oral Biology 1973, 18, 8, August, 957-962:

  1. Markey L et al. Pre-colonization with the commensal fungus Candida albicans reduces murine susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection. Gut Microbes 2018, Nov 2;9(6):497–509:
  2. Nobile CJ, Johnson AD. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 2015 Oct 15;69(1):71–92:
  3. White TC et al. Resistance Mechanisms in Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002, Jun 1;46(6):1704:

Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization. Kumamoto CA. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14(4):386–391. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.015.

Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Gunsalus KTW et al. mSphere 2015. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00020-15.

Dietary Supplementation With Medium-Chain Triglycerides Reduces Candida Gastrointestinal Colonization in Preterm Infants. Arsenault AB et al. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2019;38(2):

IN PRACTICE – Alex Manos

  1. Guilford et al. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness. Toxins (Basel). 2014 Feb; 6(2): 608–23.
  2. Kong, Changsu et al. “Evaluation of mycotoxin sequestering agents for aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol: an in vitro approach.” SpringerPlus vol. 3 346. 8 Jul. 2014, doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-346.


Other resources:

Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew and Sabran Mohd-Redzwan (2018) Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota, Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol., 26

Brewer et al., Detection of Mycotoxins in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Toxins (Basel). 2013 Apr; 5(4): 605–617.
Zain (2011) Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 129-144.

Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic Environmental Illness. Neil Nathan, MD. (Victory Belt Publishing, 2018.) 


NMN transporter study
Grozio, A., Mills, KF, Yoshino J. et al. Slc12a8 is a nicotinamide mononucleotide transporter. Nat Metab 2019, 1, 47–57, doi:10.1038/s42255-018-0009-4


Vitamin D-VDR signaling inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated melanoma progression and promotes anti-tumor immunity. Sathya Muralidhar et al. Cancer Research 2019; canres.3927.2018, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3927.

Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dellinger, R.W., Santos, S.R., Morris M et al.  npj Aging Mech Dis 2017, 3, 17, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0016-9.  

Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dellinger, R.W., Santos, S.R., Morris, M. et al.  npj Aging Mech Dis 2017, 3, 17, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0016-9.

Principal Results of the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) and Updated Meta-analyses of Relevant Vitamin D Trials. Manson JE, Bassuk SS, Buring JE; VITAL Research Group. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019, Nov 13:105522, doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105522.  

Neurogenesis and prolongevity signaling in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old mice. Parag Kundu et al. Science Translational Medicine  2019; 11 (518): eaau4760, doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau4760.

Aging Induces an Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Dependent Expansion of Adipose B Cells That Impairs Metabolic Homeostasis. Christina D. Camell et al. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.10.006.

Society for Endocrinology annual conference, 2019, P184:

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Leads To Fatty Acid Metabolism Dysregulation and Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in Human Adipocytes and in Maternal Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue. Jinous Samavat et al.  

November 2019


Exploiting the Zonulin Mouse Model to Establish the Role of Primary Impaired Gut Barrier Function on Microbiota Composition and Immune Profiles. Miranda-Ribera A, Ennamorati M, Serena G, et al. Front Immunol. 2019;10:2233. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02233.

Inequalities in Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide in Parks and Playgrounds in Greater London, Charlotte Sheridan et al. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173194. Also see interactive map online at

El-Salhy M, Haltebakk JG, Gilja OH, et al. Effects of faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Presented at UEG Week October 21, 2019.

New releases

Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells. Zeevalk GD et al.
Neurochem Res 2010 ,Oct;35(10):1575-87. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0217-0. Epub 2010 Jun 10.

Polyphenols From Grape and Blueberry Improve Episodic Memory in Healthy Elderly with Lower Level of Memory Performance: A Bicentric Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Memophenol-Bensalem, J et al.  J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019, Jun 18;74(7):996-1007. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gly166.
Memophenol – Activ’Inside (2019). CTS-0162-A1_Clinical study 2_one shot_what are clinical results on students_V04.
Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Silveri, M et al. NMR in Biomedicine 2008, 21(10), pp.1066-1075.

Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. McGlade E et al. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2012, 03(06), pp.769-77.

