The practice and science of natural medicine


Since 2002, Integrative Healthcare & Applied Nutrition magazine (formerly known as CAM magazine) has kept professional practitioners in-the-loop every month with its mix of news, views and fully referenced features.
January 2023

Extraskeletal actions of vitamin D. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2016, Jul;1376(1):29-52:

Tissue specific signature of HHV-6 infection in ME/CFS. Front Mol Biosci Sec Molecular Diagnostics and Therapeutics 2022, provisionally accepted Dec 5:
Saliva antibody-fingerprint of reactivated latent viruses after mild/asymptomatic COVID-19 is unique in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome Frontiers in Immunology 2022: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.949787.

Anti-Inflammatory Diets in Fertility: An Evidence ReviewNutrients, 2022; 14 (19): 3914 DOI: 10.3390/nu14193914.

Recurrent urinary tract infection and oestrogen shape the taxonomic ecology and function of the postmenopausal urogenital microbiomeCell Reports Medicine 2022; 3 (10): 100753 DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2022.100753.

Impact of Yoga on Global Cardiovascular Risk as an Add-On to a Regular Exercise Regimen in Patients With HypertensionCanadian Journal of Cardiology, 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2022.09.019.

Agr2-associated ER stress promotes adherent-invasive E. coli dysbiosis and triggers CD103+ dendritic cell IL-23-dependent ileocolitisCell Reports 2022; 41 (7): 111637 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111637.

Micronutrient Supplementation to Reduce Cardiovascular RiskJournal of the American College of Cardiology 2022; 80 (24): 2269.

Effects of l-Arginine Plus Vitamin C Supplementation on Physical Performance, Endothelial Function, and Persistent Fatigue in Adults with Long COVID: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2022, 14 (23), 4984:
Combining L-Arginine with vitamin C improves long-COVID symptoms: The LINCOLN Survey. Pharmacol. Res. 2022, 183, 106360:
Association between vitamin D status and physical performance in COVID-19 survivors: Results from the Gemelli against COVID-19 post-acute care project. Mech Ageing Dev 2022, Jul, 205:111684.

Oral microbes and the formation of cerebral abscesses: A single-centre retrospective studyJournal of Dentistry, 2023; 128: 104366.

Nasal spray:
Formulation of a Composite Nasal Spray Enabling Enhanced Surface Coverage and Prophylaxis of SARS-COV-2
. Advanced Materials.2021. 33(26), 2008304.
Carrageenan nasal spray in virus confirmed common cold: individual patient data analysis of two randomized controlled trials. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine 9, 57.
Nasal Swab samples analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled UV-Vis spectroscopy – study conducted by LabWide Solutions HK Ltd.

Vitamin D protects against depression: Evidence from an umbrella meta-analysis on interventional and observational meta-analyses. Pharmacol Res 2022, Dec 9, 106605.


1. The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system:

2.Healing Developmental Trauma: How Early Trauma Affects Self-Regulation, Self-Image, and the Capacity for Relationship”, by Laurence Heller and Aline Lapierre (Tantor Auidio, 2015):

3.“Holotropic Breathwork: A New Approach to Self-Exploration and Therapy” by Stanislav Grof and Christina Grof (State University of New York Press, 2010):

4. Healing altered states of consciousness:



7. Intergenerational trauma: Parental PTSD and parent-reported child abuse subtypes differentially relate to admission characteristics in the autism inpatient collection:

8. On the ontological status of autism: the ‘double empathy problem’:

9. “The double empathy problem”:

10. “Autistic burnout, explained”:

11. The Relation Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Health: Turning Gold into Lead:

12. A Model for Basic Emotions Using Observations of Behavior in Drosophila:

13. The Evolutionary Psychology of Envy and Jealousy:

14. The ecology of human fear: survival optimization and the nervous system:

15. “The Secret Language of Your Body: The Essential Guide to Health and Wellness”, Inna Segal (Beyond Words, 2010).

16. A Model for Basic Emotions Using Observations of Behavior in Drosophila:

17.“What You Feel You Can Heal”, John Gray (Vermilion, 2002).

18. When the Body Says No: The Cost of Hidden Stress, by Dr Gabor Maté (Vermilion, 2019):

19. “The Body Keeps the Score: Mind, Brain and Body in the Transformation of Trauma” by Bessel van der Kolk (Penguin, 2015):

20. “The Secret Language of Your Body: The Essential Guide to Health and Wellness”, Inna Segal (Beyond Words, 2010):

21. “The Encyclopedia of Ailments and Diseases: How to Heal the Conflicted Feelings, Emotions, and Thoughts at the Root of Illness”, by Jacques Martel (Findhorn Press, 2021):

22 A future perspective for regenerative medicine: understanding the concept of vibrational medicine:

23. “Tuning the Human Biofield: Healing with Vibrational Sound Therapy”,  by Eileen Day McKusick (Healing Arts Press, 2021):

  1. “Lost in Translation: The Social Language Theory of Neurodivergence”, by Janae Elisabeth: The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system:
  2. Polyvagal theory in practice”, by Dee Wagner. Counseling Today 2016: “Music and the Vagus Nerve: How Music Affects the Nervous System and Mental Health”: Creative Flow and Physiologic States in Dancers During Performance:
  3. “How to Stimulate Your Vagus Nerve for Better Mental Health”, by Jordan Fallis, September 24, 2022: Directional effects of whole-body spinning and visual flow in virtual reality on vagal neuromodulation: Breath of Life: The Respiratory Vagal Stimulation Model of Contemplative Activity: The opioid effects of gluten exorphins: asymptomatic celiac disease:


Brain vitamin D forms, cognitive decline, and neuropathology in community-dwelling older adults. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 2022, Dec 7:

Transgenerational transmission of aspartame-induced anxiety and changes in glutamate-GABA signaling and gene expression in the amygdalaProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2022; 119 (49) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2213120119.

Lutein Decreases Inflammation and Oxidative Stress and Prevents Iron Accumulation and Lipid Peroxidation at Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity. Antioxidants (Basel) 2022, Nov 17;11(11):2269.
Lutein Has a Positive Impact on Brain Health in Healthy Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Cohort Studies. Nutrients 2021, May 21;13(6):1746.

Association of Red Blood Cell Omega-3 Fatty Acids with MRI Markers and Cognitive Function in Midlife — The Framingham Heart StudyNeurology  2022:


Iron status in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr 2017; 106 (Suppl): 1655S-62S.
Riksmaten Adolescents Survey 2016-2017, Swedish National Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) report series no. 23, 2018.
Nutritional Composition and Estimated Iron and Zinc Bioavailability of Meat Substitutes Available on the Swedish MarketNutrients 2022; 14 (19): 3903.

Plasticity of the adult human small intestinal stoma microbiotaCell Host & Microbe 2022:

Gravity and the Gut: A Hypothesis of Irritable Bowel SyndromeAmerican Journal of Gastroenterology, 2022; 117 (12): 1933.

Anti-inflammatory effect of multistrain probiotic formulation (L. rhamnosusB. lactis, and B. longum). Nutrition. 2018; 53:95-102. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.02.005.

Evidence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics in Intestinal Chronic Diseases. Nutrients 20179, 555.

Inulin fibre promotes microbiota-derived bile acids and type 2 inflammation. Nature 2022, 611: 578–584.

Methanogens and Hydrogen Sulfide Producing Bacteria Guide Distinct Gut Microbe Profiles and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Subtypes. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2022, Dec, 117(12):2055-2066.

Post-COVID-19 syndrome risk factors and further use of health services in East England. PLOS Global Public Health 2022:

Early adversity promotes binge-like eating habits by remodeling a leptin-responsive lateral hypothalamus–brainstem pathway. Nature Neuroscience 2022, Dec 12:

The gut microbiota and depressive symptoms across ethnic groups. Nature Communications 2022, Dec 6:
Gut microbiome-wide association study of depressive symptoms. Nature Communications 2022, 13, 7128:

1. Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res 2009;23:367–372. Doi: 10.1002/ptr.2634

  1. Nutritional mushroom treatment in Meniere’s disease with Coriolus versicolor: A rationale for therapeutic intervention in neuroinflammation and antineurodegeneration. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21:284. Doi: 10.3390/ijms21010284
  2. Hericium erinaceus and Coriolus versicolor modulate molecular and biochemical changes after traumatic brain injury. Antioxidants 2021;10:898. Doi: 10.3390/antiox10060898
  3. Natural compounds such as Hericium erinaceus and Coriolus versicolor modulate neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and lipoxin A4 expression in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease in mice. Biomedicines 2022;10:2505.


Cyberchondria: Overlap with health anxiety and unique relations with impairment, quality of life, and service utilization. Psychiatry Res 2018,  Mar;261:204-211,  doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.01.002.

Diagnose this if you can: On the effectiveness of search engines in finding medical self-diagnosis information. In Advances in Information Retrieval: 37th European Conference on IR Research, ECIR 2015, Proceedings [Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 9022]. Springer, Switzerland, pp. 562-567.

December 2022

 Burden of chronic diseases associated with periodontal diseases: a retrospective cohort study using UK primary care data. BMJ Open 2021;11:e048296:

Association between hypercholesterolemia and mortality risk among patients referred for cardiac imaging test: Evidence of a “cholesterol paradox?” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2022, In Press, online Oct 20.


Disruption of the gut microbiota confers cisplatin resistance in epithelial ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2022:
Outdoor light at night in relation to glucose homoeostasis and diabetes in Chinese adults: a national and cross-sectional study of 98,658 participants from 162 study sitesDiabetologia 2022,  doi: 10.1007/s00125-022-05819-x.

Premature Deaths Attributable to the Consumption of Ultraprocessed Foods in BrazilAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2022.08.013.

Broad Antiviral Effects of Echinacea purpurea against SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern and Potential Mechanism of Action. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 2145. Full text free online at

Prevalence of and factors associated with osteoarthritis and pain in retired Olympians compared with the general population: part 1 – the lower limbBritish Journal of Sports Medicine, 2022; 56 (19): 1123 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-104762.

Prevalence of and factors associated with osteoarthritis and pain in retired Olympians compared with the general population: part 2 – the spine and upper limbBritish Journal of Sports Medicine, 2022; 56 (19): 1132 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2021-104978.

Gut to lung translocation and antibiotic mediated selection shape the dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in an ICU patientNature Communications 2022; 13 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-34101-2.

Effect of adding probiotics to an antibiotic intervention on the human gut microbial diversity and composition: a systematic reviewJournal of Medical Microbiology, 2022; 71 (11) DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.001625.


1. Chronic inflammation in the etiology of disease across the life span. Nature Medicine 2019, Dec, 25(12): 1822-32.
2. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Strong Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2020; 4(1): 501–511, published online Dec 14:

University of Central Lancashire studies:
Antimicrobial, Polarizing Light, and Paired Helical Filament Properties of Fragmented Tau Peptides of Selected Putative Gingipains. J Alz Dis 2022, Oct 11, 89 (4), 1279-91:
Porphyromonas gingivalis Conditioned Medium Induces Amyloidogenic Processing of the Amyloid-β Protein Precursor upon in vitro Infection of SH-SY5Y Cells. J Alzheimer’s Dis Reports 2022, Sept 20, 6 (1), 577-87:


Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis.
Nutr Rev 2013 May;71(5):282-99:

“Commonly used supplements for ‘heart health’ don’t work”: Laffin quoted in “Taking supplements to control cholesterol? Read this”, Fox8 News, Nov 8:

Statins as safe as supplements: claim made in “Supplements Ineffective in Reducing Cholesterol, Study Finds”, a Nov 7 release from the Cleveland Clinic Newsroom:

Traditional Chinese lipid-lowering agent red yeast rice results in significant LDL reduction but safety is uncertain – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis 2015, 240(2):415–23:

Rare Variant in Scavenger Receptor BI raises HDL Cholesterol and Increases Risk of Coronary Heart Disease. Science 2016:

Total cholesterol and all-cause mortality by sex and age: a prospective cohort study among 12.8 million adults. Sci Rep 2019, 9, 1596:,

Roles and mechanisms of garlic and its extracts on atherosclerosis: A review. Front Pharmacol 2022, 03 Oct:

Red Yeast Rice for Hypercholesterolemia. Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J 2019, Jul-Sep; 15(3): 192–199.

Race-Dependent Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels With Incident Coronary Artery DiseaseJournal of the American College of Cardiology 2022; 80 (22): 2104. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.09.027.

Subretinal drusenoid deposits are strongly associated with coexistent high-risk vascular diseasesBMJ Open Ophthalmology 2022, 7 (1): e001154. DOI: 10.1136/bmjophth-2022-001154.

Aerobic exercise training reduces cerebrovascular impedance in older adults: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Journal of Applied Physiology 2022, 133:4, 902-912:
Higher Habitual Dietary Flavonoid Intake Associates With Less Extensive Abdominal Aortic Calcification in a Cohort of Older WomenArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 2022; 42 (12): 1482 DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.122.318408.
Association of Dietary Intake of Flavonols With Changes in Global Cognition and Several Cognitive AbilitiesNeurology, 2022; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000201541 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000201541.
SARS-CoV-2 Nsp6 damages Drosophila heart and mouse cardiomyocytes through MGA/MAX complex-mediated increased glycolysisCommunications Biology, 2022; 5 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s42003-022-03986-6.
Vitamin C enhances NF-κB-driven epigenomic reprogramming and boosts the immunogenic properties of dendritic cells. Nucleic Acids Research 2022; gkac941,
Krill oil protects dopaminergic neurons from age-related degeneration through temporal transcriptome rewiring and suppression of several hallmarks of aging. Aging 2022, Nov, 14 (21): 8661-87:
Acupuncture for low back and/or pelvic pain during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open 2022, 12: e056878.

Macronutrient (im)balance drives energy intake in an obesogenic food environment: An ecological analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2022, 30( 11): 2156-66.
Obesity: the protein leverage hypothesis. Obesity Reviews 2005, May, 6 (2): 133-142.

Highly processed foods can be considered addictive substances based on established scientific criteria. Addiction 2022, 9 Nov:

Nutritional Ecology and Human Health. Annu Rev Nutr 2016, Jul, 36: 603-26.


November 2022

Effectiveness of an intervention for reducing sitting time and improving health in office workers: three arm cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2022, 378:
Egg, red meat, and poultry intake and risk of lethal prostate cancer in the prostate-specific antigen-era: incidence and survival.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Dec;4(12):2110-21.
Prof  Richard David Feinman quote is from his book Nutrition in Crisis (Chelsea Green 2019), page 236.

Accumulation of Sulforaphane and Alliin in Human Prostate Tissue.  Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3263. DOI: 10.3390/nu14163263.  
A dietary intervention for vasomotor symptoms of menopause: a randomized, controlled trial. Menopause 2022, Oct 18, doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000002080:
Dr Marilyn Glenville:
Consensus: soy isoflavones as a first-line approach to the treatment of menopausal vasomotor complaints.
Gynecol Endocrinol 2016 Jun; 32(6):427-30, doi: 10.3109/09513590.2016.1152240. Epub 2016 Mar 4.
Full paper:

Cordyceps mushroom with increased cordycepin content by the cultivation on edible insects. Front Microbiol 2022, Oct 19:

 doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.08.005. Epub 2022 Aug 29.

Microbiota imbalance induced by dietary sugar disrupts immune-mediated protection from metabolic syndrome. Cell 2022, Sep 15;185(19):3501-3519.e20:

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Reciprocal interactions between the gut microbiome and mammary tissue mast cells promote metastatic dissemination of HR+ breast tumoursCancer Immunology Research 2022. DOI: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-21-1120.

Microplastics: What happens in the human digestive tract? First evidences in adults using in vitro gut models. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2023, 442 130010:

BefA, a microbiota-secreted membrane disrupter, disseminates to the pancreas and increases  beta-cell massCell Metabolism 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2022.09.001.

Identification of environmental factors that promote intestinal inflammationNature 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05308-6

A local tumour microenvironment acquired super-enhancer induces an oncogenic driver in colorectal carcinomaNature Communications 2022; 13 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-33377-8

Unfermented β-fructan fibers fuel inflammation in select inflammatory bowel disease patientsGastroenterology 2022. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2022.09.034

The Role of the Gut Microbiome in Diet and Exercise Effects on Cognition: A Review of the Intervention LiteratureThe Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 2022. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glac166

Loss of Nuclear Envelope Integrity and Increased Oxidant Production Cause DNA Damage in Adult Hearts Deficient in PKP2: A Molecular Substrate of ARVC. Circulation 2022, Sep 13;146(11):851-867,
Honokiol Research Review: A promising extract with multiple applications.
Nat Med J 2014, Jan 16:

Theory and performance of substitution models for estimating relative causal effects in nutritional epidemiologyThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2022. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac188.

Long COVID stat:

Persistence, prevalence, and polymorphism of sequelae after COVID-19 in unvaccinated, young adults of the Swiss Armed Forces: a longitudinal cohort study (LoCoMo). The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2022, Aug 25:

Distinguishing features of Long COVID identified through immune profiling. medRxiv 2022.08.09.22278592, doi: Preprint.

Bile Acid–Microbiome Interaction Promotes Gastric Carcinogenesis. Advanced Science 2022, 9:16.

October 2022


Effects of cocoa extract and a multivitamin on cognitive function: A randomized clinical trial. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 2022, Sept 14,1- 12:

The mineral depletion of foods available to us as a nation (1940-2002)–a review of the 6th Edition of McCance and Widdowson. Nutr Health 2007;19(1-2):21-55.

Health Survey for England, 2016 showed that 48% of adults in the country had taken at least one prescribed medicine in the past week, and almost a quarter, 24%, had taken three or more prescribed medicines in the past week. Feb 12, 2021.

Only 12% of American adults are metabolically healthy, Carolina study finds. Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders 2019, Feb, 46-52:

“Disease burden is higher in the US. than in comparable countries”, at

Diet change for hypertension: research presented at the American Heart Association’s Hypertension Scientific Sessions 2022, held Sept. 7-10, 2022, in San Diego.

An ACE2-dependent Sarbecovirus in Russian bats is resistant to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinesPLOS Pathogens, 2022; 18 (9): e1010828 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010828.

More on Dr Royal Lee at

Profitability of Large Pharmaceutical Companies Compared With Other Large Public Companies.  JAMA 2020, Mar 3; 323(9): 834–843,  doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.0442.
Prescribing Costs in Hospitals and the Community 2019-2020. NHS Digital:

98.2% survival rate:

Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Promotion by Air Pollutants
, was presented at the ESMO Congress on Saturday 10 September 10, 2022. Related paper: Lung cancer in never-smokers: a hidden disease. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2019, 112(7):269-271.  

Statin therapy is not warranted for a person with high LDL-cholesterol on a low-carbohydrate diet. Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes and Obesity 2022, Oct, 29 (5): 497-511.
Evaluating the Association Between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction and Relative and Absolute Effects of Statin Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 2022 May 1;182(5):474-481:

Effects of cocoa extract and a multivitamin on cognitive function: A randomized clinical trial. Alzheimer’s & Dementia 2022, Sept 14,1- 12:

Coenzyme Q10 ameliorates aging-induced memory deficits via modulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitophagy in aged rats. Exp Gerontol 2022, Oct 15, 168:111950.

Rapid initiation of nasal saline irrigation to reduce severity in high-risk COVID+ outpatients. Ear, Nose & Throat Journal 2022; 0(0). doi:10.1177/01455613221123737.


  1. MEA:
  2. McGrath, Simon (June 11, 2018). “Analysis of data from 500,000 individuals in UK Biobank demonstrates 
an inherited component to ME/CFS”.  ME/CFS Research Review. Retrieved  February 23, 2019
  3. Bested AC, Marshall LM. Review of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: 
an evidence‑based approach to diagnosis and management by clinicians. 
Rev Environ Health. 2015;30:223–49.
  4. Front Neurol. 2020 Aug 11;11:826.


  1. ME Association website poll, conducted January 2016.
    3. “Crunching the numbers: is GBR the sick man of Europe?” by Simon Martin. IHCAN 2021, Feb, 6-7.
    4. Offline: COVID-19 is not a pandemic. Lancet.2020; 396: 874. DOI: Discussed in The COVID-19 syndemic is not global: context matters, Lancet 2020, Nov 28;396 (10264):1731. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32218-2.
    5. Glucocorticoids activate Epstein Barr virus lytic replication through the upregulation of immediate early BZLF1 gene expression. Brain Behav Immun 2010, Oct; 24(7):1089-96. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2010.04.013.

OHC papers:
A preliminary prospective study of nutritional, psychological and combined therapies for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) in a private care setting. BMJ  Open 2012:

The Application of Integral Medicine in the Treatment of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice 2011, 6(4), 25-40:


A Company Is Only as Healthy as Its Workers: a 6-Month Metabolic Health Management Pilot Program Improves Employee Health and Contributes to Cost Savings. Metabolites 2022, 12(9), 848:

Diabetes UK statement:


Adaptive dysfunction of selenoproteins from the perspective of the triage theory: why modest selenium deficiency may increase risk of diseases of aging. FASEB J 2011 Jun;25(6):1793-814.

Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging? Am J Clin Nutr 2009, Oct; 90(4):889-907.

 Selenium preserves mitochondrial function, stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, and reduces infarct volume after focal cerebral ischemia. BMC Neurosci 2012, Jul 9; 13:79.

Vitamin K2 Modulates Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by 6-Hydroxydopamine in SH-SY5Y Cells via Mitochondrial Quality-Control Loop. Nutrients 2022, Apr 4;14(7):1504.

Melatonin: A Mitochondrial Targeting Molecule Involving Mitochondrial Protection and Dynamics. Int J Mol Sci 2016, Dec 16;17(12):2124.

Mitochondrial autophagy in the sleeping brain. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022; 10: 956394. Published online 2022 Aug 24. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2022.956394.

Dr Terry Wahls

  1. Ames BN. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging-a metabolic tune-up. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord.2003;17 Suppl 2:S54-57.
  2. Ames BN. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci.2004;1019:406-411.>
  3. Ames BN. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.2006;103(47):17589-17594.
  4. Ames BN, Liu J. Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:108-116.
  5. Sergi G, Pizzato S, Piovesan F, Trevisan C, Veronese N, Manzato E. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in diabetic neuropathy and other geriatric disorders. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2018;30(2):133-138.
  6. Bene J, Hadzsiev K, Melegh B. Role of carnitine and its derivatives in the development and management of type 2 diabetes.Nutr Diabetes. 2018;8(1):8.
  7. Ferrari R, Merli E, Cicchitelli G, Mele D, Fucili A, Ceconi C. Therapeutic effects of L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine on cardiovascular diseases: a review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1033:79-91.
  8. Chao de la Barca JM, Rondet-Courbis B, Ferre M, et al. A Plasma Metabolomic Profiling of Exudati2020;9(3).
  9. Moos WH, Faller DV, Glavas IP, et al. Treatment and prevention of pathological mitochondrial dysfunction in retinal degeneration and in photoreceptor injury. Biochem Pharmacol.2022;203:115168.
  10. Veronese N, Stubbs B, Solmi M, Ajnakina O, Carvalho AF, Maggi S. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation and the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.Psychosom Med.2018;80(2):154-159.
  11. Kepka A, Ochocinska A, Borzym-Kluczyk M, et al. Preventive Role of L-Carnitine and Balanced Diet in Alzheimer’s Disease. 2020;12(7).
  12. Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management.Altern Med Rev. 2005;10(4):268-293.
  13. Traina G. The neurobiology of acetyl-L-carnitine. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed).2016;21(7):1314-1329.
  14. Crentsil V. Mechanistic contribution of carnitine deficiency to geriatric frailty.Ageing Res Rev.2010;9(3):265-268.
  15. Par A, Hegyi JP, Vancsa S, Par G. Sarcopenia – 2021: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy. Orv Hetil.2021;162(1):3-12.



Environmental risks from artificial nighttime lighting widespread and increasing across Europe. Science Advances 2022, Sept 14, 8 (37):
Evaluating the Association between Artificial Light-at-Night Exposure and Breast and Prostate Cancer Risk in Spain (MCC-Spain Study). Environ Health Perspectives 2018, 126 (4),
Mitochondria as Potential Targets and Initiators of the Blue Light Hazard to the Retina
. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019, Aug 21;2019:6435364.

Gut microbiome of multiple sclerosis patients and paired household healthy controls reveal associations with disease risk and course. Cell 2022, Sept 15, 185 (19): 3467-86.e16:

Plant N-glycan breakdown by human gut Bacteroides. PNAS 2022, Sept 19, 119 (39) e2208168119:

Prebiotic Potential of a New Sweetener Based on Galactooligosaccharides and Modified Mogrosides. J Agric Food Chem 2022, 70, 29, 9048–9056:

Gut-Brain Circuits for Fat PreferenceNature, 2022; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05266-z.

Acute Impact of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiac Arrhythmias in a Population‐Based Sample of Adolescents: The Penn State Child Cohort.  Journal of the American Heart Association 2022, Sept 14, 11 (18):

Independent phenotypic plasticity axes define distinct obesity sub-types. Nat Metab 2022:

news EXTRA

SARS-CoV-2 infection drives an inflammatory response in human adipose tissue through infection of adipocytes and macrophagesScience Translational Medicine, 2022;
Aspirin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. Lancet 2022, Jan 8;399(10320):143-151:

Circulating anti-nuclear autoantibodies in COVID-19 survivors predict long-COVID symptoms. Eur Respir J 2022, Sep 22;2200970.

Association of COVID-19 with New-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimer’s Disease 2022, 89 (2): 411-414:

Effects of mild obesity on outcomes in Japanese patients with COVID-19: a nationwide consortium to investigate COVID-19 host geneticsNutr. Diabetes 2022,12, 38:

How important is obesity as a risk factor for respiratory failure, intensive care admission and death in hospitalised COVID-19 patients? Results from a single Italian centre. EJE 2020, 183 (4):

September 2022


Vitamin B12 and folate decrease inflammation and fibrosis in NASH by preventing Syntaxin 17 homocysteinylation. Journal of Hepatology 2022:
Skill-mix change and outcomes in primary care: Longitudinal analysis of general practices in England 2015-2019. Soc Sci Med 2022, Sep;308:115224:

IHCANchat: High-dose Vitamin B6 supplementation reduces anxiety and strengthens visual surround suppression. Hum Psychopharmacol 2022, Jul 19;e2852, online ahead of print:

The impact of Rhodiola rosea on biomarkers of diabetes, inflammation, and microbiota in a leptin receptor-knockout mouse modelScientific Reports, 2022; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-022-14241-7.

Plant green pigment of chlorophyllin attenuates inflammatory bowel diseases by suppressing autophagy activation in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2022, 323(2):G102-G113:

A non-canonical vitamin K cycle is a potent ferroptosis suppressor. Nature 2022:

Alzheimer’s is Preventable campaign:
Effect of reductions in amyloid levels on cognitive change in randomized trials: instrumental variable meta-analysis. BMJ 2021; 372: n156.
Editorial. Dementia: a false promise. Lancet 2014;384(9948):1072:
The costs of developing treatments for Alzheimer’s disease: A retrospective exploration. Alzheimer’s Dement 2022;18:469–477.  
Genetics of Alzheimer disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 2010, 23(4) 213-227:
Effect of the Apolipoprotein E Genotype on Cognitive Change During a Multidomain Lifestyle Intervention: A Subgroup Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol. 2018; 75: 462-70:
Precision Nutrition for Alzheimer’s Prevention in ApoE4 Carriers.
Nutrients 2021, 13, 1362:
Effect of Intensive vs Standard Blood Pressure Control on Probable Dementia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019, Feb 12;321(6):553-561:
Evidence-based prevention of Alzheimer’s disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of 243 observational prospective studies and 153 randomised controlled trials. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020,  Nov;91(11):1201-1209:
Epidemiologic studies of modifiable factors associated with cognition and dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 2014 Jun 24;14:643:
Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment. Annual Review of Nutrition 2016, 36: 211-239:
Piloting and validation of a novel self-administered online cognitive screening tool in normal older persons: the Cognitive Function Test. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2014, Feb; 29(2):198-206:

Intranasal delivery of pro-resolving lipid mediators rescues memory and gamma oscillation impairment in AppNL-G-F/NL-G-F mice. Communications Biology 2022, 5, 245:
Downregulation of Neurofilament Light Chain Expression in Human Neuronal-Glial Cell Co-Cultures by a Microbiome-Derived Lipopolysaccharide-Induced miRNA-30b-5p. Front. Neurol 2022, Sec. Autonomic Neuroscience,

Fibre stats:,aim%20for%2015g%20per%20day.

Inflammation, tau pathology, and synaptic integrity associated with sleep spindles and memory prior to β-amyloid positivity. Sleep 2022:  zsac135,

A Japanese Herbal Formula, Daikenchuto, Alleviates Experimental Colitis by Reshaping Microbial Profiles and Enhancing Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells. Frontiers in Immunology 2022: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.903459.

Inflammatory exposure drives long-lived impairment of hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal activity and accelerated aging. Cell Stem Cell 2022, Jul 12: S1934-5909(22)00261-2.

Dietary Meat, Trimethylamine N-Oxide-Related Metabolites, and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 2022, Aug 1:

Vitamin D deficiency and C-reactive protein: a bidirectional Mendelian randomization study
International Journal of Epidemiology 2022. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyac087.
Vitamin D and brain health: an observational and Mendelian randomization study. Am J Clin Nutr 2022, Aug 4;116(2):531-540:
Supplemental Vitamin D and Incident Fractures in Midlife and Older Adults. N Engl J Med 2022, July 28, 387:299-309:
Guidelines for optimizing design and analysis of clinical studies of nutrient effects. Nutr Rev 2014, Jan;72(1):48-54:
Post-hoc analysis of vitamin D status and reduced risk of preterm birth in two vitamin D pregnancy cohorts compared with South Carolina March of Dimes 2009-2011 rates. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2016, Jan;155(Pt B):245-51:

Association of Ultraprocessed Food Consumption With Risk of Dementia A Prospective Cohort
Neurology, July 27, 2022 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200871.

Roundup and glyphosate’s impact on GABA to elicit extended proconvulsant behavior in Caenorhabditis elegansSci Rep 2022, 12, 13655:

Exercise training enhances muscle mitochondrial metabolism in diet-resistant obesityeBioMedicine, 2022; 104192 DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104192.

Folic acid and neural tube defects: Discovery, debate and the need for policy change. J Med Screen 2022, Sep;29(3):138-146:

Risk of hip fracture in meat-eaters, pescatarians, and vegetarians: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study. BMC Med 2022, 20, 275:

Effect on bone anabolic markers of daily cheese intake with and without vitamin K2: a randomised clinical trial. BMJ Nutrition Prevention & Health 2022:

Gut Microbial Stability is Associated with Greater Endurance Performance in Athletes Undertaking Dietary Periodization. mSystems 2022, 7:3,

1. High-dose thiamine supplementation improves glucose tolerance in hyperglycemic individuals: a randomized, double-blind cross-over trial. Eur J Nutr 2013 Oct;52(7):1821-4:
2. Dysfunctional mitochondria as critical players in the inflammation of autoimmune diseases: Potential role in Sjögren’s syndrome. Autoimmun Rev 2021 Aug;20(8):102867:
3. Mitochondria, endothelial cell function, and vascular diseases. Front. Physiol 2014, 6 May, Sec. Redox Physiology:
4. Thiamine Deficiency Disease, Dysautonomia and High Calorie Malnutrition, by Derrick Lonsdale, MD, and Chandler Marrs, PhD. Academic Press; 1st edition (June 29, 2017):
5. EONutrition:

COVID update

  1. “A Deeper Dive on CDC’s Exit Strategy”, by Jeffrey A. Tucker. August 15, 2022:
    2. ONS links: and
    3. “Deaths with unknown causes now Alberta’s top killer: province”, by Nicole Di Donato, July 6, 2022:
  2. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and Long COVID: The SARS-CoV-2 Viral Superantigen Hypothesis. Front. Immunol 2022, Sec. Molecular Innate Immunity:
  3. The Efficacy of Facemasks in the Prevention of COVID-19: A Systematic Review. medRxiv 2022:
    6. “How junk science got spread like wildfire”, by Dr Alasdair Munro. August 10, 2022:
August 2022


Antidepressant prescribing in England: patterns and costs. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2020, 22(2):19m02552:
What the NHS tells patients:
What proportion of initially prescribed antidepressants is still being prescribed chronically after 5 years in general practice? A longitudinal cohort analysis. BMJ Open 2019; 9:e024051:
Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet 2018, Apr 7;391(10128):1357-1366:


Interpersonal Gut Microbiome Variation Drives Susceptibility and Resistance to Cholera Infection. Cell 2022, June 16:
Gut microbiota composition reflects disease severity and dysfunctional immune responses in patients with COVID-19.  Gut 2022:

The serotonin theory of depression: a systematic umbrella review of the evidence. Mol Psychiatry 2022:

High‐dose Vitamin B6 supplementation reduces anxiety and strengthens visual surround suppression. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 2022; DOI: 10.1002/hup.2852.

Double-blinded randomised placebo controlled trial of enterosgel (polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate) for the treatment of IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D. Gut 2022, published online first, 27 June:

Molecular Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation in ME/CFS and Long COVID to Sustain Disease and Promote RelapsesFrontiers in Neurology, 2022; 13. DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2022.877772.
Investigating trends in those who experience menstrual bleeding changes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccinationScience Advances, 2022; 8 (28). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abm7201.
Cloaking the ACE2 receptor with salivary cationic proteins inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entryThe Journal of Biochemistry 2022. DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvac054.
Reduced Vitamin A RBP levels in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Presented at the American Society for Nutrition’s Nutrition 2022 Live Online, by Dr Richard Vollenberg, MD. Also see Significantly Reduced Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) Levels in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients. Nutrients 2022, May; 14(10): 2007, doi: 10.3390/nu14102007.

“How gut bacteria could boost cancer treatments”, by Jeanne Erdmann. News feature, Nature, 19 July 2022:
Gut microbiota from patients with mild COVID-19 cause alterations in mice that resemble post-COVID syndrome. Preprint (Version 1) 22 June 2022,  available at Research Square:

Trends and Disparities in Cardiometabolic Health Among U.S. Adults, 1999-2018Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2022; 80 (2): 138 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.04.046.
Our unhealthy nation. The Lancet Healthy Longevity 2021, Comment, 2: 1, E8-9. DOI:

“Tufts University touts the Food Compass as the ‘most comprehensive and science-based’ nutrient profiling system to date that clears up confusion to benefit consumers, policymakers”:
Limitations of the Food Compass Nutrient Profiling System. SocArXiv 2022, Feb 18:

Healthy aging and muscle function are positively associated with NAD+ abundance in humans. Nat Aging 2022, 2, 254–263:

E-series resolvin metabolome, biosynthesis and critical role of stereochemistry of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) in inflammation-resolution: Preparing SPMs for long COVID-19, human clinical trials, and targeted precision nutrition
. Seminars in Immunology 2022, online February16:

Diet and feeding pattern modulate diurnal dynamics of the ileal microbiome and transcriptome
Cell Reports 2022; 40 (1): 111008 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111008.

Human Colon Cancer–Derived Clostridioides difficile Strains Drive Colonic Tumourigenesis in Mice. Cancer Discov 2022, July 12.

ZBTB46 defines and regulates ILC3s that protect the intestine. Nature 2022, July 13:

Retrograde movements determine effective stem cell numbers in the intestine. Nature 2022; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04962-0.

Oral antibiotics reduce voluntary exercise behavior in athletic mice. Behavioural Processes 2022; 199: 1046,50 DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2022.104650. 


The influence of the macular carotenoids on women’s eye and brain healthNutritional Neuroscience, 2022; 1 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2022.2084125.

The Ketogenic Diet for Refractory Mental Illness: A Retrospective Analysis of 31 Inpatients. Front Psychiatry 2022, July 6:

Disentangling self from pain: mindfulness meditation-induced pain relief is driven by thalamic-default mode network decoupling. Pain 2022, July 7:

Secular Trends in Risk Profiles Among Adults With Cardiovascular Disease in the United States. J Am Coll Cardiol 2022, Jul, 80 (2) 126–37:

Memory-enhancing properties of sleep depend on the oscillatory amplitude of norepinephrineNature Neuroscience 2022: 10.1038/s41593-022-01102-9

July 2022

Increased emergency cardiovascular events among under-40 population in Israel during vaccine rollout and third COVID-19 wave. Sci Rep 2022, 12, 6978:
Long-term outcomes of adding Lutein/Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids to the AREDS Supplements on Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression: AREDS2 Report #28JAMA Ophthalmology 2022, June 2:

Ameliorating Atopy by Compensating Micronutritional Deficiencies in Immune Cells: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Pilot StudyThe Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.jaip.2022.02.028.

Red Blood Cell DHA Is Inversely Associated with Risk of Incident Alzheimer’s Disease and All-Cause Dementia: Framingham Offspring Study. Nutrients 2022, 14(12), 2408;  

A Multicentre, Randomised, Double Blind, Parallel Design, Placebo Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Uthever (NMN Supplement), an Orally Administered Supplementation in Middle Aged and Older Adults. Front. Aging 2022:

Early clues regarding the pathogenesis of long-COVID.
Trends Immunol 2022, Apr; 43(4): 268-70.
Long COVID: to investigate immunological mechanisms and sex/gender related aspects as fundamental steps for tailored therapy.
Eur Respir J.2022, Feb; 59(2): doi 10.1183/13993003.02245-2021.
Role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in COVID-19. Crit Care 2020, 24, 422:
Long covid – mechanisms, risk factors, and management. BMJ 2021;374:n1648:
Regulation of cytokine signaling pathways by PIAS proteins. Cell Res 2006, 16, 196–202 (2006).
Metabolic features of the cell danger response. Mitochondrion 2014, May;16:7-17. doi: 10.1016/j.mito.2013.08.006.