 BEN BROWN – Arsenic

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  3. Moon KA, Oberoi S, Barchowsky A, Chen Y, Guallar E, Nachman KE, Rahman M, Sohel N, D’Ippoliti D, Wade TJ, James KA, Farzan SF, Karagas MR, Ahsan H, Navas-Acien A. A dose-response meta-analysis of chronic arsenic exposure and incident cardiovascular disease. Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Dec 1;46(6):1924-1939.
  4. Leonardi G, Vahter M, Clemens F, Goessler W, Gurzau E, Hemminki K, Hough R, Koppova K, Kumar R, Rudnai P, Surdu S, Fletcher T. Inorganic arsenic and basal cell carcinoma in areas of Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia: a case-control study. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 May;120(5):721-6.
  5. Gilbert-Diamond D, Li Z, Perry AE, Spencer SK, Gandolfi AJ, Karagas MR. A population-based case-control study of urinary arsenic species and squamous cell  carcinoma in New Hampshire, USA. Environ Health Perspect. 2013 Oct;121(10):1154-60.
  6. European Food Safety Authority, 2014. Dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic in the European population. EFSA Journal 2014;12(3):3597, 68 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2014.3597
  7. Ander EL, Watts MJ, Smedley PL, Hamilton EM, Close R, Crabbe H, Fletcher T, Rimell A, Studden M, Leonardi G. Variability in the chemistry of private drinking water supplies and the impact of domestic treatment systems on water quality. Environ Geochem Health. 2016 Dec;38(6):1313-1332.
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  9. Antonelli R, Shao K, Thomas DJ, Sams R 2nd, Cowden J. AS3MT, GSTO, and PNP polymorphisms: impact on arsenic methylation and implications for disease susceptibility. Environ Res. 2014 Jul;132:156-67.
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  11. Bozack AK, Saxena R, Gamble MV. Nutritional Influences on One-Carbon Metabolism: Effects on Arsenic Methylation and Toxicity. Annu Rev Nutr. 2018 Aug 21;38:401-429.
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  13. Sharma A, Flora SJS. Nutritional management can assist a significant role in alleviation of arsenicosis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018 Jan;45:11-20.
  14. Signes-Pastor AJ, Vioque J, Navarrete-Muñoz EM, Carey M, García-Villarino M, Fernández-Somoano A, Tardón A, Santa-Marina L, Irizar A, Casas M, Guxens M, Llop  S, Soler-Blasco R, García-de-la-Hera M, Karagas MR, Meharg AA. Inorganic arsenic  exposure and neuropsychological development of children of 4-5 years of age living in Spain. Environ Res. 2019 Jul;174:135-142.
  15. Frediani JK, Naioti EA, Vos MB, Figueroa J, Marsit CJ, Welsh JA. Arsenic exposure and risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among U.S. adolescents and adults: an association modified by race/ethnicity, NHANES 2005-2014. Environ Health. 2018 Jan 15;17(1):6.
  16. Molin M, Ulven SM, Dahl L, Lundebye AK, Holck M, Alexander J, Meltzer HM, Ydersbond TA. Arsenic in seafood is associated with increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy volunteers – A randomized controlled trial. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2017 Dec;44:1-7.
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  18. Crinnion W. Arsenic: The Underrecognized Common Disease-inducing Toxin. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2017 Apr;16(2):8-13.
  19. Cubadda F, Jackson BP, Cottingham KL, Van Horne YO, Kurzius-Spencer M. Human exposure to dietary inorganic arsenic and other arsenic species: State of knowledge, gaps and uncertainties. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Feb 1;579:1228-1239.
  20. Hasanato RM, Almomen AM. Unusual presentation of arsenic poisoning in a case of celiac disease. Ann Saudi Med. 2015 Mar-Apr;35(2):165-7.
  21. Nigra AE, Nachman KE, Love DC, Grau-Perez M, Navas-Acien A. Poultry Consumption and Arsenic Exposure in the U.S. Population. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Mar;125(3):370-377.
  22. Lundebye AK, Lock EJ, Rasinger JD, Nøstbakken OJ, Hannisdal R, Karlsbakk E, Wennevik V, Madhun AS, Madsen L, Graff IE, Ørnsrud R. Lower levels of Persistent  Organic Pollutants, metals and the marine omega 3-fatty acid DHA in farmed compared to wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Environ Res. 2017 May;155:49-59.
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  1. Boyle J, Teede HJ. Polycystic ovary syndrome – an update. Aust Fam Physician 2012;41(10):752-756. [Abstract]
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  7. Casarini L, Riccetti L, de Pascali F, et al. Estrogen modulates specific life and death signals induced by LH and hCG in human primary granulosa cells in vitro. Int J Mol Sci 2017;18(5).[Abstract]
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  10. McAllister JM, Legro RS, Modi BP, et al. Functional genomics of PCOS: from GWAS to molecular mechanisms. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2015;26(3):118-124.[Full Text]
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Fahy, GM, Brooke, RT, Watson, JP, et al. Reversal of epigenetic aging and immunosenescent trends in humans. Aging Cell. 2019; 00:e13028.
DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types. Horvath S. Genome Biol. 2013;14(10):R115.

Breast cancer
Vitamin D pathway related polymorphisms and vitamin D receptor expression in breast cancer. Francis I. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Oct 18:1-9. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000615.
Tumor Autonomous Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency Promote Breast Cancer Metastasis. Williams JD et al. Endocrinology. 2016 Apr;157(4):1341-7. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-2036. Epub 2016 Mar 2.


A randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of lactolycopene on semen quality in healthy males. Elizabeth A. Williams, Madeleine Parker, Aisling Robinson, Sophie Pitt, Allan A. Pacey. European Journal of Nutrition, 2019,  DOI: 10.1007/s00394-019-02091-5.

Attenuation of constitutive DNA damage signaling by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Halicka HD, Zhao H, Li J, Traganos F, Studzinski GP, Darzynkiewicz Z. Aging (Albany NY). 2012 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Rate of Change of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Following Sublingual and Capsular Vitamin D Preparations. Williams, Claire E., Elizabeth A. Williams, and Bernard M. Corfe. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 23, 2019.

Antioxidants: Scientific Literature Landscape Analysis. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Jan 8;2019:8278454. doi: 10.1155/2019/8278454. eCollection 2019. Yeung AWK et al.
Evaluation of antioxidant treatments for the modulation of macrophage function in the context of retinal degeneration. Elbaz-Hayoun S et al. Mol Vis. 2019 Sep 5;25:479-488. eCollection 2019.

Protective effect of carnosic acid, a pro-electrophilic compound, in models of oxidative stress and light-induced retinal degeneration T. Rezaie et al.

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2012; DOI: 10.1167/iovs.12-10793.

Creatine uptake regulates CD8 T cell antitumour immunity. Stefano Di Biase, Xiaoya Ma, Xi Wang, Jiaji Yu, Yu-Chen Wang, Drake J. Smith, Yang Zhou, Zhe Li, Yu Jeong Kim, Nicole Clarke, Angela To, Lili Yang. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 2019; jem.20182044 DOI: 10.1084/jem.20182044.

Phenolic compounds from coffee by-products modulate adipogenesis-related inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance in adipocytes, via insulin/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Qiaozhi Zhang, Yolanda Aguilera, Maria A. Martín-Cabrejas, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia.  Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2019; 132: 110672 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110672

Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections in the Hip and Knee: Perhaps Not as Safe as We Thought? Andrew J. Kompel, Frank W. Roemer, Akira M. Murakami, Luis E. Diaz, Michel D. Crema, Ali Guermazi. Radiology, 2019; 190341 DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2019190341.

Ming-Feng Hsueh, Patrik Önnerfjord, Michael P. Bolognesi, Mark E. Easley, Virginia B. Kraus. Analysis of “old” proteins unmasks dynamic gradient of cartilage turnover in human limbsScience Advances, 2019; 5 (10): eaax3203 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax3203.

Cartilage regeneration – SIMON MARTIN

Prof Keith Baar: personal communication, and quotes from a Just Fly Sports podcast, July 3 2019, complete transcript at Recommend following him on Twitter: @MuscleScience. All his papers are listed on his UC Davis website at – except the seminal first one on tendon repair! That is:
Rehabilitation and nutrition protocols for optimising return to play from traditional ACL reconstruction in elite rugby union players: A case study. Gregory Shaw, Ben Serpell & Keith Baar. Journal of Sports Sciences 2019, 37:15, 1794-1803, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1594571.
Also worth listening to is the Institute of Performance Nutrition’s podcast with Dr Laurent Bannock interviewing Prof Baar:

Dr Kaayla Daniel: She reports on Dr Prudden’s research here:
She has fully explained the history and science behind bone broth in contributions to Nourishing Broth: An Old-Fashioned Remedy for the Modern World (the follow-up book to Nourishing Traditions), co-authored with Sally Fallon Morell of the Weston A. Price Foundation.

Advertorial – page 16:

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Ghannoum et al. (2015) The Role of Echinocandins in Candida Biofilm–Related Vascular Catheter Infections: In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(6), S618–S621.

Gunsalus et al. (2015) Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. mSphere 1(1):e00020-15.

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Krasowska et al. (2009) The antagonistic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans filamentation, adhesion and biofilm formation. FEMS Yeast Research, 9(8), 1312–1321.