Cannabidiol (CBD) modulation of apelin in acute respiratory distress syndrome.  J Cell Mol Med 2020;00:1–4.
Cannabidiol Inhibits Glioblastoma Progression Through Regulation of Tumor MicroenvironmentCannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2021; published online Dec 21:
Inflammaging and Cannabinoids. Ageing Research Reviews 2021, 72, [101487]:
Effects of cannabidiol on simulated driving and cognitive performance: A dose-ranging randomised controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology 2022:

Maternal gut microbiome–induced IgG regulates neonatal gut microbiome and immunityScience Immunology 2022; 7 (72). DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abh3816.
Clinical, gut microbial and neural effects of a probiotic add-on therapy in depressed patients: a randomized controlled trialTranslational Psychiatry, 2022; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41398-022-01977-z.

Does the concept of ‘ultra-processed foods’ help inform dietary guidelines, beyond conventional classification systems? YESThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2022; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac122.
Does the concept of ‘ultra-processed foods’ help inform dietary guidelines, beyond conventional classification systems? NOThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2022; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac123.
Conflicts of interests of ICQC members (International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium):
Ultra-processed foods: what they are and how to identify them. Public Health Nutr. 2019, Apr;22(5):936-941. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980018003762.

Effects of a New Multicomponent Nutritional Supplement on Muscle Mass and Physical Performance in Adult and Old Patients Recovered from COVID-19: A Pilot Observational Case–Control Study. Nutrients 2022, 14(11), 2316:

NEWS extra
Folate related pathway gene analysis reveals a novel metabolic variant
associated with Alzheimer’s disease with a change in metabolic profile.
Metabolites 2022, 12(6), 475;

Corroboration of a Major Role for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Alzheimer’s Disease. Front Aging Neurosci 2018:
Latent herpes simplex virus type 1 in normal and Alzheimer’s disease brains. J Med Virol 1991 Apr;33(4):224-7,
Herpes simplex virus type 1 in brain and risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1997, Jan 25;349(9047):241-4:

Vitamin D and brain health: an observational and Mendelian randomization studyAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2022; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac107.

Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness. PLOS One 2022,
Vitamin D, Epstein-Barr virus, and endogenous retroviruses in multiple sclerosis – facts and hypotheses. J Integr Neurosci 2021, Mar 30;20(1):233-238:

SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells associate with inflammation and reduced lung function in pulmonary post-acute sequalae of SARS-CoV-2PLOS Pathogens, 2022; 18 (5): e1010359 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010359.

June 2022

Increasing use of prescription drugs in the United Kingdom. 
Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety 2016, 25(6), 628–636.


Fruit and vegetable intake is inversely associated with severity of inattention in a pediatric population with ADHD symptoms: the MADDY StudyNutritional Neuroscience 2022; 1 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2022.2071805.
Chronic Consumption of Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) for 12 Weeks Improves Episodic Memory and Regional Brain Perfusion in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Groups Feasibility StudyFrontiers in Nutrition 2022; 9 DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2022.849902.

Influenza virus replication in cardiomyocytes drives heart dysfunction and fibrosis. Sci Adv 2022, May 13, 8(19):eabm5371, doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abm5371.
SARS-CoV-2 infects human engineered heart tissues and models COVID-19 myocarditis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology: Basic to Translational Science 2021, 6: 4, 331-345:
SARS-CoV-2 and influenza: a comparative overview and treatment implications. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex. 2020;77(5):262-273. DOI: 10.24875/BMHIM.20000183.
“Even Mild COVID Can Increase the Risk of Heart Problems”, by Mariana Lenharo. Scientific American, March 16, 2022:

Candida albicans oscillating UME6 expression during intestinal colonization primes systemic Th17 protective immunity. Cell Reports 2022; 39 (7): 110837 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110837.

Obese individuals do not underreport dietary intake to a greater extent than nonobese individuals when data are allometrically-scaled. Am J Human Biol 2022,

NEWS SARS in the gut

“Coronavirus ‘ghosts’ found lingering in the gut”, by Heidi Ledford.
Nature 605, 408-409 (2022),
Natarajan, A. et al. Med (2022). Article  Google Scholar 
Zollner, A. et al. Gasteroenterology (2022). PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 
Gaebler, C. et al. Nature 591, 639–644 (2021). PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 
Chertow, D. et al. Preprint at Research Square (2021).
Goh, D. et al. Preprint at Research Square (2022).

1.         Isaacs LL. Pancreatic proteolytic enzymes and cancer: new support for an old theory. Integr Cancer Ther. 2022;21:15347354221096077. doi: 10.1177/15347354221096077. Available at:

  1. Gonzalez NJ. One Man Alone; An Investigation of Nutrition, Cancer, and William Donald Kelley. New York, NY: New Spring Press; 2010.
  2. Gonzalez NJ, Isaacs LL. Evaluation of pancreatic proteolytic enzyme treatment of adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, with nutrition and detoxification support. Nutr Cancer. 1999;33(2):117-124. doi: 10.1207/S15327914NC330201 Available at:
  3. Gonzalez NJ. What Went Wrong: The Truth Behind the Clinical Trial of the Enzyme Treatment of Cancer. New York, NY: New Spring Press; 2012.
  4. Isaacs LL. Research battles: survival tips from a veteran. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2015;14(5):30-32. Available at:
  5. Andriulli A, Masoero G, Felder M, et al. Circulating trypsin-like immunoreactivity in chronic pancreatitis. Dig Dis Sci. 1981;26(6):532-537. doi: 10.1007/bf01308103.
  6. Andriulli A, Masoero G. Serum trypsinogen. Dig Dis Sci. 1984;29(5):479. doi: 10.1007/bf01296230.
  7. Verhamme IM, Leonard SE, Perkins RC. Proteases: pivot points in functional proteomics. Meth Mol Biol (Clifton, NJ). 2019;1871:313-392. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8814-3_20. Available at:
  8. Pontarollo G, Mann A, Brandão I, Malinarich F, Schöpf M, Reinhardt C. Protease-activated receptor signaling in intestinal permeability regulation. FEBS J. 2020;287(4):645-658. doi: 10.1111/febs.15055. Available at:
  9. Liu L, Shah K. The Potential of the Gut Microbiome to Reshape the Cancer Therapy Paradigm: A Review. JAMA Oncol. 2022. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0494.
  10. Beard J. The Enzyme Treatment of Cancer and Its Scientific Basis. London: Chatto and Windus; 1911.
  11. Lala PK, Nandi P, Hadi A, Halari C. A crossroad between placental and tumor biology: What have we learnt? Placenta. 2021;116:12–30. doi: 10.1016/j.placenta.2021.03.003.
  12. Even-Ram SC, Grisaru-Granovsky S, Pruss D, et al. The pattern of expression of protease-activated receptors (PARs) during early trophoblast development. J Pathol. 2003;200(1):47-52. doi: 10.1002/path.1338
  13. Nag JK, Bar-Shavit R. Transcriptional Landscape of PARs in Epithelial Malignancies. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(11). doi: 10.3390/ijms19113451.
  14. Hernandez-Camarero P, Lopez-Ruiz E, Grinan-Lison C, et al. Pancreatic (pro)enzymes treatment suppresses BXPC-3 pancreatic cancer stem cell subpopulation and impairs tumour engrafting. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):11359. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-47837-7.

Obesity I: Overview and molecular and biochemical mechanisms.
Biochemical Pharmacology 2022, 199: 115012. Part of Special Issue, Impact of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Health and Disease:
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May 2022

Microbiomes of Urine and the Prostate Are Linked to Human Prostate Cancer Risk Groups.
Eur Urology Oncology 2022, April 18,

Identifying molecular mediators of the relationship between body mass index and endometrial cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization analysis. BMC Med 2020, 20, 125, Open Access:

Characterizing menstrual bleeding changes occurring after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.
medRxiv 2021,10.11.21264863; doi:

Long covid: How to define it and how to manage it. BMJ 2020, 370. Rapid responses, doi:

Beriberi may be misdiagnosed as a viral infection. NY Acad. Sci 2018:

Fever believed to be caused by viral infections may rather emanate from dysfunction of the hypothalamus with accompanying lack of nitric oxide induced by thiamine deficiency. American J Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementia 2008, Jan:

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Risk: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 2022, 14 Apr:

Association of adverse childhood experiences with the development of multiple sclerosis.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry Published Online First: 04 April 2022.
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease: Depression, Inflammation, and Clustering of Metabolic Risk Markers. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2009;163(12):1135–1143
Improved nutrition in the first 1000 days and adult human capital and health. Am J Hum Biol. 2017;29(2):10.1002/ajhb.22952.
Global burden of maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Ann Nutr Metab. 2012;61 Suppl 1:8-17.
Personalised prescribing: using pharmacogenomics to improve patient outcomes. Royal College of Physicians:
Nutrigenomics, the Microbiome, and Gene-Environment Interactions: New Directions in Cardiovascular Disease Research, Prevention, and Treatment. Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics 2016;9:291–313:
The Human Gutome: Nutrigenomics of Host-Microbiome Interactions.
Front. Genet 2016:

1. Saul AW (2020) Vitamin C Protects Against Coronavirus. Orthomolecular Medicine News Service.

  1. Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance: Prevention & Treatment Protocols for COVID-19. (2022)
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  5. Holford P (2021) Twelve intervention trials conclude that vitamin C works for Covid. So why are hospitals being prohibited from using it? Orthomolecular Medicine News Service.
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VITAMIN C and IODINE – Dr Sarah Myhill
The Potential of Coconut Oil and its Derivatives as Effective and Safe Antiviral Agents Against the Novel Coronavirus (nCoV-2019),
Jan 31, 2020:

IHCAN Summit
The pandemic brain: Neuroinflammation in non-infected individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2022, Vol 102, May, 89-97:!.

Oxidized Phospholipids Cause Changes in Jejunum Mucus that Induce Dysbiosis and Systemic InflammationJournal of Lipid Research 2021; 100153 DOI: 10.1016/j.jlr.2021.100153.

Gut microbiome alterations and gut barrier dysfunction are associated with host immune homeostasis in COVID-19 patients. BMC Medicine 2022, 20, 24, Open Access:

1.         Lugo JP, Saiyed ZM, Lau FC, et al. Undenatured type II collagen (UC-II®) for joint support: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. Published online 2013. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-48

  1. Sengupta K, Alluri K V, Satish AR, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10(4):R85. doi:10.1186/ar2461
  2. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin D and contribution to the normal function of the immune system pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2015;13(5):4096, 7 pp. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2015.4096
  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B12 and red blood cell formation (ID 92, 101), cell division (ID 93), energy-yielding metabolism (ID 99, 190) and function of the immune system (ID 107) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J. 2009;7(10). doi:10.2903/J.EFSA.2009.1223
  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin A and contribution to normal development and function of the immune system pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J. 2013;11(7). doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2013.3334
  5. Busch R, Gruenwald J, Dudek S. Randomized, Double Blind and Placebo Controlled Study Using a Combination of Two Probiotic Lactobacilli to Alleviate Symptoms and Frequency of Common Cold. Food Nutr Sci. 2013;04(11):13-20. doi:10.4236/fns.2013.411a003
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  7. Morgan A, Stevens J. Does bacopa monnieri improve memory performance in older persons? Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(7):753-759. doi:10.1089/acm.2009.0342
  8. Pravina K, Ravindra KR, Goudar KS, et al. Safety evaluation of BacoMindTM in healthy volunteers: A phase I study. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(5):301-308. doi:10.1016/j.phymed.2007.03.010
  9. Barbhaiya HC, Desai RP, Saxena VS, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of BacoMind® on memory improvement in elderly participants – A double blind placebo controlled study. J Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008;3(6):425-434. doi:10.3923/jpt.2008.425.434
  10. Schiborr C, Kocher A, Behnam D, Jandasek J, Toelstede S, Frank J. The oral bioavailability of curcumin from micronized powder and liquid micelles is significantly increased in healthy humans and differs between sexes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014;0:1-12. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201300724
  11. Kocher A, Schiborr C, Behnam D, Frank J. The oral bioavailability of curcuminoids in healthy humans is markedly enhanced by micellar solubilisation but not further improved by simultaneous ingestion of sesamin, ferulic acid, naringenin and xanthohumol. J Funct Foods. 2015;14:183-191. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2015.01.045
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  13. Kell G, Rao A, Beccaria G, Clayton P, Inarejos-García AM, Prodanov M. affron ® a novel saffron extract ( Crocus sativus L .) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2017;33:58-64. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2017.06.001
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  16. Bries A, Wang C, Wels B, et al. Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms and Non-transferrin Bound Iron After Oral Ferrous Sulfate and Iron-enriched Aspergillus Oryzae Supplementation in Women (P24-039-19). Curr Dev Nutr. 2019;3(Supplement_1). doi:10.1093/cdn/nzz044.p24-039-19
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  24. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin D and maintenance of bone and teeth (ID 150, 151, 158), absorption and utilisation of calcium and phosphorus and maintenance of normal blood calcium concentrations (ID 152, 157), cell division (ID 153), and thyroid function (ID 156) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 on request from the European Commission. EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9):1227. [19 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1227
  25. Lehmann U, Hirche F, Stangl GI, Hinz K, Westphal S, Dierkes J. Bioavailability of vitamin D2 and D3 in healthy volunteers, a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(11):4339-4345. doi:10.1210/jc.2012-4287

1. COVID-19 and Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome, or is it Mast Cell Activation Syndrome?  J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2020, Sep-Oct, 34(5):1633-1636.
2. Mast cell activation symptoms are prevalent in Long-COVID. Int J Infect Dis 2021, Nov;112:217-226. Open Access:
3. Potential inhibitor of COVID‐19 main protease (Mpro) from several medicinal plant compounds by molecular docking studyPreprints 2020:

  1. Rapid identification of potential inhibitors of SARS‐CoV‐2 main protease by deep docking of 1.3 billion compounds.Mol Inform 2020:
    5. Brain “fog”, inflammation and obesity: key aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders improved by luteolin. Front. Neurosci 2015:
    6. Impact of polyphenols on mast cells with special emphasis on the effect of quercetin and luteolin. Cent Eur J Immunol 2018, 43(4): 476–481. Published online 2018 Dec 31, doi: 10.5114/ceji.2018.81347.
    7. Luteolin supplements: All that glitters is not gold. Biofactors 2021, Mar;47(2):242-244:
    8. Endocrine disrupting activities of the flavonoid nutraceuticals luteolin and quercetin. Horm Cancer 2013, October, 4(5):

Micronutrients for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Youths: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2022; 61 (5): 647 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.07.005.

Population genomics confirms acquisition of drug-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus infection by humans from the environmentNat Microbiol 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s41564-022-01091-2.

Experimental colonization with Blastocystis ST4 is associated with protective immune responses and modulation of gut microbiome in a DSS-induced colitis mouse modelCellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 2022; 79 (5) DOI: 10.1007/s00018-022-04271-9.

The gut microbiome influences host diet selection behaviorProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2022; 119 (17) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2117537119.

Pericyte-to-endothelial cell signaling via vitronectin-integrin regulates blood-CNS barrier. Neuron 2022, In Press, Corrected Proof Published online: March 15.

April 2022

Sulphoraphane exhibits antiviral activity against pandemic SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoV-OC43 coronaviruses in vitro and in mice.
 Communications Biology 2022; 5 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s42003-022-03189-z.
Sulforaphane: Its “Coming of Age” as a Clinically Relevant Nutraceutical in the Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Disease. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2019:
Human gut bacteria produce ΤΗ17-modulating bile acid metabolites. Nature 2022, March 16.
A bacterial bile acid metabolite modulates Treg activity through the nuclear hormone receptor NR4A1. Cell Host & Microbe 2021, August 19:
The prognostic role of micronutrient status and supplements in COVID-19 outcomes: A systematic review. Food Chem Toxicol 2022, Apr; 162: 112901,  doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2022.112901.
Promising Effects of 3-Month Period of Quercetin Phytosome® Supplementation in the Prevention of Symptomatic COVID-19 Disease in Healthcare Workers: A Pilot Study. Life (Basel) 2022, Jan 4;12(1):66.
Virus-induced senescence is a driver and therapeutic target in COVID-19. Nature 2021, 599, 283–289.
Menopause Is Associated With Postprandial Metabolism, Metabolic Health and Lifestyle: The ZOE PREDICT Study. Lancet 2022 pre-print: or
Immune regulation by fungal strain diversity in inflammatory bowel disease. Nature 2022. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04502-w.

A (growing) list of references and commentary is online at Her books Deep Nutrition: Why Your Genes Need Traditional Food and The Fatburn Fix are fully-referenced (Deep Nutrition has more than 650 citations).
Other relevant resources are: Interesterification leads to elevated glucose:
Refining Steps:, and
Eva Södergren’s PhD dissertation is online at Lipid peroxidation in vivo. Evaluation and application of methods for measurement. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine 949. 78 pp. Uppsala. ISBN 91-554-4791-0.


A novel functional mast cell assay for the detection of allergies. Biologics And Immunotherapy 2022, 149, 3: 1018-30.E11, March 1:
Projected climate-driven changes in pollen emission season length and magnitude over the continental United States. Nature Communications 2022:
Faecal transfer: Rima Rachid, MD, lead investigator and co-director of the Food Allergy Program at Boston Children’s, presented results February 26 at the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) annual meeting.
Microbiota Therapy Acts Via a Regulatory T Cell MyD88/RORγt Pathway to Suppress Food Allergy. Nature Med 2019, Jul; 25(7): 1164–1174, doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0461-z.
Quercetin with the potential effect on allergic diseases. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2020, 16, 36:


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Severe Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress and Oxidant Damage in Adults Hospitalized with COVID-19: Implications for GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) SupplementationAntioxidants, 2021; 11 (1): 50 DOI: 10.3390/antiox11010050.

Deficient synthesis of glutathione underlies oxidative stress in aging and can be corrected by dietary cysteine and glycine supplementation. Am J Clin Nutr 2011, Sep; 94 (3): 847-53.

GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) Supplementation in Mice Increases Length of Life by Correcting Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Abnormalities in Mitophagy and Nutrient Sensing, and Genomic DamageNutrients 202214, 1114.

GlyNAC Supplementation Improves Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Inflammation, Aging Hallmarks, Metabolic Defects, Muscle Strength, Cognitive Decline, and Body Composition: Implications for Healthy Aging  Journal of Nutrition 2021, Dec, 151, 12: 3606–16:

Molecular Interactions of Tannic Acid with Proteins Associated with SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2022; 23 (5): 2643.  DOI: 10.3390/ijms23052643.