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October 2019

WELCOME -Simon Martin

  1. Ashkan Afshin, Patrick John Sur, Kairsten A. Fay, Leslie Cornaby, Giannina Ferrara, Joseph S Salama, Erin C Mullany, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Zegeye Abebe, Mohsen Afarideh, Anju Aggarwal, Sutapa Agrawal, Tomi Akinyemiju, Fares Alahdab, Umar Bacha, Victoria F Bachman, Hamid Badali, Alaa Badawi, Isabela M Bensenor, Eduardo Bernabe, Sibhatu Kassa K Biadgilign, Stan H Biryukov, Leah E Cahill, Juan J Carrero, Kelly M. Cercy, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Anh Kim Dang, Meaza Girma Degefa, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Alireza Esteghamati, Sadaf Esteghamati, Jessica Fanzo, Carla Sofia e Sá Farinha, Maryam S Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery L. Feigin, Joao C Fernandes, Luisa Sorio Flor, Nataliya A. Foigt, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Morsaleh Ganji, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Richard F Gillum, Alessandra C Goulart, Giuseppe Grosso, Idris Guessous, Samer Hamidi, Graeme J. Hankey, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Simon I. Hay, Chi Linh Hoang, Masako Horino, Farhad Islami, Maria D. Jackson, Spencer L. James, Lars Johansson, Jost B. Jonas, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ibrahim A. Khalil, Young-Ho Khang, Ruth W Kimokoti, Yoshihiro Kokubo, G Anil Kumar, Tea Lallukka, Alan D Lopez, Stefan Lorkowski, Paulo A. Lotufo, Rafael Lozano, Reza Malekzadeh, Winfried März, Toni Meier, Yohannes A Melaku, Walter Mendoza, Gert B.M. Mensink, Renata Micha, Ted R Miller, Mojde Mirarefin, Viswanathan Mohan, Ali H Mokdad, Dariush Mozaffarian, Gabriele Nagel, Mohsen Naghavi, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Molly R Nixon, Kanyin L Ong, David M. Pereira, Hossein Poustchi, Mostafa Qorbani, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Christian Razo-García, Colin D Rehm, Juan A Rivera, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Gholamreza Roshandel, Gregory A Roth, Juan Sanabria, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Benn Sartorius, Josef Schmidhuber, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Min-Jeong Shin, Reed J.D. Sorensen, Marco Springmann, Lucjan Szponar, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G Thrift, Mathilde Touvier, Bach Xuan Tran, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Irfan Ullah, Olalekan A Uthman, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Giang Thu Vu, Linh Gia Vu, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Tissa Wijeratne, Walter C Willett, Jason H Wu, Gelin Xu, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chuanhua Yu, Christopher J L Murray. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017The Lancet, 2019; 393 (10184): 1958 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8


Probiotics Reduce Health Care Cost and Societal Impact of Flu-Like Respiratory Tract Infections in the USA: An Economic Modeling Study. Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00980.

Circulating Micronutrient Biomarkers Are Associated With 3 Measures of Frailty: Evidence From the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Aisling M. O’Halloran, et al. JAMDA 2019, Sept: in press. DOI:

Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Bruce N. Ames.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Oct 2018, 115 (43) 10836-10844; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809045115.

Emma Derbyshire. Could we be overlooking a potential choline crisis in the United Kingdom? BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, 2019; bmjnph-2019-000037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000037

Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy, Non-obese Humans. Slaven Stekovic et al. Cell Metabolism 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.07.016

BEN BROWN – glutathione

  1. Forman HJ, Zhang H, Rinna A. Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):1-12.
  2. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.
  3. Deponte M. The Incomplete Glutathione Puzzle: Just Guessing at Numbers and Figures? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017 Nov 20;27(15):1130-1161
  4. Sies H. Glutathione and its role in cellular functions. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Nov;27(9-10):916-21.
  5. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.
  6. Teskey G, Abrahem R, Cao R, Gyurjian K, Islamoglu H, Lucero M, Martinez A, Paredes E, Salaiz O, Robinson B, Venketaraman V. Glutathione as a Marker for Human Disease. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;87:141-159.
  7. Atkuri KR, Mantovani JJ, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. N-Acetylcysteine—a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;7(4):355-9.
  8. Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Margaritelis NV, Kyparos A, Nikolaidis MG. N-acetylcysteine supplementation increases exercise performance and reduces oxidative stress only in individuals with low levels of glutathione. Free Radic Biol Med 2018;115:288–97.
  9. Rushworth GF, Megson IL. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;141(2):150-9.
  10. Lang CA, Mills BJ, Mastropaolo W, Liu MC. Blood glutathione decreases in chronic diseases. J Lab Clin Med. 2000 May;135(5):402-5.
  11. van ‘t Erve TJ, Wagner BA, Ryckman KK, Raife TJ, Buettner GR. The concentration of glutathione in human erythrocytes is a heritable trait. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Dec;65:742-749.
  12. Richie JP Jr, Abraham P, Leutzinger Y. Long-term stability of blood glutathione and cysteine in humans. Clin Chem. 1996 Jul;42(7):1100-5.
  13. Sedda V, De Chiara B, Parolini M, et al. Plasma glutathione levels are independently associated with γ-glutamyltransferase activity in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Free. Radic. Res. 2008;42(2):135–141.
  14. Koenig G, Seneff S. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase: A Predictive Biomarker of Cellular Antioxidant Inadequacy and Disease Risk. Dis Markers. 2015;2015:818570.
  15. Lee DH, Jacobs DR Jr. Is serum gamma-glutamyltransferase a marker of exposure to various environmental pollutants? Free Radic Res. 2009 Jun;43(6):533-7.
  16. Bulusu S, Sharma M. What does serum γ-glutamyltransferase tell us as a cardiometabolic risk marker? Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 May;53(Pt 3):312-32.
  17. Bradley R, Fitzpatrick AL, Jenny NS, Lee DH, Jacobs DR Jr. Associations between total serum GGT activity and metabolic risk: MESA. Biomark Med. 2013 Oct;7(5):709-21.
  18. Bulusu S, Sharma M. What does serum γ-glutamyltransferase tell us as a cardiometabolic risk marker? Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 May;53(Pt 3):312-32.
  19. Lee DH, Steffes MW, Jacobs DR Jr. Can persistent organic pollutants explain the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia. 2008 Mar;51(3):402-7.
  20. Minich DM, Brown BI. A Review of Dietary (Phyto)Nutrients for Glutathione Support. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 3;11(9).



Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden. Walker MM et al. Hum Pathol. 2015 Feb;46(2):277-83. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2014.10.026. Epub 2014 Nov 15.


Hazel A Everitt, Sabine Landau, Gilly O’Reilly, Alice Sibelli, Stephanie Hughes, Sula Windgassen, Rachel Holland, Paul Little, Paul McCrone, Felicity L Bishop, Kim Goldsmith, Nicholas Coleman, Robert Logan, Trudie Chalder, Rona Moss-Morris. Cognitive behavioural therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: 24-month follow-up of participants in the ACTIB randomised trialThe Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30243-2

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency:

Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency as a Potential Masquerader in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Kim, S.B., Calmet, F.H., Garrido, J. et al. Dig Dis Sci (2019).

Functional variants in the sucrase–isomaltase gene associate with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome. Henström M, Diekmann L, Bonfiglio F, et al. Gut 2018, 67: 263-270.

Diet-induced remission in chronic enteropathy is associated with altered microbial community structure and synthesis of secondary bile acids. Shuai Wang et al. Microbiome 2019; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-019-0740-4

CBD – Dr Elisabeth Philipps

  4. Jay L Goldstein (2015) Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7: 31–41. 

  5. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Apr; 3(4): 1084–1092. 

Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Amir Klein and  Rami Eliakin.
11. Elisabeth Philipps (2019). Pain Management nutrihub webinar

  1. Perry G. Fine (2013) The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain Rambam Maimonides Med J 4(4): e0022.
  2. Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Prog Neurobiol. 2001 Apr; 63(5):569-611.
  3. Kozono S, Matsuyama T, Biwasa KK, et al. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;394: 928–33.
  4. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. Campbell FA, Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. BMJ. 2001 Jul 7; 323(7303):13-6.
  5. Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and pain.

Michalski CW, Oti FE, Erkan M, Sauliunaite D, Bergmann F, Pacher P, Batkai S, Müller MW, Giese NA, Friess H, Kleeff J. Int J Cancer. 2008 Feb 15; 122(4):742-50.

  1. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Feb; 39(2):167-79.
  2. Perry G. Fine, The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain Rambam Maimonides Med J 2013, 4(4): e0022. 
  3. Klein K, et al. Pharmacogenomics of cytochrome P450 3A4: recent progress toward the “missing heritability” problem. Frontiers in Genetics. 2013; 4:12.
  4. Zanger U, et al. Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2008; 392(6):1093-108.
  5. Yamaori S, et al. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by cannabidiol: role of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol moiety. Life Sciences. 2011; 88(15-16):730-6.
  6. Yamaori S, et al. Cannabidiol, a major phytocannabinoid, as a potent atypical inhibitor for CYP2D6. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 2011; 39(11):2049-56.
  7. Geffrey AL, et al. Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2015; 56(8):1246-51.
  8. Grayson L, et al. An interaction between warfarin and cannabidiol, a case report. Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports. 2018; 9:10-11.
  9. Project CBD Releases Educational Primer on Cannabinoid-Drug Interactions. | Project CBD, 14 Jan. 2019,
  10. Gertsch J, Pertwee RG, Di Marzo V. Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun; 160(3):523-9.