Ketogenic diet and chemotherapy combine to disrupt pancreatic cancer metabolism and growth. Med 2022; 3 (2): 119. DOI: 10.1016/j.medj.2021.12.008.
A comparison over 2 decades of disability-free life expectancy at age 65 years for those with long-term conditions in England: Analysis of the 2 longitudinal Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies. PLOS Medicine 2022, 19 (3): e1003936. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003936.
Impact of Alpha-linolenic Acid, the Vegetable Omega-3 Fatty Acid, on Cardiovascular Disease and Cognition. Advances in Nutrition 2022. DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmac016.
Clonal Deletion Prunes but Does Not Eliminate Self-Specific αβ CD8(+) T Lymphocytes. Immunity 2015, 42(5), 929–41:
Opposing T cell responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Nature 2019, 572, 481–7):
KIR+CD8+ T cells suppress pathogenic T cells and are active in autoimmune diseases and COVID-19. Science 2022, Mar 8: eabi9591. Epub ahead of print:
Reverse re-modelling chronic heart failure by reinstating heart rate variability. Basic Research in Cardiology 2022; 117 (1). DOI: 10.1007/s00395-022-00911-0.
Daily consumption of cranberry improves endothelial function in healthy adults: a double blind randomized controlled trial. Food & Function 2022. DOI: 10.1039/D2FO00080F.
Preserved stem cell content and innervation profile of elderly human skeletal muscle with lifelong recreational exerciseJournal of Physiology 2022. DOI: 10.1113/JP282677.
Effect of cocoa flavanol supplementation for prevention of cardiovascular disease events: The COSMOS randomized clinical trial.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2022. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac055.
Multivitamins in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease: The COSMOS randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2022. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqac056.

Long COVID news extra
Quantitative Chest CT Assessment of Small Airways Disease in Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2 InfectionRadiology 2022. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.212170.
What Are the Long-term Pulmonary Sequelae of COVID-19 Infection? Radiology 2022. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.220449.
Mild COVID-19 imprints a long-term inflammatory eicosanoid- and chemokine memory in monocyte-derived macrophagesMucosal Immunology 2022. DOI: 10.1038/s41385-021-00482-8.
Exercise as a Moderator of Persistent Neuroendocrine Symptoms of COVID-19Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 2022, Publish Ahead of Print. DOI: 10.1249/JES.0000000000000284.






In Focus April 2022


Hannah Braye:

  1. FMCG Gurus Report. FMCG Gurus. FMCG Gurus Report (2021).
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Lissa Leader:

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Marta Anhelush:

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Graeme Jones:



Ben Makeham:

(1) 10.1038/s41574-019-0246-y
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(7) Villa CR, Ward WE, Comelli EM. Gut microbiota-bone axis. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017;57(8):1664–72.
(10) Ohlsson C, Sjögren K. Effects of the gut microbiota on bone mass. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2015;26(2):69–74.
(11) Ohlsson C, Engdahl C, Fak F, Andersson A, Windahl SH, Farman HH, et al. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss. PLoS One. 2014;9(3).
(12) Zhang J, Lu Y, Wang Y, Ren X, Han J. The impact of the intestinal microbiome on bone health. Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2018;7(3):148–55.

March 2022

Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: a living systematic review.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 24;5(5):CD015043, doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD015043.


Mucosal fungi promote gut barrier function and social behaviour via Type 17 immunity. Cell 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.017.

Could there be a link between oral hygiene and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections? Br Dent J 2020, 228, 971–975:

Vitamin D and marine omega 3 fatty acid supplementation and incident autoimmune disease: VITAL randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2022, 376 doi:

Vitamin D and marine omega 3 fatty acid supplementation and incident autoimmune disease: VITAL randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2022:

Disrupted Peyer’s Patch Microanatomy in COVID-19 Including Germinal Centre Atrophy Independent of Local VirusFrontiers in Immunology, 2022; 13 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.838328.

Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Am J Psychiatry 2019, Published Online 21 May:

Clinical significance of micronutrient supplements in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysisClinical Nutrition ESPEN, 2022; DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.12.033.

Zinc, Vitamin D and Vitamin C: Perspectives for COVID-19 With a Focus on Physical Tissue Barrier Integrity. Front Nutr 2020, Dec:

Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illnessPLOS ONE, 2022; 17 (2): e0263069 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0263069.

Echinacea as a Potential Force against Coronavirus Infections? A Mini-Review of Randomized Controlled Trials in Adults and Children. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 211.
Echinacea purpurea for the Long-term Prevention of Viral Respiratory Tract Infections during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized, Open, Controlled, Exploratory Clinical Study. medRxiv 2021,12.10.21267582; doi: (Pre-print before peer-review.)

NEWS extra (page 54)
Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19
Nature Medicine 2022, DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-01689-3.
Risk of persistent and new clinical sequelae among adults aged 65 years and older during the post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2022, 376, e068414; doi: (published 09 February).
Investigating phenotypes of pulmonary COVID-19 recovery – a longitudinal observational prospective multicenter trialeLife, 2022; 11 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.72500.

EBV – Rose Holmes

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  19. Palanisamy JK, Ponnu S, Mani S, Balakrishnan S (2018) A Critical Review of Traditional Herbal Drugs: An Emerging Alternative Drug for Varicose Veins. World Journal of Pharmacological Research 7(5):316-338.
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Ebola virus persistence and disease recrudescence in the brains of antibody-treated nonhuman primate survivorsScience Translational Medicine 2022; 14 (631) DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abi5229.
1. The Association of Low Vitamin K Status with Mortality in a Cohort of 138 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19Nutrients 2021, Jun 9;13(6):1985. doi: 10.3390/nu13061985.



Superfoods: Recent Data on their Role in the Prevention of Diseases. Curr Res Nutr Food Sci 2018, DOI :

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3: 4:

  1. The role of plaque rupture and thrombosis in coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 2000, Apr;149(2):251-66.


Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate: Is There Any Scientific Evidence for Their Effectiveness as Disease-Modifying Drugs in Knee Osteoarthritis Preclinical Studies?-A Systematic Review from 2000 to 2021. Animals (Basel) 2021, May 29;11(6):1608,
gp130/STAT3 signaling is required for homeostatic proliferation and anabolism in postnatal growth plate and articular chondrocytesCommunications Biology, 2022; 5 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s42003-021-02944-y.
Fat Mass Has Negative Effects on Bone, Especially in Men: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of NHANES 2011-2018.  Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2022, Feb 10, online ahead of print:
The Role of Prunes in Modulating Inflammatory Pathways to Improve Bone Health in Postmenopausal Women. Adv Nutr 2022 Jan 3:nmab162. Epub ahead of print.

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9. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health. Integr Med (Encinitas) 2015, Feb; 14(1): 34–39:



Tryptophan-derived microbial metabolites activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in tumor-associated macrophages to suppress anti-tumor immunityImmunity, 2022; 55 (2): 324 DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2022.01.006.

Effect and Tolerability of a Nutritional Supplement Based on a Synergistic Combination of β-Glucans and Selenium- and Zinc-Enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ABB C1®) in Volunteers Receiving the Influenza or the COVID-19 Vaccine: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4347; Open Access.

Caloric restriction in humans reveals immunometabolic regulators of health span. Science 2022, 10 Feb, 375 (6581), 671-7. DOI: 10.1126/science.abg7292.

February 2022

From about late March/early April…
“Strong new evidence suggests a virus triggers multiple sclerosis”, by Megan Molteni, Jan 13:  

Quercetin and Vitamin C: An Experimental, Synergistic Therapy for the Prevention and Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Related Disease (COVID-19). Front. Immunol 2020,
Quercetin-induced apoptosis prevents EBV infection. Oncotarget 2015, 6(14):12603-24,   

Longitudinal analysis reveals high prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus associated with multiple sclerosis.
Science 2022, Jan 13, 375 (6578), 296-301:

Increased Serological Response Against Human Herpesvirus 6A Is Associated With Risk for Multiple SclerosisFrontiers in Immunology 2019,10. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02715.

Vitamin D, Epstein-Barr virus, and endogenous retroviruses in multiple sclerosis – facts and hypotheses.
J Integr Neurosci 2021, Mar 30;20(1):233-238:

An investigation into the Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Pulmonary CT Findings and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia A Randomized Clinical Trial. Urol J  2021, Nov 8; 6863.

Effect of high-dose zinc and ascorbic acid supplementation vs usual care on symptom length and reduction among ambulatory patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: The COVID A to Z randomized clinical trial. JAMA Network Open. 2021, 4, e210369. 134:

Vitamin C may increase the recovery rate of outpatient cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection by 70%: Reanalysis of the COVID A to Z randomized clinical trial. Front. Immunol. 2021, 12, 674681:
Bias against Vitamin C in Mainstream Medicine: Examples from Trials of Vitamin C for Infections. Life (Basel) 2022, Jan 3;12(1):62. DOI: 10.3390/life12010062.

“Covid-19: FDA expert panel recommends authorising molnupiravir but also voices concerns”. BMJ 2021, 375, doi: (Published 02 December 2021).

Ovalbumin production using Trichoderma reesei culture and low-carbon energy could mitigate the environmental impacts of chicken-egg-derived ovalbumin. Nat Food 2021, 2, 1005–1013:

Nutritional reprogramming of mouse liver proteome is dampened by metformin, resveratrol, and rapamycinCell Metabolism 2021. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2021.10.016.

Estimation of the global prevalence of dementia in 2019 and forecasted prevalence in 2050: an analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Public Health 2022, Jan 6:

Cannabidiol inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication through induction of the host ER stress and innate immune responses. Science Advances 2022, Jan 20,

Role of proteolytic enzymes in the COVID-19 infection and promising therapeutic approaches.
Biochem Pharmacol 2020, Dec;182:114225.

Bromelain inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection via targeting ACE-2, TMPRSS2, and spike protein. Clin Transl Med 2021, Feb;11(2): e281.

An Analysis Based on Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Bromelain as Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Variants. Front Pharmacol 2021, Aug 20.

Bromelain Inhibits SARS-CoV-2 Infection in VeroE6 Cells. bioRxiv 2020, posted as preprint Sept 16.

The combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (BromAc) synergistically inactivates SARS-CoV-2. bioRxiv 2020, 09.07.286906.

Rapid vigilance and episodic memory decrements in COVID-19 survivors. Brain Communications 2022, 4:1, fcab295:

Multiple Early Factors Anticipate Post-Acute COVID-19 Sequelae. Pre-print of study accepted by Cell 2022, Jan 19. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2022.01.014.

Frequency of Adverse Events in the Placebo Arms of COVID-19 Vaccine Trials: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Netw Open 2022; 5(1):e2143955.

Joe Rogan interview with Dr Robert Malone – transcript here: 

Does Science Advance One Funeral at a Time? 2019.
American Economic Review 2019,  109(8), 2889-2920
Ultra-processed food targets bone quality via endochondral ossification. Bone Res 2021, 9, 14.
“Sweetgreen CEO criticized after connecting the pandemic to unhealthy eating: ‘Incredibly fat-phobic’”: Sept 2, 2021.
Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009–2016Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 2018, doi: 10.1089/met.2018.0105.
Trends in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in the United States, 2011-2016. JAMA 2020, 323(24):2526-2528, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4501.


Mike Ash

  1. Antibiotic resistance—the need for global solutions. Lancet Infect Dis 2013; 13: 1057-1098.

“Omicron is not globally endemic right now…”

“Dysbiosis appears to be a significant contributory factor in the severity of COVID infection…”Gut Reactions: Microbes in the Digestive Tract Influence COVID Severity:

  1. Gut microbiota composition reflects disease severity and dysfunctional immune responses in patients with COVID-19. Gut 2021 Apr;70(4):698-706.
  2. Microbiota Modulation of the Gut-Lung Axis in COVID-19. Front Immunol 2021, 12: 635471:


  3. Daily Lactobacillus Probiotic versus Placebo in COVID-19-Exposed Household Contacts (PROTECT-EHC): A Randomized Clinical Trial. medRxiv 2022:
  4. The Influence of a blend of Probiotic Lactobacillus and Prebiotic Inulin on the Duration and Severity of Symptoms among Individuals with Covid-19. Infect Dis Diag Treat 2021, 5: 182. DOI 10.29011/2577-1515.100182.
  5. Impact of antibiotics on the human microbiome and consequences for host health. MicrobiologyOpen 2022, 11, e1260:
  6. Vitamin D and COVID-19: evidence and recommendations for supplementation. R. Soc. Open Sci 2022:
  7. Effects of Vitamin D and K on Interleukin-6 in COVID-19. Front. Nutr 2022, Jan 17, 8:761191:
  8. Vitamin A: The key to a tolerant immune system? Clinical Education 2010:
  9. Fundamentals of Membrane Lipid Replacement: A Natural Medicine Approach to Repairing Cellular Membranes and Reducing Fatigue, Pain, and Other Symptoms While Restoring Function in Chronic Illnesses and Aging. Membranes 2021, Membranes (Basel) 2021, Dec, 11(12), 944: doi: 10.3390/membranes11120944.


Effect of Urolithin A Supplementation on Muscle Endurance and Mitochondrial Health in Older Adults
JAMA Network Open, 2022; 5 (1): e2144279 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.44279.

Interplay of Dinner Timing and MTNR1B Type 2 Diabetes Risk Variant on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion: A Randomized Crossover TrialDiabetes Care 2022. DOI: 10.2337/dc21-1314.

Abundance or stress? Faunal exploitation patterns and subsistence strategies: The case study of Brush Hut 1 at Ohalo II, a submerged 23,000-year-old camp in the Sea of Galilee, Israel. PLOS ONE 2022. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0262434.

Population-Based Penetrance of Deleterious Clinical VariantsJAMA 2022; 327 (4): 350. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2021.23686.

Perceived Physical Fatigability Predicts All-Cause Mortality in Older Adults.
 Journal of Gerontology: Series A 2021. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glab374.

Late‐life exercise mitigates skeletal muscle epigenetic aging. Aging Cell 2021; 21 (1) DOI: 10.1111/acel.13527.

Vitamin D and marine omega 3 fatty acid supplementation and incident autoimmune disease: VITAL randomized controlled trial. BMJ 2022, Jan 26, 376 doi:

Twelve‐year sarcopenia trajectories in older adults: results from a population‐based study
Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/jcsm.12875.

Effect of a Home-Based Exercise Program on Subsequent Falls Among Community-Dwelling High-Risk Older Adults After a Fall: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA 2019; 321(21): 2092–2100, doi:10.1001/jama.2019.5795.



January 2022


Long COVID or Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC): An Overview of Biological Factors That May Contribute to Persistent Symptoms. Front. Microbiol 2021:


Diet-induced alteration of intestinal stem cell function underlies obesity and prediabetes in miceNature Metabolism, 2021; 3 (9): 1202 DOI: 10.1038/s42255-021-00458-9.
Probiotics Improve Gastrointestinal Function and Life Quality in PregnancyNutrients, 2021; 13 (11): 3931 DOI: 10.3390/nu13113931.
Investigation of Long COVID Prevalence and Its Relationship to Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation. Pathogens 2021, Jun 17;10(6):763. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10060763.
Positive Epstein-Barr virus detection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):10902, May 25. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-90351-y.
Sequelae in Adults at 6 Months After COVID-19 InfectionJAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(2):e210830:
Persistent dyspnea 1 year after COVID-19 infection in apparently healthy subjects: a potential indicator of subclinical cardiac dysfunction was presented during EuroEcho 2021:
Cardiac involvement in consecutive unselected hospitalized COVID-19 population: In-hospital evaluation and one-year follow-upInt J Cardiol. 2021;339:235–242.
Persistent symptoms and lab abnormalities in patients who recovered from COVID-19. Sci Rep. 2021;11:12775.
SARS-CoV-2 Infects Human Engineered Heart Tissues and Models COVID-19 Myocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol Basic Trans Science. 2021 Apr, 6 (4) 331–345.
Metabolic disorders, COVID-19 and vaccine-breakthrough infections. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2021,
COVID-19 Post-Acute Sequelae Among Adults: 12 Month Mortality Risk. Front Med 2021 December:
Metabolites with SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitory Activity Identified from Human Microbiome Commensals. mSphere 2021, Dec 1:

Chronic Hyperglycemia Drives Functional Impairment of Lymphocytes in Diabetic INSC94Y Transgenic Pigs.
Front. Immunol 2021,
Type 2 Diabetes and its Impact on the Immune System. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2020;16(5):442-449. doi: 10.2174/1573399815666191024085838.
Dietary influences on intestinal immunity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 Oct;12(10):696-708.


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Two microbiota subtypes identified in irritable bowel syndrome with distinct responses to the low FODMAP diet. Gut Published Online First: 22 November 2021.
(Lee et al quoted: Characteristics of fecal metabolic profiles in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea investigated using 1 H-NMR coupled with multivariate statistical analysisNeurogastroenterol Motil 2020;32:e13830. doi:10.1111/nmo.13830.
Association between Brachyspira and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoeaGut, 2020; gutjnl-2020-321466 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321466.
The Spirochete Brachyspira pilosicoli, Enteric Pathogen of Animals and Humans. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2017, DOI: 10.1128/CMR.00087-17.

Long-Term Air Pollution Exposure and COVID-19 Mortality: A Patient-Level Analysis from New York City.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021, Dec 9. DOI: 10.1164/rccm.202104-0845OC.
Adverse Events and Labeling Issues Related to Suspected Sesame Allergy Reported in an Online Survey. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021, Dec 6;S1081-1206(21)01303-X:
Combining stretching and gallic acid to decrease inflammation indices and promote extracellular matrix production in osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2021 Nov 15;408(2):112841. DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2021.112841.
Epithelial cells remove precancerous cells by cell competition via MHC class I–LILRB3 interaction. Nature Immunology 2021. DOI:
Personal care products: Demographic characteristics and maternal hormones in pregnant women from Puerto RicoEnvironmental Research, 2021; 112376 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.112376.
Structural basis of DegP protease temperature-dependent activationScience Advances, 2021; 7 (50) DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abj1816.
A hormone complex of FABP4 and nucleoside kinases regulates islet functionNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-04137-3.

December 2021

Diet and food type affect urinary pesticide residue excretion profiles in healthy individuals: results of a randomized controlled dietary intervention trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2021; nqab308.

Pre-existing polymerase-specific T cells expand in abortive seronegative SARS-CoV-2. Nature 2021, 599, 543:

The active grandparent hypothesis: Physical activity and the evolution of extended human healthspans and lifespansProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2021; 118 (50): e2107621118 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107621118.