For example, the terpene beta-caryophyllene, commonly found in plants including hemp, black pepper, cinnamon, clove, and other spices, selectively binds to the CB2 receptor at nanomolar concentrations and acts as a full agonist, effectively reducing neuropathic pain in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner.

  1. Zimmer A, Racz I, Klauke AL, Markert A, Gertsch J. Betacaryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid acting on CB2 receptors. IACM 5th Conference on cannabinoids in medicine; Cologne, Germany. 2009:
  2. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: A large case series. Perm J, 2019;23:18-041. DOI:
  3. J Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2014, 39, 564–566 doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12179. Case Report.
  4. Vaughn LK, Denning G, Stuhr KL, de Wit H, Hill MN, Hillard CJ. Endocannabinoid signalling: has it got rhythm? Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):530–43.
  5. 31. Roth T. Effects of excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue on overall health and cognitive function. J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76(9):e1145.
  6. Murillo-Rodriguez E, Sarro-Ramirez A, Sanchez D, Mijangos- Moreno S, Tejeda-Padron A, Poot-Ake A, et al. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014;12(3):269–72
  7. Russo EB, Guy GW, Robson PJ. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8):1729–43
  8. Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. Effect of Delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early- morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24(3):305–13.



Modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet modulates gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids in association with Alzheimer’s disease markers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Ravinder Nagpal, Bryan J. Neth, Shaohua Wang, Suzanne Craft, Hariom Yadav. EBioMedicine 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.032

Host-Microbe-Drug-Nutrient Screen Identifies Bacterial Effectors of Metformin Therapy. Pryor R et al. Cell. 2019 Sep 5;178(6):1299-1312.e29. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.003. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Lima, YC et al. Whey protein sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bert.) increases mitochondrial biogenesis markers in the skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats. Nutrition & Metabolism 2019, 16, 65. Open Access:

Temporal changes in postprandial blood transcriptomes reveal subject-specific pattern of expression of innate immunity genes after a high-fat meal. Danielle G Lemay et al. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2019; 72: 108209 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.06.007.

Blindness Caused by a Junk Food Diet. Rhys Harrison, Vicki Warburton, Andrew Lux, Denize Atan. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.7326/L19-0361.

IN PRACTICE – Andy Jancewicz

  1. Dayna M. Yorks, DO, et al, November 2017, Effects of Group Fitness Classes on Stress and Quality of Life of Medical Students. J American Osteopathic Association: Vol 117, No. 11.
  2. Brown B, Brain on Fire: dietary patterns for Alzheimer’s and cognitive decline.

IHCAN, October 2017, p12-15.

  1. Jancewicz A, 2001, Tai Chi Chuan’s role in maintaining independence in ageing people with chronic disease- literature review. J Bodywork and Movement Therapies, January 2001, p70-77.
  2. Blair SN, Garcia ME, 1996 Get up and move: A call to action for older men and women. J American Geriatrics Society 44: 599-600.
  3. Bland J, Personalised Lifestyle Medicine: the future – as Jeff Bland sees it.

IHCAN, May 2019, p18-19.

  1. Ashish Sharma MD et al, Letters to the Editor. Exercise for Mental Health

Prim Care Companion, J Clin Psychiatry 2006;8(2).

September 2019

The economic case for prevention of population vitamin D deficiency: a modelling study using data from England and Wales. Aguiar et’ al.  European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019, Aug 20.

Aguiar, M., Andronis, L., Pallan, M., Högler, W., and Frew, E. (2019). The economic case

Birnbaum, AK, Karanam, A, Marino, SE, et al. Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2019; 60: 1586– 1592.

Characteristics and patient pathways of Lyme disease patients: a retrospective analysis of hospital episode data in England and Wales (1998-2015) 
Tulloch et alBMC Public Health 2019 
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7245-8

Green R, Lanphear B, Hornung R, et al. Association Between Maternal Fluoride Exposure During Pregnancy and IQ Scores in Offspring in Canada. JAMA Pediatr. Published online August 19, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1729

Ashley J. Malin, Corina Lesseur, Stefanie A. Busgang, Paul Curtin, Robert O. Wright, Alison P. Sanders. Fluoride exposure and kidney and liver function among adolescents in the United States: NHANES, 2013–2016Environment International, 2019; 105012 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105012

Mariosa D, Carreras-Torres R, Martin RM, Johansson M, Brennan P
What can Mendelian randomization tell us about causes of cancer?
Int J Epidemiol, 48(3):816–21. Published 25 July 2019;

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association. Ann C. Skulas-Ray et al. Ciculation 2019, 19 Aug.

Prevalence and Severity of Sesame Allergy in the United States. Warren CM, Chadha AS, Sicherer SH, Jiang J, Gupta RS. JAMA Netw Open. Published online August 02, 20192(8):e199144. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9144.

Fatty Acid Metabolites Combine with Reduced β Oxidation to Activate Th17 Inflammation in Human Type 2 Diabetes. Dequina A. Nicholas et al. Cell Metabolism,

2019, online Aug 1.

Amir Minerbi, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Nicholas J.B. Brereton, Abraham Anjarkouchian, Ken Dewar, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Stéphanie Chevalier, Yoram Shir. Altered microbiome composition in individuals with fibromyalgiaPAIN, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001640.

NEWS extra

Whole genome sequencing revealed new molecular characteristics in multidrug resistant staphylococci recovered from high frequency touched surfaces in London.

Rory Cave et al. Scientific Reports 2019, vol 9, Article number: 9637.

Maija P T Ylilauri, Sari Voutilainen, Eija Lönnroos, Heli E K Virtanen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jukka T Salonen, Jyrki K Virtanen, Associations of dietary choline intake with risk of incident dementia and with cognitive performance: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, , nqz148,

Effect of Montmorency tart cherry juice on cognitive performance in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Chai SC et al.  Food Funct. 2019 Jul 17;10(7):4423-4431. doi: 10.1039/c9fo00913b.

NEW RELEASES – vitamin D

Worm N. Heilkraft D: How the sun vitamin protects against heart attack, cancer and other lifestyle diseases. systemed Verlag, Lünen. 2010, p12.

LansdowAnaglin, Rebecca ES, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British journal of psychiatry, 2013, 202. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 100-107.

Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Feb;135(4):319-23.

In a study, substitution with vitamin D three times significantly shortened sputum conversion in patients with open lung tuberculosis. Lancet (2011; doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61889-2)

Reins RV and McDermott  AM: Vitamin D: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential. Exp Eye Res. 2015 May; 134: 101–110.