The role of plant-based alternative foods in sustainable and healthy food systems: Consumption trends in the UK. Science of The Total Environment, 2021; 151041 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151041

Randomized controlled-feeding study of dietary emulsifier carboxymethylcellulose reveals detrimental impacts on the gut microbiota and metabolome. Gastroenterology, 2021; DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.11.006.

Weeklong improved colour contrasts sensitivity after single 670 nm exposures associated with enhanced mitochondrial function. Scientific Reports, 2021; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-02311-1.

Peripheral microcirculatory alterations are associated with the severity of acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 patients admitted to intermediate respiratory and intensive care units. Critical Care, 2021; 25 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s13054-021-03803-2.



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Worldwide Prevalence and Burden of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Results of Rome Foundation Global Study. Gastroenterology 2021; 160 (1) 99-114 e3.


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November 2021

Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Results of the TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical TrialCirculation 2021, 144:1212–26, Sept 27. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055329.

Dental biofilm of symptomatic COVID-19 patients harbours SARS-CoV-2. J Clin Periodontol 2021 Jul;48(7):880-885. DOI: 10.1111/jcpe.13471.
Scrubbing Wipes to Dislodge Dental Biofilm Can Remove and Inactivate Viruses from Tooth Surface: Perspectives for Covid-19 Prevention. Biomedical J Scientific Technical Res 2021, July 28.
Mucosal Biofilms Are an Endoscopic Feature of Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Ulcerative Colitis. Gastroenterology 2021, Oct;161(4):1245-1256.e20. Open Access. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.024.
Evidence of transmission from fully vaccinated individuals in a large outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in Provincetown, Massachusetts. medRxiv 2021.10.20.21265137.
Effects of Lifestyle Modification on Patients With Resistant Hypertension: Results of the TRIUMPH Randomized Clinical TrialCirculation 2021, 144:1212–26, Sept 27. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055329.
Lactoferrin reduces the risk of respiratory tract infections: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021 Oct;45:26-32.  DOI: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.08.019.
Aspirin Use is Associated with Decreased Mechanical Ventilation, ICU Admission, and In-Hospital Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19Anesthesia & Analgesia, 2020; Published Ahead of Print DOI: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000005292.
The use of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is associated with a lower likelihood of COVID-19 infection. FEBS J 2021, 288: 5179-5189.

BEN BROWN – Atopic dermatitis

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  2. Megna M, Napolitano M, Patruno C, et al. Systemic Treatment of Adult Atopic Dermatitis: A Review. Dermatol Ther  (Heidelb). 2016 Dec 26. doi: 10.1007/s13555-016-0170-1. [Epub ahead of print]
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  4. Bieber T. Atopic dermatitis. Ann Dermatol. 2010 May;22(2):125-37.
  5. Werfel T, Allam JP, Biedermann T, et al. Cellular and molecular immunologic mechanisms in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Aug;138(2):336-49.
  6. Chu H, Shin JU, Park CO, et al. Clinical Diversity of Atopic Dermatitis: A Review of 5,000 Patients at a Single Institute. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2017 Mar;9(2):158-168.
  7. Kim JE, Kim JS, Cho DH, Park HJ. Molecular Mechanisms of Cutaneous Inflammatory Disorder: Atopic Dermatitis. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jul 30;17(8).
  8. LeBovidge JS, Elverson W, Timmons KG, et al. Multidisciplinary interventions in the management of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Aug;138(2):325-34.
  9. Song H, Yoo Y, Hwang J, et al. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii subspecies-level dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome underlying atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Mar;137(3):852-60
  10. Jyonouchi S, Brown-Whitehorn TA, Spergel JM. Association of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders with other atopic disorders. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2009 Feb;29(1):85-97
  11. Kim M, Choi KH, Hwang SW, Lee YB, Park HJ, Bae JM. Inflammatory bowel disease  is associated with an increased risk of inflammatory skin diseases: A population-based cross-sectional study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Jan;76(1):40-48.
  12. Orivuori L, Mustonen K, de Goffau MC, et al. High level of fecal calprotectin at age 2 months as a marker of intestinal inflammation predicts atopic dermatitis and asthma by age 6. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 May;45(5):928-39.
  13. Arisawa T, Arisawa S, Yokoi T, Kuroda M, Hirata I, Nakano H. Endoscopic and histological features of the large intestine in patients with atopic dermatitis.  J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Jan;40(1):24-30.
  14. Niwa Y, Sumi H, Akamatsu H. An association between ulcerative colitis and atopic dermatitis, diseases of impaired superficial barriers. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;123:999-1000
  15. Bischoff SC, Barbara G, Buurman W, Ockhuizen T, Schulzke JD, Serino M, Tilg H, Watson A, Wells JM. Intestinal permeability–a new target for disease prevention  and therapy. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 18;14:189.
  16. Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A, Michaelsen KF. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;145(5):612-6.
  17. Iemoli E, Trabattoni D, Parisotto S, et al. Probiotics reduce gut microbial translocation and improve adult atopic dermatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Oct;46 Suppl:S33-40.
  18. Darlenski R, Kazandjieva J, Hristakieva E, Fluhr JW. Atopic dermatitis as a systemic disease. Clin Dermatol. 2014 May-Jun;32(3):409-13.
  19. Thomsen SF. Epidemiology and natural history of atopic diseases. Eur Clin Respir J. 2015 Mar 24;2.
  20. Spergel JM. From atopic dermatitis to asthma: the atopic march. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;105:99–106.
  21. Bieber T. Atopic dermatitis. N Engl J Med 2008;358(14):1483–94
  22. Eyerich K, Huss-Marp J, Darsow U,et al. Pollen grains induce a rapid and biphasic eczematous immune response in atopic eczema patients. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2008;145(3):213-23.
  23. Sicherer SH, Sampson HA. Food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Feb;125(2  Suppl 2):S116-25.
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  25. Lucas RM, Gorman S, Geldenhuys S, et al. Vitamin D and immunity. F1000Prime Rep. 2014 Dec 1;6:118.
  26. van der Meulen TA, Harmsen H, Bootsma H, et al. The microbiome-systemic diseases connection. Oral Dis. 2016 Nov;22(8):719-734.
  27. Calder PC. Marine omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: Effects, mechanisms and clinical relevance. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015 Apr;1851(4):469-84.
  28. Roesner LM, Werfel T, Heratizadeh A. The adaptive immune system in atopic dermatitis and implications on therapy. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016 Jul;12(7):787-96.
  29. Ji H, Li XK. Oxidative Stress in Atopic Dermatitis. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:2721469.
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  31. Song S, Paek D, Park C, Lee C, Lee JH, Yu SD. Exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and urinary 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine in children with and without eczema. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Aug 1;458-460:408-13.
  32. Okayama Y. Oxidative stress in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005 Aug;4(4):517-9.
  33. Chang YS, Chiang BL. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Mar 29;17(4):462.
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  35. Chung J, Kwon SO, Ahn H et al. Association between Dietary  Patterns and Atopic Dermatitis in Relation to GSTM1 and GSTT1 Polymorphisms in Young Children. Nutrients. 2015 Nov 13;7(11):9440-52.
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  37. Ahn K. The role of air pollutants in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Nov;134(5):993-9; discussion 1000.
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  39. Kim EH, Kim S, Lee JH, Kim J, Han Y, Kim YM, Kim GB, Jung K, Cheong HK, Ahn K. Indoor air pollution aggravates symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 17;10(3):e0119501.
  40. Chang YS, Chou YT, Lee JH, et al. Atopic dermatitis, melatonin, and sleep disturbance. Pediatrics. 2014 Aug;134(2):e397-405.
  41. Chang YS, Chiang BL. Mechanism of Sleep Disturbance in Children with Atopic Dermatitis and the Role of the Circadian Rhythm and Melatonin. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Mar 29;17(4):462.
  42. Chang YS, Lin MH, Lee JH, et al. Melatonin Supplementation for Children With Atopic Dermatitis and Sleep Disturbance: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Jan;170(1):35-42.
  43. Senra MS, Wollenberg A. Psychodermatological aspects of atopic dermatitis. Br  J Dermatol. 2014 Jul;170 Suppl 1:38-43.
  44. Alexopoulos A, Chrousos GP. Stress-related skin disorders. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016 Sep;17(3):295-304.
  45. Buske-Kirschbaum A, Geiben A, Höllig H, et al. Altered  responsiveness of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic adrenomedullary system to stress in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Sep;87(9):4245-51.
  46. Katta R, Schlichte M. Diet and dermatitis: food triggers. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2014 Mar;7(3):30-6.
  47. Breuer K, Heratizadeh A, Wulf A, Baumann U, Constien A, Tetau D, Kapp A, Werfel T. Late eczematous reactions to food in children with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2004 May;34(5):817-24.
  48. Bath-Hextall F, Delamere FM, Williams HC. Dietary exclusions for established atopic eczema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005203.
  49. Lever R, MacDonald C, Waugh P, Aitchison T. Randomised controlled trial of advice on an egg exclusion diet in young children with atopic eczema and sensitivity to eggs. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1998 Feb;9(1):13-9.
  50. Norrman G, Tomicić S, Böttcher MF, Oldaeus G, Strömberg L, Fälth-magnusson K.  Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Oct;94(10):1384-8.
  51. Rokaite R, Labanauskas L, Balciūnaite S, Vaideliene L. Significance of dietotherapy on the clinical course of atopic dermatitis. Medicina (Kaunas). 2009;45(2):95-103.
  52. Hon KL, Poon TC, Pong NH, Wong YH, Leung SS, Chow CM, Leung TF. Specific IgG and IgA of common foods in Chinese children with eczema: friend or foe. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014 Dec;25(6):462-6.
  53. Worm M, Ehlers I, Sterry W, et al. Clinical relevance of food additives in adult patients with atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000 Mar;30(3):407-14
  54. Lee JM, Jin HJ, Noh G, Lee SS. Effect of processed foods on serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein among children with atopic dermatitis. Nutr Res Pract. 2011 Jun;5(3):224-9.
  55. Zauli D, Grassi A, Granito A, et al. Prevalence of silent coeliac disease in atopics. Dig Liver Dis. 2000 Dec;32(9):775-9.
  56. Ress K, Annus T, Putnik U, et al. Celiac disease in children with atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2014 Jul-Aug;31(4):483-8.
  57. Ciacci C, Cavallaro R, Iovino P, et al. Allergy prevalence in adult celiac disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Jun;113(6):1199-203.
  58. Kim SH, Lee JH, Ly SY. Children with atopic dermatitis in Daejeon, Korea: individualized nutrition intervention for disease severity and nutritional status. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;25(4):716-728.
  59. Young MC. Elimination Diets in Eczema–A Cautionary Tale. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2016 Mar-Apr;4(2):237-8.
  60. Kouda K, Tanaka T, Kouda M, Takeuchi H, Takeuchi A, Nakamura H, Takigawa M. Low-energy diet in atopic dermatitis patients: clinical findings and DNA damage.  J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2000 Sep;19(5):225-8.
  61. Tanaka T, Kouda K, Kotani M, Takeuchi A, Tabei T, Masamoto Y, Nakamura H, Takigawa M, Suemura M, Takeuchi H, Kouda M. Vegetarian diet ameliorates symptoms  of atopic dermatitis through reduction of the number of peripheral eosinophils and of PGE2 synthesis by monocytes. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2001 Nov;20(6):353-61.
  62. Nakamura H, Shimoji K, Kouda K, Tokunaga R, Takeuchi H. An adult with atopic dermatitis and repeated short-term fasting. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 2003 Sep;22(5):237-40.
  63. Kim KS, Nam HJ. Detoxification combining fasting with fluid therapy for refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:561290.
  64. Betsi GI, Papadavid E, Falagas ME. Probiotics for the treatment or prevention of atopic dermatitis: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(2):93-103.
  65. Avershina E, Cabrera Rubio R, Lundgård K, Perez Martinez G, Collado MC, Storrø O, Øien T, Dotterud CK, Johnsen R, Rudi K. Effect of probiotics in prevention of  atopic dermatitis is dependent on the intrinsic microbiota at early infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Dec 5. pii: S0091-6749(16)31443-9.
  66. Panduru M, Panduru NM, Sălăvăstru CM, Tiplica GS. Probiotics and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2015 Feb;29(2):232-42.
  67. Foolad N, Brezinski EA, Chase EP, Armstrong AW. Effect of nutrient supplementation on atopic dermatitis in children: a systematic review of probiotics, prebiotics, formula, and fatty acids. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Mar;149(3):350-5.
  68. Kalliomäki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, Isolauri E. Probiotics during the first 7  years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Apr;119(4):1019-21
  69. Wickens K, Black P, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Crane J. A protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 against eczema in the first 2 years of life persists to age 4 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012Jul;42(7):1071-9.
  70. Kim JY, Kwon JH, Ahn SH, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010 Mar;21(2 Pt 2):e386-93.
  71. Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Sep;163(3):616-23.
  72. Gerasimov SV, Vasjuta VV, Myhovych OO, Bondarchuk LI. Probiotic supplement reduces atopic dermatitis in preschool children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010;11(5):351-61.
  73. Fuchs-Tarlovsky V, Marquez-Barba MF, Sriram K. Probiotics in dermatologic practice. Nutrition. 2016 Mar;32(3):289-95.
  74. Kim SO, Ah YM, Yu YM, Choi KH, Shin WG, Lee JY. Effects of probiotics for the  treatment of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 Aug;113(2):217-26.
  75. Betsi GI, Papadavid E, Falagas ME. Probiotics for the treatment or prevention  of atopic dermatitis: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(2):93-103.
  76. Drago L, Iemoli E, Rodighiero V, Nicola L, De Vecchi E, Piconi S. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 (DSM 22775) treatment on adult atopic dermatitis: a randomized placebo-controlled study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2011 Oct-Dec;24(4):1037-48.
  77. Wang IJ, Wang JY. Children with atopic dermatitis show clinical improvement after Lactobacillus exposure. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Apr;45(4):779-87.
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  104. Moreno FJ. Gastrointestinal digestion of food allergens: effect on their allergenicity. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007 Jan;61(1):50-60.
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  106. Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Valerius NH, Paerregaard A, Michaelsen KF. Effect of probiotics on gastrointestinal symptoms and small intestinal permeability in children with atopic dermatitis. J Pediatr. 2004 Nov;145(5):612-6
  107. Singer S, Koenekoop J, Meddings J, Powell J, Desroches A, Seidman EG. Pancreatic Enzyme Supplementation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies: An Open-Label Pilot Study. Paediatr Drugs. 2019 Feb;21(1):41-45. doi: 10.1007/s40272-018-0321-1. PMID: 30556101.
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  110. Evangelista MT, Abad-Casintahan F, Lopez-Villafuerte L. The effect of topical  virgin coconut oil on SCORAD index, transepidermal water loss, and skin capacitance in mild to moderate pediatric atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Int J Dermatol. 2014 Jan;53(1):100-8.
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GUT research update

Ruminiclostridium 5, Parabacteroides distasonis, and bile acid profile are modulated by prebiotic diet and associate with facilitated sleep/clock realignment after chronic disruption of rhythmsBrain, Behavior, and Immunity 2021, 97: 150. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.07.006.
T cell protein tyrosine phosphatase protects intestinal barrier function by restricting epithelial tight junction remodeling. J Clin Invest 2021 Sep 1;131(17):e138230. DOI: 10.1172/JCI138230.
Aberrant gut-microbiota-immune-brain axis development in premature neonates with brain damageCell Host & Microbe, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.004.
Genomic and functional characterization of a mucosal symbiont involved in early-stage colorectal cancerCell Host & Microbe 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.08.013.
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 Protects against Antibiotic-Induced Functional and Compositional Changes in Human Fecal MicrobiomeNutrients 2021; 13 (8): 2814 DOI: 10.3390/nu13082814.
Acetate enhances IgA. Nat Immunol 2021, 22, 1071.
Acetate differentially regulates IgA reactivity to commensal bacteriaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03727-5.
Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes. Nat Immunol 2017, May;18(5):552-562, doi: 10.1038/ni.3713.
Metabolite-based dietary supplementation in human type 1 diabetes is associated with microbiota and immune modulation. medRxiv 2021,.09.15.21263059; doi:
Bioaccumulation of therapeutic drugs by human gut bacteriaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03891-8.

LYME and BIOFILMS – Dr Marina Macdonald

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Bacterial Biofilm and its Role in the Pathogenesis of Disease. Antibiotics (Basel)  2020;9(2):59. DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9020059.
Effects of a Novel Probiotic Combination on Pathogenic Bacterial-Fungal Polymicrobial Biofilms
mBio 2019; DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00338-19.
Bacteriome and Mycobiome Interactions Underscore Microbial Dysbiosis in Familial Crohn’s Disease. mBio 2016, 7 (5):


Dietary DHA prevents cognitive impairment and inflammatory gene expression in aged male rats fed a diet enriched with refined carbohydratesBrain, Behavior, and Immunity, 2021; 98: 198 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2021.08.214.
An immunogenomic phenotype predicting behavioral treatment response: Toward precision psychiatry for mothers and children with trauma exposure. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 2021, ISSN 0889-1591,
Phthalates and attributable mortality: A population-based longitudinal cohort study and cost analysis. Environmental Pollution 2021, 118021,

Prevalence of Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in the General Population. Circulation 2021, Sep 21;144(12):916-929. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055340.
Microbiota from young mice counteracts selective age-associated behavioral deficitsNature Aging, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s43587-021-00093-9.
Migraine improvement during short lasting ketogenesis: A proof-of-concept study. European Journal of Neurology 2014, 22. 10.1111/ene.12550.
Genetic Profile of Endotoxemia Reveals an Association With Thromboembolism and Stroke. Journal of the American Heart Association 2021; 0:e022482, Oct 20.
Nitric oxide controls proliferation of Leishmania major by inhibiting the recruitment of permissive host cells. Immunity 2021, ISSN 1074-7613, online Oct 22.
The effect of nitric-oxide-related supplements on human performance. Sports Med. 2012 Feb 1;42(2):99-117. DOI: 10.2165/11596860-000000000-00000.
Possible Involvement of Adipose Tissue in Patients With Older Age, Obesity, and Diabetes With Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Infection (COVID-19) via GRP78 (BIP/HSPA5): Significance of Hyperinsulinemia Management in COVID-19. Diabetes  2021 (Oct), db201094.
Cold exposure protects from neuroinflammation through immunologic reprogramming.
Cell Metabolism 2021, October 22. DOI:
Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2014, 111(20):7379-7384, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322174111.
Efficacy and tolerability of the ketogenic diet and its variations for preventing migraine in adolescents and adults: a systematic review. Nutr Rev 2021 Oct 19: nuab080. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuab080.