BEN BROWN – Fibromyalgia

  1. Borchers AT, Gershwin ME. Fibromyalgia: A Critical and Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Oct;49(2):100-51.
  2. Queiroz LP. Worldwide epidemiology of fibromyalgia. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Aug;17(8):356.
  3. Wolfe F, Walitt B, Perrot S, Rasker JJ, Häuser W. Fibromyalgia diagnosis and biased assessment: Sex, prevalence and bias. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 13;13(9):e0203755.
  4. Wang SM, Han C, Lee SJ, Patkar AA, Masand PS, Pae CU. Fibromyalgia diagnosis:  a review of the past, present and future. Expert Rev Neurother. 2015 Jun;15(6):667-79.
  5. Choy E, Perrot S, Leon T, Kaplan J, Petersel D, Ginovker A, Kramer E. A patient survey of the impact of fibromyalgia and the journey to diagnosis. BMC Health Serv Res. 2010 Apr 26;10:102.
  6. Higgs JB. Fibromyalgia in Primary Care. Prim Care. 2018 Jun;45(2):325-341.
  7. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Häuser W, Katz RL, Mease PJ, Russell AS, Russell IJ, Walitt B. 2016 Revisions to the 2010/2011 fibromyalgia diagnostic criteria. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2016 Dec;46(3):319-329.
  8. Zachrisson O, Regland B, Jahreskog M, Kron M, Gottfries CG. A rating scale for fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (the FibroFatigue scale). J Psychosom Res. 2002 Jun;52(6):501-9.
  9. Theoharides TC, Tsilioni I, Arbetman L, Panagiotidou S, Stewart JM, Gleason RM, Russell IJ. Fibromyalgia syndrome in need of effective treatments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 Nov;355(2):255-63.
  10. Coskun Benlidayi I. Role of inflammation in the pathogenesis and treatment of  fibromyalgia. Rheumatol Int. 2019 May;39(5):781-791.
  11. Meeus M, Nijs J, Hermans L, Goubert D, Calders P. The role of mitochondrial dysfunctions due to oxidative and nitrosative stress in the chronic pain or chronic fatigue syndromes and fibromyalgia patients: peripheral and central mechanisms as therapeutic targets? Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013 Sep;17(9):1081-9.
  12. Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: a clinical review. JAMA. 2014 Apr 16;311(15):1547-55.
  13. Clauw DJ, Arnold LM, McCarberg BH; FibroCollaborative. The science of fibromyalgia. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011 Sep;86(9):907-11.
  14. Schmidt-Wilcke T, Clauw DJ. Fibromyalgia: from pathophysiology to therapy. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011 Jul 19;7(9):518-27.
  15. Häuser W, Ablin J, Fitzcharles MA, Littlejohn G, Luciano JV, Usui C, Walitt B. Fibromyalgia. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Aug 13;1:15022.
  16. Rahman A, Underwood M, Carnes D. Fibromyalgia. BMJ. 2014 Feb 24;348:g1224.
  17. Sluka KA, Clauw DJ. Neurobiology of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Neuroscience. 2016 Dec 3;338:114-129.
  18. Theoharides TC, Tsilioni I, Arbetman L, Panagiotidou S, Stewart JM, Gleason RM, Russell IJ. Fibromyalgia syndrome in need of effective treatments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2015 Nov;355(2):255-63.
  19. Macfarlane GJ, Kronisch C, Dean LE, Atzeni F, Häuser W, Fluß E, Choy E, Kosek  E, Amris K, Branco J, Dincer F, Leino-Arjas P, Longley K, McCarthy GM, Makri S, Perrot S, Sarzi-Puttini P, Taylor A, Jones GT. EULAR revised recommendations for the management of fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Feb;76(2):318-328.
  20. Logan, AC. Dietary Modifications and Fibromyalgia. Complementary Health Practice Review, vol. 8, no. 3, Oct. 2003, pp. 234–245
  21. Bjørklund G, Dadar M, Chirumbolo S, Aaseth J. Fibromyalgia and nutrition: Therapeutic possibilities? Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Jul;103:531-538.
  22. Totsch SK, Waite ME, Sorge RE. Dietary influence on pain via the immune system. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;131:435-69.
  23. Bell RF, Borzan J, Kalso E, Simonnet G. Food, pain, and drugs: does it matter what pain patients eat? Pain. 2012 Oct;153(10):1993-6.
  24. Silva AR, Bernardo A, Costa J, Cardoso A, Santos P, de Mesquita MF, Vaz Patto  J, Moreira P, Silva ML, Padrão P. Dietary interventions in fibromyalgia: a systematic review. Ann Med. 2019;51(sup1):2-14.
  25. Høstmark AT, Lystad E, Vellar OD, Hovi K, Berg JE. Reduced plasma fibrinogen, serum peroxides, lipids, and apolipoproteins after a 3-week vegetarian diet. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 Jan;43(1):55-61.
  26. Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL. Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 2000;29(5):308-13.
  27. Hänninen, Kaartinen K, Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Törrönen R, Häkkinen AS, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J. Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders. Toxicology. 2000 Nov 30;155(1-3):45-53.
  28. Azad KA, Alam MN, Haq SA, Nahar S, Chowdhury MA, Ali SM, Ullah AK. Vegetarian  diet in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull. 2000 Aug;26(2):41-7.
  29. Donaldson MS, Speight N, Loomis S. Fibromyalgia syndrome improved using a mostly raw vegetarian diet: an observational study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:7.
  30. Michalsen A, Riegert M, Lüdtke R, Bäcker M, Langhorst J, Schwickert M, Dobos GJ. Mediterranean diet or extended fasting’s influence on changing the intestinal microflora, immunoglobulin A secretion and clinical outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia: an observational study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2005 Dec 22;5:22.
  31. Correa-Rodríguez M, Mansouri-Yachou JE, Tapia-Haro RM, Molina F, Rus A, Rueda-Medina B, Aguilar-Ferrandiz ME. Mediterranean Diet, Body Composition, and Activity Associated with Bone Health in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Nurs Res. 2019 Apr 1. doi: 10.1097/NNR.0000000000000361. [Epub ahead of print]
  32. Costa de Miranda R, Paiva ES, Suter Correia Cadena SM, Brandt AP, Vilela RM. Polyphenol-Rich Foods Alleviate Pain and Ameliorate Quality of Life in Fibromyalgic Women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2017 Mar;87(1-2):66-74.
  33. Rus A, Molina F, Ramos MM, Martínez-Ramírez MJ, Del Moral ML. Extra Virgin Olive Oil Improves Oxidative Stress, Functional Capacity, and Health-Related Psychological Status in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A Preliminary Study. Biol Res Nurs. 2017 Jan;19(1):106-115.
  34. Arranz LI, Rafecas M, Alegre C. Effects of obesity on function and quality of  life in chronic pain conditions. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2014 Jan;16(1):390.
  35. Timmerman GM, Calfa NA, Stuifbergen AK. Correlates of body mass index in women with fibromyalgia. Orthop Nurs. 2013 Mar-Apr;32(2):113-9.
  36. Aparicio VA, Ortega FB, Carbonell-Baeza A, Camiletti D, Ruiz JR, Delgado-Fernández M. Relationship of weight status with mental and physical health in female fibromyalgia patients. Obes Facts. 2011;4(6):443-8.
  37. Shapiro JR, Anderson DA, D