In Focus October 2021

Lissa Leader:

  1. Yousef, H., Alhajj, M., Sharma, S. ‘Anatomy, Skin (Integument), Epidermis’. [Updated 2020 Mar 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from:
  2. Salem, I., Ramser, A., Isham, N., and Ghannoum, MA (2018).’The Gut Microbiome as a Major Regulator of the Gut-Skin Axis’. Front. Microbiol. 9:1459. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01459
  3. Murphrey, MB., Miao, JH., Zito, PM. ‘Histology, Stratum Corneum’. [Updated 2021 May 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from:
  4. West, H. C., & Bennett, C. L. (2018). ‘Redefining the Role of Langerhans Cells as Immune Regulators Within the Skin’. Frontiers in immunology8, 1941.
  5. Wikramanayake, TC., Stojadinovic, O., and Marjana, TC (2014). ‘Epidermal Differentiation in Barrier Maintenance and Wound Healing’. Advances in Wound Care (New Rochelle) 2014 Mar 1; 3(3): 272–280. doi: 10.1089/wound.2013.0503
  6. Byrd, A., Belkaid, Y. & Segre, J. ‘The Human Skin Microbiome’. Nat Rev Microbiol 16, 143–155 (2018).
  7. Lee, SY., Lee, E., Park, YM., Hong, SJ. ‘Microbiome in the Gut-Skin Axis in Atopic Dermatitis’. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res. 2018; 10(4): 354-362. doi:10.4168/aair.2018.10.4.354
  8. Berger, A. ‘Th1 and Th2 Responses: What are They?’. BMJ. 2000; 321(7258): 424. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7258.424
  9. Rendon, A., Schäkel, K., ‘Psoriasis Pathogenesis and Treatment’. Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(6): 1475. Published 2019 Mar 23. doi:10.3390/ijms20061475
  10. Visser, MJE., Kell, DB., Pretorius, E., ‘Bacterial Dysbiosis and Translocation in Psoriasis Vulgaris’. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019; 9:7. Published 2019 Feb 4. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2019.00007
  11. Jäger, A., Kuchroo, VK. ‘Effector and Regulatory T-cell Subsets in Autoimmunity and Tissue Inflammation’. Scand J Immunol. 2010; 72(3): 173-184. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3083.2010.02432.x
  12. Vaughn, AR., Notay, M., Clark, AK., Sivamani, RK. ‘Skin-Gut Axis: The Relationship Between Intestinal Bacteria and Skin Health’. World J Dermatol 2017; 6(4): 52-58
  13. Lambring, C. B., Siraj, S., Patel, K., Sankpal, U. T., Mathew, S., & Basha, R. (2019). ‘Impact of the Microbiome on the Immune System’. Critical reviews in immunology39(5), 313–328.
  14. Ellis SR, Nguyen M, Vaughn AR, et al. ‘The Skin and Gut Microbiome and its Role in Common Dermatologic Conditions’. Microorganisms 2019; 7(11): 550. Published 2019 Nov 11. doi:10.3390/microorganisms7110550 

Adrienne Benjamin:


2 Fonseca W, Lukacs NW & Ptaschinski C 2018. Factors Affecting the Immunity to Respriatory Syncytial Virus: From Epigenetics to Microbiome. Front Immunol (Feb 2018)

3 Lambert L et al 2014. Immunity to RSV in Early-Life. Front Immunol 5:466

4 Breton CV et al 2009. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure affects global and gene-specific DNA methylation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:462–7

5 Haberg SE et al 2009. Folic acid supplements in pregnancy and early childhood respiratory health. Arch Dis Child 94:180–4

6 Kristensen K et al (2015). Caesarean section and hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection: a population-based study. Pediatr Infect Dis J (2015) 34:145–8

7 Vissers M, de Groot R, & Ferwerda G (2014). Severe viral respiratory infections: are bugs bugging? Mucosal Immunol (2014) 7:227–38

8 Wiertsema SP 2021. The Interplay between the Gut Microbiome and the Immune System in the Context of Infectious Diseases throughout life and the Role of Nutrition in Optimizing Treatment Strategies. Nut 13;886

9 Aagaard K et al 2014 The placenta harbors a unique microbiome. Sci Transl Med 6:237ra265

10 Rautava S et al 2012 Microbial contact during pregnancy, intestinal colonization and human disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol Oct 9(10):565-76

1[1] Ker J & Hartert TV 2009. The atopic march: what’s the evidence? Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 103:282–9.

12 Allen SJ et al 2014 Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 0:1-6

13 Kalliomäki M et al 2001. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 357: 1076-1079

[1]4 Kim JY et al 2010 Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 21: e386-e393

[1]5 Enaud R et al 2020. The Gut-Lung Axis in Health and Respiratory Diseases: A Place for Inter-Organ and Inter-Kingdom Crosstalks. Front Cell Infect Microbiol

16 Madan JC et al 2012. Serial analysis of the gut and respiratory microbiome in cystic fibrosis in infancy: interaction between intestinal and respiratory tracts and impact of nutritional exposures. MBio 3, e00251–12

17 Gollwitzer ES et al 2014. Lung microbiota promotes tolerance to allergens in neonates via PD-L1. Nat. Med. 20, 642–647

18 Chiu L et al 2017. Protective microbiota: from localized to long-reaching co-immunity. Front. Immunol. 8:1678

[1]9 Ipci K et al 2017. The possible mechanisms of the human microbiome in allergic diseases. Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 274, 617–626

20 Hauptmann M & Schaible UE 201). Linking microbiota and respiratory disease. FEBS Lett. 590, 3721–3738

21 Anand, S & Mande, SS 2018. Diet, microbiota and gut-lung connection. Front. Microbiol. 9:2147

22 De Filippo C et al 2010. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 14691–14696

23 Garaiova I 2021. Probiotics with vitamin C for the prevention of upper respiratory tract symptoms in children aged 3-10 years: randomised controlled trial. Ben Microbes DOI 10.3920/BM2020.0185 

Gayathri Neault:

  1. Defining the Human Microbiome K Ursell, Jessica L Metcalf, Laura Wegener Parfrey, Rob Knight
  2. Gut Bacteria and mind control: to fix your brain, fix your gut!                                                                                                                                Professor Simon Carding, Norwich Medical School
  3. Current Understanding of Dysbiosis in Disease in Human and Animal Models Arianna K. DeGruttola, B.S., Daren Low, Ph.D.,  Atsushi Mizoguchi, M.D., Ph.D.,2 and Emiko Mizoguchi, M.D., Ph.D.
  4. Microbial syntrophy: interaction for the common good                                                                                                                     Brandon E. L. Morris, Ruth Henneberger, Harald Huber, Christine Moissl-Eichinger
  5. From Dietary Fiber to Host Physiology: Short-Chain Fatty Acids as Key Bacterial Metabolites Ara Koh, Filipe De Vadder, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Fredrik Backhed
  6. Role of Normal Gut Microbiota Sai Manasa Jandhyala, Rupjyoti Talukdar, Chivkula Subramanyam, Harish Vuyyuru, Mitnala Sasikala and D Nageshwar Reddy
  7. Macronutrient metabolism by the human gut microbiome: major fermentation by-products and their impact on host health Kaitlyn Oliphant & Emma Allen-Vercoe
  8. Dysfunction of the Intestinal Microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease and treatment Xochitl C Morgan, Timothy L Tickle, Harry Sokol, Dirk Gevers, Kathryn L Devaney, Doyle V Ward, Joshua A Reyes, Samir A Shah, Neal LeLeiko, Scott B Snapper, Athos Bousvaros, Joshua Korzenik, Bruce E Sands, Ramnik J Xavier, Curtis Huttenhower
  9. Embracing the Gut Microbiota: the new frontier for inflammatory and infectious diseases                                                                           Lieke WJ van den Elsen,  Hazel C Poyntz,  Laura S Weyrich,  Wayne Young,  Elizabeth E Forbes-Blom
  10. The Immune Response to Prevotella bacteria in chronic inflammatory disease                                                                                Jeppe Madura Larsen
  11. The Structure and Function of the Human Small Intestinal Microbiota: Current Understanding and Future Directions                                                                                                                                                                                                     Arthur J Kastl Jr., Natalie A Terry, Gary D Wu, Lindsey G Albenberg
  12. The Duodenal Microbiome is altered in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth
  13. Effects of Probiotics on gut microbiota: mechanisms of intestinal immunomodulation and neuromodulation Peera Hemarajata, James Versalovic

Samuel Peters:

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Mantis, N. J., Rol, N., & Corthésy, B. (2011). Secretory IgA’s Complex Roles in Immunity and Mucosal Homeostasis in the Gut. Mucosal Immunology, 4(6), 603.

Pabst, O., & Slack, E. (2019). IgA and the intestinal microbiota: the importance of being specific. Mucosal Immunology 2019 13:1, 13(1), 12–21.

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Sirisinha, S. (2015). The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity. Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology, 33(2).

Sirisinha, S., Suskind, R., Edelman, L. R., Asvapaka, C., & Olson, R. E. (1975). Secretory and serum IgA in children with protein-calorie malnutrition. Pediatrics, 55(2), 166-170.

  • Dr Peter Koeppel
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Richard Stead:

¹ “Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Drives the Development of Colorectal Cancer”, Xiaoyan Fan, Yuelei Jin, Guang Chen, Xueqiang Ma, Lixia Zhang, Digestion 2021;102:508–515

² “Defining Dysbiosis for a Cluster of Chronic Diseases”, Lamont J. Wilkins, Manoj Monga & Aaron W. Miller, Scientific Reports Volume 9, Article number: 12918 (2019),

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Anne Catherine Færgemann:



































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Jordan Haworth:

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Andrew XXXX:




[1]             Ibid

[1]             Henderson, A.J.; Ollila, C.A.; Kumar, A.; Borresen, E.C.; Raina, K.; Agarwal, R.; Ryan, E.P. Chemopreventive properties of dietary rice bran: Current status and future prospects. Adv. Nutr. 2012, 3, 643–653.

[1]          Ghoneum, M. Enhancement of human natural killer cell activity by modified arabinoxylane from rice bran (MGN-3). Int. J. Immunother. 1998, 14, 89–99.

[1]          Ghoneum, M.; Brown, J. NK Immunorestoration and cancer patients by MGN-3, a modified aracbynoxylan rice bran (Study of 32 patients followed for up to 4 years). In Anti-Aging Medical Therapeutics Vol III; Klatz, R.M., Goldman, R., Eds.; Health Quest Publications: Marina del Rey, CA, USA, 1999; Chapter 30; pp. 217–226.

[1]          Ghoneum, M.; Agrawal, S. MGN-3 enhances generation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells via upregulation of DEC-205 expression on dendritic cells. Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 2014, 27, 523–530.

[1]          Lissoni, P.; Messina, G.; Brivio, F.; Fumagalli, L.; Rovelli, F.; Maruelli, L.; Miceli, M.; Marchiori, P.; Porro, G.; Held, M.; et al. Modulation of the anticancer immunity by natural agents: Inhibition of T regulatory lymphocyte generation by arabinoxylan in patients with locally limited or metastatic solid tumors. Cancer Ther. 2008, 6, 1011–1016.

[1]          Ghoneum, M. From bench to bedside: The growing use of arabinoxylan rice bran in cancer immunotherapy. Austin Immunol. 2016, 1, 1006.

[1]          Ichihashi, K. Experience with administration of BioBran in patients with chronic rheumatism. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 2004, 14, 459–463

[1]          Noaman, E.; Badr El-Din, N.K.; Bibars, M.A.; Abou Mossallam, A.A.; Ghoneum, M. Antioxidant potential by arabinoxylan rice bran, MGN-3, represents a mechanism for its oncostatic effect against murine solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2008, 268, 348–359.

[1]          Zhu, X.; Okubo, A.; Igari, N.; Ninomiya, K.; Egashira, Y. Modified rice bran hemicellulose inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in vitro via VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling pathways. Biosci. Microbiota Food Health 2017, 36, 45–53.

[1]          Hong, S. Development of immunostimulation materials from rice bran. Food Ind. Nutr. 2005, 10, 42–47.

[1]          The summary of MGM-3. In MGN-3 (Rice Bran Arabinoxylan Compound): Basic and Clinical Application to Integrative Medicine, 2nd ed.; BioBran Research Foundation: Tokyo, Japan, 2013; Chapter I-1; pp. 3–8.

[1]          Ghoneum  M,  Brown  J.  NK  immunorestoration  of  cancer  patients  by  MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan rice bran (study of 32 patients followed for up to 4 years). Watson RR, Preedy V, Zibadi S. In: Wheat and rice in disease prevention  and  health.  Anti-aging  medical  therapeutics.  Vol.  III.  Klatz  R, Goldman R. 1999; 217-226.

[1]          14. Ghoneum M. Immunostimulation and cancer prevention. 7th Int Congress on Anti-aging and Biomedical Technologies. December 11th-13th; Las Vegas, NV USA. 1999.

[1]          Effect of Long-term Administration of Immunomodulatory Food on Cancer Patients Completing Conventional Treatments. Hiroshi Tsunekawa, Tsunekawa Gastrointestinal Clinic, published in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy Vol. 14/No.3.

[1]          Oral administration of hydrolyzed rice bran prevents the common cold syndrome in the elderly based on its immunomodulatory action. H. Maeda, K. lchihashi, T. Fujii, K. Omura, X. Zhu, M. Anazawa and K. Tazawa. BioFactors 21 (2004) 185-187

[1]          Arabinoxylan rice bran suppresses the viremia level in patients with chronic HCV infection: A randomized trial. Hosny Salama, Eman Medhat, Magda Shaheen, Abdel-Rahman N Zekri, Tarneem Darwish and Mamdooh Ghoneum. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 1-7, 2016

[1]          Controlled pilot study for cancer patients suffering from chronic fatigue syndrome due to chemotherapy treated with BioBran (MGN-3- Arabinoxylane) and targeted radiofrequency heat therapy. Gabriel Petrovics, Gyula Szigeti, Szilárd Hamvas, Ágnes Máté, József Betlehem, Gabriella Hegyi. European Journal of Integrative Medicine,(607) 2016

[1]          The Effect of a Hydrolyzed Polysaccharide Dietary Supplement on Biomarkers in Adults with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. John E. Lewis , Steven E. Atlas, Oscar L. Higuera, Andrea Fiallo, Ammar Rasul, Ashar Farooqi, Olga Kromo, Laura A. Lantigua, Eduard Tiozzo , Judi M. Woolger, Sharon Goldberg, Armando Mendez , Allan E. Rodriguez, and Janet Konefal. Hindawi: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Article ID 1751583. 2018

October 2021


Cholesterol jabs:

An appeal for an objective, open, and transparent scientific debate about the origin of SARS-CoV-2. The Lancet 2021, September 17:


“Good for you, good for us, good for everybody A plan to reduce overprescribing to make patient care better and safer, support the NHS, and reduce carbon emissions”. Department of Health and Social Care. September 22, 2021:

Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Gut 2021. Published Online First: 06 September, doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325353.

A randomized controlled trial of pharmacist-led therapeutic carbohydrate and energy restriction in type 2 diabetes. Nat Commun 202, 12, 5367.

Language extinction triggers the loss of unique medicinal knowledge. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  2021, 118 (24) e2103683118;

The carbohydrate-insulin model: a physiological perspective on the obesity pandemicThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2021; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab270.

Gary Taubes quotes from “How a ‘fatally, tragically flawed’ paradigm has derailed the science of obesity”. STAT, Sept 13, 2021:

An observational and Mendelian randomisation study on vitamin D and COVID-19 risk in UK Biobank. Scientific Reports 2021, 11, 18262:

COVID data
PHE data reported in the Evening Standard, August 20:

Melatonin multifaceted pharmacological actions on melatonin receptors converging to abrogate COVID-19. J Pineal Res 2021, Aug; 71(1):e12732. DOI: 10.1111/jpi.12732.

Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Health, Aging, and DiseaseNew England Journal of Medicine 2019; 381 (26): 2541 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra1905136.
Time-restricted eating for the prevention and management of metabolic diseasesEndocrine Reviews, 2021; DOI: 10.1210/endrev/bnab027.


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Associations between wildfire smoke exposure during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth in CaliforniaEnvironmental Research, 2021; 111872 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2021.111872

Photosynthetically Controlled Spirulina, but Not Solar Spirulina, Inhibits TNF-α Secretion: Potential Implications for COVID-19-Related Cytokine Storm Therapy.
Mar Biotechnol 2021, Feb;23(1):149-155; doi: 10.1007/s10126-021-10020-z. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Prospective options of algae-derived nutraceuticals as supplements to combat COVID-19 and human coronavirus diseases. Nutrition 2021 Mar;83:111089; doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2020.111089. Free online at

The Nutritional Efficacy of Chlorella Supplementation Depends on the Individual Gut Environment: A Randomised Control Study. Front Nutr 2021, 8, 270:

INFLAMMATION – Metagenics Institute

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Time to assume that health research is fraudulent until proven otherwise?
BMJ 2021, July 5.

“Broken Science. What happens when cancer doctors, psychologists, and drug developers can’t rely on each other’s research?” February 2016:

HARKing: hypothesizing after the results are known. Pers Soc Psychol Rev 1998, 2(3):196-217, doi: 10.1207/s15327957pspr0203_4.

Power and sample size. Methods Mol Biol 2007;404:377-408, doi: 10.1007/978-1-59745-530-5_19.

“Most Scientific Findings Are Wrong or Useless. Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing”. August 2016:

“Saving Science”, by Prof Daniel Sarewitz:

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PLoS Medicine 2005:
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Offline: What is medicine’s 5 sigma? The Lancet 2015, 385, 9976, p1380April 11:  

“Reproducibility and reliability of biomedical research: improving research practice”. British Academy of Medical Sciences symposium report, October 2015:

“Landmark research integrity survey finds questionable practices are surprisingly common”, by Jop de Vrieze. Science July 7, 2021:

Prevalence of Research Misconduct and Questionable Research Practices: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sci Eng Ethics 2021, 27, 41:

Hundreds of thousands of zombie randomised trials circulate among us. Anaesthesia 2021, 76, 444–447: doi:10.1111/anae.15297.

Research Misconduct Policy in Biomedicine. Beyond the Bad-Apple Approach. By Prof Barbara K. Redman. (The MIT Press, 2013.)


Dysregulation of ILC3s unleashes progression and immunotherapy resistance in colon cancer. Cell 2021, August 17, doi:

Reinforcement learning links spontaneous cortical dopamine impulses to rewardCurrent Biology, 2021; doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2021.06.069.

The effectiveness and safety of isometric resistance training for adults with high blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysisHypertension Research, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41440-021-00720-3.

Impacts of deficiency in vitamin D derivatives on disease severity in adult bronchial asthma patients. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 18:102073. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102073.

Nucleus Type-Specific DNA Methylomics Reveals Epigenetic ‘Memory’ of Prior Adaptation in Skeletal MuscleFunction, 2021; doi: 10.1093/function/zqab038.

Vitamin C and scar strength: analysis of a historical trial and implications for collagen-related pathologies American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021, doi: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab262.

Time for nutrition in medical education. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020;; doi: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000049.

Increased risk of heart failure is associated with chronic habitual hypohydration that elevates serum sodium above 142 mmol/l suggesting lifelong optimal hydration as preventive measure. ESC Congress:
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Microbial Diversity and Abundance of Parabacteroides Mediate the Associations Between Higher Intake of Flavonoid-Rich Foods and Lower Blood Pressure. Hypertension 2021; DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.121.17441.

Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Journal of the American Heart Association 2021;10:e020551.

Sex- and age-dependent outcomes of 9-hour time-restricted feeding of a Western high-fat high-sucrose diet in C57BL/6J mice. Cell Reports, 2021; 36 (7): 109543 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109543.








August 2021


Time to assume that health research is fraudulent until proven otherwise? BMJ 2021, July 5.

“Drug Companies & Doctors: A Story of Corruption”, by Marcia Angell. The New York Review, January 15, 2009:

The knowledge system underpinning healthcare is not fit for purpose and must change. BMJ 2015; 350 doi:

Peer review: a flawed process at the heart of science and journals. J R Soc Med 2006 Apr; 99(4): 178–182. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.99.4.178

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. PloS Medicine 2005:

Prevalence of questionable research practices, research misconduct and their potential explanatory factors: a survey among academic researchers in The Netherlands. MetaArXiv 2021, July 6. doi:10.31222/


K.Vita: a feasibility study of a blend of medium chain triglycerides to manage drug-resistant epilepsy. Brain Communications 2021, fcab160,

Rapid resolution of COVID-19 after faecal microbiota transplantation. Gut Published Online First: 06 July 2021. Doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2021-325010.

Using an erythrocyte fatty acid fingerprint to predict risk of all-cause mortality: the Framingham Offspring CohortThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2021; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqab195.

Evaluating microbiome-directed fibre snacks in gnotobiotic mice and humans. Nature 595, 91–95 (2021).

Characterizing long COVID in an international cohort: 7 months of symptoms and their impactEClinicalMedicine, 2021; 101019 DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.101019.

SPMs: Disrupted Resolution Mechanisms Favor Altered Phagocyte Responses in Covid-19. Circulation Research

The Women’s Study for the Alleviation of Vasomotor Symptoms (WAVS), Menopause  2021, July 12, doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001812.

Vitamin K2 Holds Promise for Alzheimer’s Prevention and Treatment. Nutrients 2021, 13(7), 2206;

Development of health-based exposure limits for radiofrequency radiation from wireless devices using a benchmark dose approach. Environ Health 2021, 20, 84.



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CALM Study

 A modified Mediterranean dietary intervention for adults with major depression: Dietary protocol and feasibility data from the SMILES trialNutritional Neuroscience 2018, 21:7, 487-501. DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1312841.

Men and women
Sex differences in specific aspects of two animal tests of anxiety-like behavior
Psychopharmacology, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s00213-021-05893-w.



  1. Moltke J and Hindocha C (2021)

[5] Zuardi et al (1993).

[6] Bergamashi M et al (2011)

[7] Jadoon et al (2017)

[8] De Faria et al (2020)



[11] Geneva CANNABIDIOL (CBD) . n.d. Critical Review Report Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting

Dr Elisabeth Phillipps

  1. Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. Perm J 2019, 23: 18-041.
  2. Cannabidiol can improve complex sleep-related behaviours associated with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease patients: a case series. J Clin Pharm Ther 2014, 39:564-566.
    3. Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surg Neurol Int. 2018; 9: 91.

Gut microbiome heritability is nearly universal but environmentally contingentScience 2021. DOI: 10.1126/science.aba5483.

Immunoglobulin A–specific deficiency induces spontaneous inflammation specifically in the ileumGut, 2021; gutjnl-2020-322873 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-322873.

Royal jelly enhances antigen-specific mucosal IgA response. Food Science and Nutrition 2013.

The Salivary IgA Flow Rate Is Increased by High Concentrations of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Cecum of Rats Ingesting Fructooligosaccharides. Nutrients 2016, 8(8), 500;

Cocoa and cocoa fibre differentially modulate IgA and IgM production at mucosal sitesBritish Journal of Nutrition 2016, 115(9), 1539-1546. DOI:10.1017/S000711451600074X.

Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates sIgA production and the phagocytic system of gnotobiotic mice. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2000, 89(3):404-14. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2672.2000.01128.x.

Caloric restriction disrupts the microbiota and colonization resistance. Nature 2021, 595, 272–277.

Hepatoenteric recycling is a new disposition mechanism for orally administered phenolic drugs and phytochemicals in rats. eLife 2021, 10:e58820 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.58820.

EMILY BLAKE – SIgA and immune resilience:

  1. Wang QQ, Xu R, Volkow ND. Increased risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality in people with mental disorders: analysis from electronic health records in the United States. World Psychiatry [Internet]. 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 21]; Available from:
  2. Russell MW, Moldoveanu Z, Ogra PL, Mestecky J. Mucosal Immunity in COVID-19: A Neglected but Critical Aspect of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Front Immunol [Internet]. 2020 Nov 30 [cited 2021 Jan 25];11:3221. Available from:
  3. Geerlings SY, Kostopoulos I, Vos WM De, Belzer C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract : When , Where , and How ? Microrganisms. 2018;6(75):1–26.
  4. Chairatana P, Nolan EM. Defensins, lectins, mucins, and secretory immunoglobulin A: microbe-binding biomolecules that contribute to mucosal immunity in the human gut [Internet]. Vol. 52, Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Taylor and Francis Ltd; 2017 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. p. 45–56. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5233583/?report=abstract
  5. Mantis NJ, Rol N, Corthésy B. Secretory IgA’s complex roles in immunity and mucosal homeostasis in the gut. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 Nov;4(6):603–11.
  6. Corthésy B. Multi-faceted functions of secretory IgA at mucosal surfaces. Vol. 4, Frontiers in Immunology. Frontiers; 2013. p. 185.
  7. Nakajima A, Vogelzang A, Maruya M, Miyajima M, Murata M, Son A, et al. IgA regulates the composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota by promoting symbiosis between bacteria. J Exp Med [Internet]. 2018 Sep 1 [cited 2021 Jan 19];215(8):2019–34. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC6080902/?report=abstract
  8. Zocco MA, Ainora ME, Gasbarrini G, Gasbarrini A. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron in the gut: Molecular aspects of their interaction. 2007;
  9. Engeland CG, Hugo FN, Hilgert JB, Nascimento GG, Junges R, Lim HJ, et al. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity. Brain Behav Immun [Internet]. 2016 Feb 1 [cited 2021 Jan 25];52:11–7. Available from:
  10. Campos-Rodríguez R, Godínez-Victoria M, Abarca-Rojano E, Pacheco-Yépez J, Reyna-Garfias H, Barbosa-Cabrera RE, et al. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A [Internet]. Vol. 7, Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience. Frontiers Media SA; 2013 [cited 2021 Jan 25]. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC3845795/?report=abstract
  11. Segerstrom SC, Miller GE. Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol Bull [Internet]. 2004 Jul [cited 2020 Dec 21];130(4):601–30. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC1361287/?report=abstract
  12. Geerlings S, Kostopoulos I, de Vos W, Belzer C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: When, Where, and How? Microorganisms [Internet]. 2018;6(3):75. Available from:
  13. Tailford LE, Crost EH, Kavanaugh D, Juge N. Mucin glycan foraging in the human gut microbiome. Front Genet. 2015 Mar 19;5(FEB):81.
  14. Sirisinha S. The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2015;33(2):71–8.
  15. Ohashi W, Fukada T. Contribution of Zinc and Zinc Transporters in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2019 [cited 2020 Mar 20]; Available from:
  16. Maataoui SB, Maataoui RB, Almesrar B, Hilali S. ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF PRICKLY PEAR (OPUNTIA FICUS INDICA) CLADODES EXTRACTS. Int J Adv Res [Internet]. 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 7];6(11):498–506. Available from:
  17. Bishehsari F, Magno E, Swanson G, Desai V, Voigt RM, Forsyth CB, et al. Alcohol and gut-derived inflammation. Alcohol Res Curr Rev [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2020 Dec 21];38(2):e-1-e-9. Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC5513683/?report=abstract
  18. Volstatova T, Marchica A, Hroncova Z, Bernardi R, Doskocil I, Havlik J. Effects of chlorogenic acid, epicatechin gallate, and quercetin on mucin expression and secretion in the Caco-2/HT29-MTX cell model. Food Sci Nutr [Internet]. 2019 Feb 1 [cited 2020 Mar 4];7(2):492–8. Available from:
  19. Corfield AP. The Interaction of the Gut Microbiota with the Mucus Barrier in Health and Disease in Human. Microorganisms. 2018;6(3):78.
  20. Macfarlane GT, Steed H, Macfarlane S. Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104(2):305–44.
  21. Anhê FF, Pilon G, Roy D, Desjardins Y, Levy E, Marette A. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols: A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome? Gut Microbes [Internet]. 2016;7(2):146–53. Available from:
  22. Shang Q, Song G, Zhang M, Shi J, Xu C, Hao J, et al. Dietary fucoidan improves metabolic syndrome in association with increased Akkermansia population in the gut microbiota of high-fat diet-fed mice. J Funct Foods. 2017 Jan 1;28:138–46.
  23. Qamar A, Aboudola S, Warny M, Michetti P, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii stimulates intestinal immunoglobulin a immune response to Clostridium difficile toxin A in mice. Infect Immun [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2020 Dec 21];69(4):2762–5. Available from:
  24. McFarland L V. Systematic review and meta-analysis of saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients [Internet]. Vol. 16, World Journal of Gastroenterology. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 [cited 2021 Jan 26]. p. 2202–22. Available from:
  25. Menchetti L, Traina G, Tomasello G, Casagrande-Proietti P, Leonardi L, Barbato O, et al. Potential benefits of colostrum in gastrointestinal diseases. Front Biosci. 2016;8:331–51.
  26. Główka N, Woźniewicz M. Potential use of Colostrum Bovinum supplementation in athletes – A review. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment. 2019 Jul 1;18(2):115–23.
  27. Head K, Kelly G. Nutrients and Botanicals for Treatment of Stress: Adrenal Fatigue, Neurotra…: EBSCOhost. Altern Med Rev [Internet]. 2009;14(2):114–40. Available from:


Bacteroides-dominant gut microbiome of late infancy is associated with enhanced neurodevelopment. Gut Microbes 2021, 13: 1.
Dietary alteration of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids for headache reduction in adults with migraine: randomized controlled trialBMJ, July 1, 2021; DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n1448.

Quantitative mapping of human hair greying and reversal in relation to life stresseLife, 2021; 10 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.67437.

Enterically derived high-density lipoprotein restrains liver injury through the portal veinScience, 2021; 373 (6553): eabe6729 DOI: 10.1126/science.abe6729.

Maternal cecal microbiota transfer rescues early-life antibiotic-induced enhancement of type 1 diabetes in miceCell Host & Microbe, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2021.06.014.

Distribution of dietary protein intake in daily meals influences skeletal muscle hypertrophy via the muscle clockCell Reports, 2021; 36 (1): 109336 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109336.

CBD and oral ulcers: Xingying Qi, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, presented the findings  – Cannabidiol Promotes Oral Ulcer Healing by Inactivating CMPK2-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome – at the virtual 99th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), held in conjunction with the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Dental Research (AADR) and the 45th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Association for Dental Research (CADR), on July 21-24, 2021.


Food Supplements Consumer Research, 2018 report for the FSA:

July 2021


“6 ways the FDA’s approval of Aduhelm does more harm than good”, by Prof Sam Gandy, June 15, 2021.


Using an erythrocyte fatty acid fingerprint to predict risk of all-cause mortality: the Framingham Offspring Cohort.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021,

Blood omega-3 fatty acids and death from COVID-19: A pilot study. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Mar;166:102250, doi: 10.1016/j.plefa.2021.102250.

What COVID-19 is doing to the heart, even after recovery. September 3, 2020.

Obesity and the pandemic: And Mortality associated with COVID-19 outbreaks in care homes: early international evidence, April 12, 2020.

COVID Infection Fatality Rates:

Associations between body-mass index and COVID-19 severity in 6·9 million people in England: a prospective, community-based, cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol  2021 Jun; 9(6):350-359. doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00089-9. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Covid-19: Highest death rates seen in countries with most overweight populations. BMJ 2021, 372, doi: (Published 04 March 2021).

A Time Frame for Testing Negative for SARS-COV2 in People with Obesity. Obes Facts 2020, 13:528-533. DOI: 10.1159/000511738.

Exhaled aerosol increases with COVID-19 infection, age, and obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021, Feb,118 (8) e2021830118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2021830118.

Are face masks effective? The evidence.

Influenza and obesity: its odd relationship and the lessons for COVID-19 pandemic. Acta Diabetol 2020, Jun;57(6):759-764. DOI: 10.1007/s00592-020-01522-8.

Swiss Policy Research:
Observational Study on 255 Mechanically Ventilated Covid Patients at the Beginning of the USA Pandemic. (Pre-print, not peer-reviewed). MedRxiv 2021.05.28.21258012. DOI:

Treatment with Zinc is Associated with Reduced In-Hospital Mortality Among COVID-19 Patients: A Multi-Center Cohort Study. Res Sq [Preprint] 2020, Oct DOI: 10.21203/  


Substituting Cannabidiol for Opioids and Pain Medications Among Individuals With Fibromyalgia: A Large Online SurveyThe Journal of Pain 2021.  DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2021.04.011.

Generation of systemic antitumour immunity via the in situ modulation of the gut microbiome by an orally administered inulin gel. Nature Biomedical Engineering 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41551-021-00749-2.

Short-Term Western Diet Intake Promotes IL-23‒Mediated Skin and Joint Inflammation Accompanied by Changes to the Gut Microbiota in MiceJournal of Investigative Dermatology 2021; 141 (7): 1780 DOI: 10.1016/j.jid.2020.11.032.

Clinical impact of a pharmacist + health coach chronic disease management program in a rural free clinic. J Am Pharm Assoc 2021; doi:

Echinacea reduces antibiotic usage in children through respiratory tract infection prevention: a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 2021, 26, 33:

Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010, 340:c2096:  doi:10.1136/bmj.c2096.

Hericium erinaceus and Coriolus versicolor Modulate Molecular and Biochemical Changes after Traumatic Brain Injury. Antioxidants 2021;10:898.

  1. Vogel:

Ogal M et al. Echinacea reduces antibiotic usage in children through respiratory tract infection prevention: a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res. 2021; 26: 33 www.

Ridge KW , Hand K , Sharland M , et al. Infections and the rise of antimicrobial resistance. London: Department of Health, 2011

Public Health England. English surveillance programme for antimicrobial utilisation and resistance report, 2016

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Prescribing of antibiotics for self-limiting respiratory tract infections in adults and children in primary care (Clinical Guideline 69). 2008.

Little P , Stuart B , Hobbs FD , et al. Antibiotic prescription strategies for acute sore throat: a prospective observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis 2014;14:2139. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70294-9

Spinks A , Glasziou PP , Del Mar CB. Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group. Antibiotics for sore throat. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;139:CD000023.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000023.pub4

Kenealy T , Arroll B. Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;4:CD000247.doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000247.pub3

Costelloe C , Metcalfe C , Lovering A , et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing in primary care on antimicrobial resistance in individual patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2010;340:c2096.doi:10.1136/bmj.c2096

Tobler M, et al: Characteristics of whole fresh plant extracts. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitMedizin,1994.


Resveratrol trial:

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  2. Toledo, F. G. S. and B. H. Goodpaster [October 2013].  The role of weight loss and exercise in correcting skeletal muscle mitochondrial abnormalities in obesity, diabetes and aging. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, V. 379, Issues  1-2, pp. 30-34.
  3. Salehi, B. et al. [September 2019]. Resveratrol: A Double-Edged Sword in Health Benefits. Biomedicines, V. 6, № 3, p. 91. Retrieved November 29, 2020 from:
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Evaluation of Thiamine as Adjunctive Therapy in COVID-19 Critically Ill Patients: A Multicenter Propensity Score Matched Study. In Review at Critical Care 2021, June. DOI: 10.21203/

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Prospective Biomarkers from Plasma Metabolomics of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Implicate Redox Imbalance in Disease Symptomatology. Metabolites 2018, 8(4), 90;

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June 2021


mRNA vaccines — a new era in vaccinology. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2018, 17, 261–279.


Association of Loneliness and Wisdom With Gut Microbial Diversity and Composition: An Exploratory StudyFrontiers in Psychiatry, 2021; 12. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2021.648475.

Potential reversal of epigenetic age using a diet and lifestyle intervention: a pilot randomized clinical trial. Aging (Albany NY) 2021, Apr 12;13(7):9419-9432. DOI: 10.18632/aging.202913.

High-Density Lipoprotein Anti-Inflammatory Capacity and Incident Cardiovascular EventsCirculation, 2021. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.050808.

“Up to 8,700 patients died after catching Covid in English hospitals”. By Denis Campbell and Anna Bawden. The Guardian, May 24, 2021.

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humansNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03647-4.

Prevalence of Immunosuppressive Drug Use Among Commercially Insured US Adults, 2018-2019JAMA Network Open, 2021; 4 (5): e214920 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.4920.

β-sitosterol reduces anxiety and synergizes with established anxiolytic drugs in miceCell Reports Medicine, 2021; 2 (5): 100281 DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100281.


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Daily probiotic use is associated with a reduced rate of upper respiratory tract symptoms in overweight and obese people. DDW 2021; Abstract 739.

Probiotics reduce self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in overweight and obese adults: Should we be considering probiotics during viral pandemics? Gut Microbes 2021,

A randomised controlled study shows supplementation of overweight and obese adults with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduces bodyweight and improves well-being.
Scientific Reports 2020; 10(1): 4183.

Potential beneficial role of probiotics on the outcome of COVID-19 patients: An evolving perspective. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021,15(1):295-301, doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.12.040.


Colonization of the Caenorhabditis elegans gut with human enteric bacterial pathogens leads to proteostasis disruption that is rescued by butyratePLOS Pathogens, 2021; 17 (5): e1009510 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009510.

Whole-genome sequencing analysis of semi-supercentenarianseLife, 2021; 10 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.57849.

Pericardial Fat and the Risk of Heart FailureJournal of the American College of Cardiology, 2021; 77 (21): 2638 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.003.




May 2021


High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequalae of COVID-19. Nature 2021, April 22.

Avoiding the Coming Tsunami of Common, Chronic Disease: What the Lessons of the COVID-19 Pandemic Can Teach Us. Circulation 2021, April 6. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.053461.

A guideline to limit indoor airborne transmission of COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021, Apr 27, 118 (17) e2018995118. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018995118.


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Disruption of the blood−brain barrier in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Brain 2021.  DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab055.

Study presented virtually at ENDO 2021, Washington, DC, March 20, 2021:
Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 InfectionThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, Oct 27, 106, 3, e1343–e1353,

Post-covid syndrome in individuals admitted to hospital with covid-19: retrospective cohort study. Brit Med J 2021, March 31, 372:n693, doi:

Maternal DHA supplementation influences sex-specific disruption of placental gene expression following early prenatal stressBiology of Sex Differences, 2021; 12 (1). DOI: 10.1186/s13293-020-00356-x.

Disordered eating in a population‐based sample of young adults during the COVID‐19 outbreakInternational Journal of Eating Disorders, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/eat.23505.

Aluminium and Tau in Neurofibrillary Tangles in Familial Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports, 2021; 5 (1): 283 DOI: 10.3233/ADR-210011.

Nutrition in Crisis
Higher consumption of red and processed meat is associated with adverse cardiovascular magnetic resonance morpho-functional phenotypes: A study of 19,408 UK Biobank participants. Presented April 15 at ESC Preventive Cardiology 2021, an online scientific congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
Effect of varying quantities of lean beef as part of a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern on lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2021. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa375.

Betaine ameliorates schizophrenic traits by functionally compensating for KIF3-based CRMP2 transportCell Reports 2021; 35 (2): 108971. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108971.

Ultraviolet A Radiation and COVID‐19 Deaths in the USA with replication studies in England and ItalyBritish Journal of Dermatology 2021, Apr 8. DOI: 10.1111/bjd.20093.

Postprandial glycaemic dips predict appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals. Nat Metab (2021). 

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Musculoskeletal involvement of COVID-19: review of imagingSkeletal Radiology, Feb. 18, 2021; DOI: 10.1007/s00256-021-03734-7.

Pathogenic, glycolytic PD-1 B cells accumulate in the hypoxic RA jointJCI Insight, 2020; 5 (21) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.139032.

The Influence of Specific Bioactive Collagen Peptides on Knee Joint Discomfort in Young Physically Active Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2021, Feb 5;13(2):523,  doi: 10.3390/nu13020523.

Vegan Diet and Bone Health—Results from the Cross-Sectional RBVD Study. Nutrients 2021, 13(2), 685;

Partial Replacement of Animal Proteins with Plant Proteins for 12 Weeks Accelerates Bone Turnover Among Healthy Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Nutrition 2021, 151, Jan, 11–19,

Stabilization of Damaged Articular Cartilage with Hydrogel‐Mediated Reinforcement and SealingAdvanced Healthcare Materials, 2021; 2100315 DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202100315.

Vitamin C–enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jan; 105(1): 136–143, doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138594.

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Oral Administration of Polymer Hyaluronic Acid Alleviates Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study over a 12-Month Period. Scientific World Journal 2012; 2012: 167928. .


Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women. Science 2021, April 22, eabe9985. DOI: 10.1126/science.abe9985.

Potential Role of Vitamin B6 in Ameliorating the Severity of COVID-19 and Its Complications. Front Nutr., 29 October 2020 |

Trial of Psilocybin versus Escitalopram for Depression. N Engl J Med 2021; 384:1402-1411. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2032994.

High-throughput fitness screening and transcriptomics identify a role for a type IV secretion system in the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease-associated Escherichia coliNature Communications 2021; 12 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-22306-w.

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Sulfoquinovose is a select nutrient of prominent bacteria and a source of hydrogen sulfide in the human gutThe ISME Journal, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41396-021-00968-0.

Dietary cocoa ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and increases markers of antioxidant response and mitochondrial biogenesis in high fat-fed miceThe Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2021; 92: 108618 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108618.


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Rationale of Probiotic Supplementation during Pregnancy and Neonatal Period. Nutrients 2018, Nov 6;10(11):1693,  doi: 10.3390/nu10111693. 

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Botanical Medicines Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Artemisia annua, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Alchornea cordifolia Demonstrate Inhibitory Activity Against Babesia duncani. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol 2021, March 8:

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Trends in fall‐related mortality and fall risk increasing drugs among older individuals in the United States,1999–2017Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2021; DOI: 10.1002/pds.5201.

Debaryomyces is enriched in Crohn’s disease intestinal tissue and impairs healing in mice. Science 2021, March 12, 1154-1159. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd0919.



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Ames and Williams:
Supplements and Tuning Up Metabolism, Bruce N. Ames, The Journal of Nutrition, Volume 134, Issue 11, November 2004:
A theory of evolutionary allocation of scarce micronutrients by enzyme triage: adequate micronutrient nutrition to delay the degenerative diseases of aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006; 103:17589–17594.


Obesity and Brain Vulnerability in Normal and Abnormal Aging: A Multimodal MRI Study’.  Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease Reports 2021, 1 Jan. 65–77:
Integrated analysis of behavioral, epigenetic, and gut microbiome analyses in AppNL-G-FAppNL-F, and wild type mice. Scientific Reports 2021, 11, 4678:
Cannabidiol Ameliorates Cognitive Function via Regulation of IL-33 and TREM2 Upregulation in a Murine Model of Alzheimer’s DiseaseJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2021; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-210026.
Cognitive Effects of Aerobic Exercise in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis 2021, 80(1):233-244. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-201100.

Hippocampal transcriptome-wide association study and neurobiological pathway analysis for Alzheimer’s disease. PLoS Genet 2021, 17(2): e1009363.

Bredesen ingredients:
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2. UCLA study, released at the annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, held Nov. 8–12, 2003, in New Orleans, LA, used positron-emission tomography (PET) and found that for subjects taking gingko biloba, improved recall correlated with better brain function in key brain memory centres.
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6. Evidence on the Health Benefits of Supplemental Propolis. Nutrients 2019, 11(11), 2705;
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Higher airborne pollen concentrations correlated with increased SARS-CoV-2 infection rates, as evidenced from 31 countries across the globeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2021; 118 (12): e2019034118 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2019034118.

Has the Prevalence of Peanut Allergy Changed Following Earlier Introduction of Peanut? The EarlyNuts StudyJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2021; 147 (2): AB236 DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2020.12.009.

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One-Year Aerobic Exercise Reduced Carotid Arterial Stiffness and Increased Cerebral Blood Flow in Amnestic Mild Cognitive ImpairmentJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2021, 80 (2): 475-492.

Identification of bacteria-derived HLA-bound peptides in melanomaNature, 2021; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03368-8

Paper Notebooks vs. Mobile Devices: Brain Activation Differences During Memory RetrievalFrontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 2021; 15 DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2021.634158.

Differential Mitochondrial Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue Following Weight Loss Induced by Diet or Bariatric SurgeryThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2021; DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgab072.

Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation on the gut microbiota in extremely preterm infants in a randomized placebo-controlled trialCell Reports Medicine, 2021; 100206 DOI: 10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100206.

Green tea extracts containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulate facial development in Down syndrome. Scientific Reports 2021, 114715:




March 2021


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MEA Statement: NHS England Guidance on the Management of Post-Covid Fatigue Syndromes.


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SARS-CoV-2 and Stroke in a New York Healthcare System. Stroke 2020;51:2002–2011.

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Effect of High-Dose Zinc and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation vs Usual Care on Symptom Length and Reduction Among Ambulatory Patients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: The COVID A to Z Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(2):e210369. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0369.

Daily Mail, February 13, 2021:

Therapeutic 8 g/day of vitamin C increases recovery rate from SARS-CoV-2 infection by 71% (P = 0.036) based on the randomized trial by Thomas et al. (2021). Prof Harri Hemilä comment:

Vitamin C review article: Vitamin C – An Adjunctive Therapy for Respiratory Infection, Sepsis and COVID-19. Nutrients 2020, Dec 7;12(12):3760, doi: 10.3390/nu12123760.

EGCG binds intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain of p53 and disrupts p53-MDM2 interactionNature Communications, 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21258-5.

An Antioxidant Enzyme Therapeutic for COVID‐19Advanced Materials, 2020; 2004901 DOI: 10.1002/adma.202004901.

Dietary table grape protects against UV photodamage in humans: 1. clinical evaluation. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2021. Doi:

Effects of an Antioxidant-enriched Multivitamin in Cystic Fibrosis. A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial.  American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 2018, Sept 1, Vol 198, Issue 5, .


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Citrus Polyphenols in Brain Health and Disease: Current Perspectives. Front Neurosci.,19 February 2021,

Vitamin C and Covid-19.  Front. Med 2021, 18 January 2021 |

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 serology levels in pregnant women and their neonates. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.01.016

Fructose reprogrammes glutamine-dependent oxidative metabolism to support LPS-induced inflammation. Nature Communications 2021; 12 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-21461-4.

Air pollution exposure is linked with methylation of immunoregulatory genes, altered immune cell profiles, and increased blood pressure in children. Scientific Reports 2021; 11 (1). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-83577-3.

The one-carbon pool controls mitochondrial energy metabolism via complex I and iron-sulfur clusters. Science Advances 2021; 7 (8): eabf0717 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf0717.

Food anaphylaxis in the United Kingdom: analysis of national data, 1998-2018. BMJ 2021; n251 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.n251.

Rural-urban differences in antibiotic prescribing for uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology. Web (February 24, 2021).


The Long Haul of COVID-19 Recovery: Immune Rejuvenation versus Immune Support. Integrative Medicine 2020, 19, 6, December.

February 2021


State of the Nation – SIMON MARTIN WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer – aka The Global Cancer Observatory.
Every two minutes someone in the UK is diagnosed with cancer:

Delineating the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with cancer and cancer services. Health Data Research UK, May 13, 2020.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer deaths due to delays in diagnosis in England, UK: a national, population-based, modelling study. The Lancet Oncology 2020, Open Access, July 20. DOI:

UK incidence of cancer:

Diabetes in the UK: 2019. Diabet Med 2020, Jan 4, 37, 242–7:

 “Around three-quarters of people aged 45-74 in England are overweight or obese”: (

NHS England 2020:

“Air pollution a cause in girl’s death, coroner rules in landmark case”. Sandra Laville, The Guardian, Dec 16 2020.

Heart disease:

Long Term Conditions Compendium of Information: Third Edition, Department of Health, 2012, quoted in

The comorbidity burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus: patterns, clusters and predictions from a large English primary care cohort. BMC Med 2019, 17, 145:,or%20another%20longstanding%20respiratory%20illness.


Pilot trial of high-dose vitamin C in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Ann. Intensive Care 2021, 11, 5:

Characterizing Long COVID in an International Cohort: 7 Months of Symptoms and Their Impact. medRxiv 2020, doi:


BEN BROWN – COVID and resilience

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Zwickey: Covid-19: What We Know Now About Spread, Shedding Period, Symptoms, and Effects of Pollen,  a follow-up interview with Heather Zwickey, PhD. Natural Medicine Journal, April 2020 Vol. 12 Issue 4.

GI symptoms in Chinese patients: Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study.

COVID-19 and Gastrointestinal Disease: Implications for the Gastroenterologist. Digestive Diseases 2020:

Involvement of digestive system in COVID-19: manifestations, pathology, management and challenges. Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020; 13: doi: 10.1177/1756284820934626.


UV-LED disinfection of Coronavirus: Wavelength effectJournal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 2020, 212: 112044 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.112044.

Triptolide targets super-enhancer networks in pancreatic cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblastsOncogenesis 2020, 9 (11). DOI: 10.1038/s41389-020-00285-9.

Targeting CD38-dependent NAD+ metabolism to mitigate multiple organ fibrosisiScience 2021; 24 (1): 101902 DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2020.101902.

Local immune response to food antigens drives meal-induced abdominal painNature 2021. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-03118-2.

Effect of green-Mediterranean diet on intrahepatic fat: the DIRECT PLUS randomised controlled trial. Gut, 2021. Published online first: 18 January. Open Access, doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323106.

The Effect of Wolffia globosa Mankai, a Green Aquatic Plant, on Postprandial Glycemic Response: A Randomized Crossover Controlled TrialDiabetes Care, 2019; 42 (7): 1162 DOI: 10.2337/dc18-2319.

Circulating mitochondrial DNA is an early indicator of severe illness and mortality from COVID-19JCI Insight 2021. DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.143299.

January 2021


Diverse Functional Autoantibodies in Patients with COVID-19.

medRxiv 2020.12.10.20247205; doi:
Pre-print, not peer-reviewed.

Prothrombotic autoantibodies in serum from patients hospitalized with COVID-19Science Translational Medicine, Nov. 2, 2020; DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abd3876.

Antimalarial Drug Shortages During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results from the Global Rheumatology Alliance Patient Experience Survey. Research presented at ACR Convergence 2020, the American College of Rheumatology’s annual meeting.

Autoantibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19.

Science, 2020 Oct 23, 370, Issue 6515, eabd4585. DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4585.

Effect of gut microbiota on depressive-like behaviors in mice is mediated by the endocannabinoid systemNat Commun 2020, 11, 6363.

Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19. Nature 2020, Dec 11:

Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity of Stevia Extract, Stevioside, Rebaudioside A and Their Aglycon Steviol. Molecules 2020, 25, 5480:

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) lowers sugar-induced postprandial glycaemia independently and in a product with fermented quinoa: A randomised crossover trialBritish Journal of Nutrition 2020, 1-10. doi:10.1017/S0007114520004468.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES CohortThe Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2020; 33 (6): 842. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200110.

Glucosamine/Chondroitin and Mortality in a US NHANES CohortThe Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 2020; 33 (6): 842. DOI: 10.3122/jabfm.2020.06.200110.

Reversal of the Pathophysiological Responses to Gram-Negative Sepsis by Megadose Vitamin C. Critical Care Medicine 2020, Nov 25, Online First, doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000004770.

Dried urine and salivary profiling for complete assessment of cortisol and cortisol metabolites. Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology 2020, 22, 100243.


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Coronosomnia – UC Davis

The acute effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on insomnia and psychological symptoms. Sleep Med 202, S1389-9457(20)30261-6. DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2020.06.005.

D, K, COVID and heart disease: Dr TRYGVE BERGELAND
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Worldwide Prevalence and Burden of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Results of Rome Foundation Global Study. Gastroenterology 2020 Apr 12; S0016-5085(20)30487-X.

Association between Brachyspira and irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

Gut 2020, Online First: 11 November. DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321466.  

Controlled Delivery of Bile Acids to the Colon. Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology 2020, December, 11: 12, e00229. DOI: 10.14309/ctg.0000000000000229.

Allergy-Related Diseases During Childhood And Risk Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome at 16 Years: a Swedish Birth Cohort Study. Presented at UEG Week Virtual 2020. Related: The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Epidemiology 2014:; Epidemiology and burden of chronic constipation. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology.2011:

Randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled multi-centre study to assess the efficacy, tolerability and safety of Enterosgel® in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea (IBS-D) in adults. Trials 2020, 21, 122:


β-Carotene Oxygenase 1 Activity Modulates Circulating Cholesterol Concentrations in Mice and Humans. Journal of Nutrition 2020, 150: 8, 2023–30:

β-carotene conversion to vitamin A delays atherosclerosis progression by decreasing hepatic lipid secretion in mice.  Journal of Lipid Research 2020, 61(11):1491-1503. DOI: 10.1194/jlr.RA120001066.

Therapeutic responses to Roseomonas mucosa in atopic dermatitis may involve lipid-mediated TNF-related epithelial repair. Science Translational Medicine 2020. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaz8631.

Exercise training reveals micro-RNAs associated with improved cardiac function and electrophysiology in rats with heart failure after myocardial infarctionJournal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, 2020; 148: 106 DOI: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.08.015.

Effects of a Fat-Rich Diet on the Spontaneous Release of Acetylcholine in the Neuromuscular Junction of MiceNutrients 2020, 12, 3216. Published online 2020 Oct 21. doi: 10.3390/nu12103216.

December 2020


Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. Bruce N. Ames.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2006, 103 (47) 17589-17594; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0608757103.


“Dame Sally Davies: obesity scourge led to 50,000 Covid death toll”. The Times, Nov 15, 2020:

Higher egg consumption associated with increased risk of diabetes in Chinese adults – China Health and Nutrition SurveyBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520003955.

Metabolic Profiling of High Egg Consumption and the Associated Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle‐Aged Finnish MenMolecular Nutrition & Food Research  2018; 1800605 DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201800605.

Prof Richard Feinman: Nutrition in Crisis: Flawed Studies, Misleading Advice and the Real Science of Human Metabolism, (Chelsea Green Publishing, 2019).

“The Problem with Epidemiological Studies”, by Georgia Ede, MD. Online at her diagnosis:Diet website:

Vitamin D Status in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-CoV-2 Infection. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2020. dgaa733,

Upper-room ultraviolet air disinfection might help to reduce COVID-19 transmission in buildings: a feasibility studyPeerJ, 2020; 8: e10196 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10196

Dietary flavanols improve cerebral cortical oxygenation and cognition in healthy adultsScientific Reports, 2020; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-76160-9.

Structure and function of virion RNA polymerase of a crAss-like phage, Nature (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2921-5 ,

Alterations in the Intestinal Morphology, Gut Microbiota, and Trace Mineral Status Following Intra-Amniotic Administration (Gallus gallus) of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Seed Extracts. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3020.

Distinct Fecal and Plasma Metabolites in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Modulation after Microbiota Transfer Therapy.

mSphere Oct 2020, 5 (5) e00314-20; DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00314-20

Short-Chain Fatty Acids and Lipopolysaccharide as Mediators Between Gut Dysbiosis and Amyloid Pathology in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2020,  78, 2, 683-697.

Prebiotic Xylo-Oligosaccharides Ameliorate High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Rats. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3225.


Frontline Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance:

Low level of Vitamin C and dysregulation of Vitamin C transporter might be involved in the severity of COVID-19 InfectionAging and Disease, 2020; DOI: 10.14336/AD.2020.0918.

Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery
. Integr Med (Encinitas) 2020, 19(Suppl 1): 8–35.

Lymphopenia predicts disease severity of COVID-19: a descriptive and predictive study. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 2020, 5, Article number: 33.  

Broadly-targeted autoreactivity is common in severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Preprint, medRxiv 2020, ID: ppmedrxiv-20216192.

Effects of Human Milk Oligosaccharides on the Adult Gut Microbiota and Barrier Function. 
Nutrients. 2020

November 2020


Aspirin Use is Associated with Decreased Mechanical Ventilation, ICU Admission, and In-Hospital Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. Anesthesia & Analgesia: October 21, 2020 – Ahead of Print.


How menaquinone-7 deficiency influences mortality and morbidity among COVID-19 patients. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology 2020, 15 Sep, 29:101792. DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2020.101792.  

Reduced Vitamin K Status as A Potentially Modifiable Prognostic Risk Factor in COVID-19. Preprints 2020, 2020040457, doi: 10.20944/preprints202004.0457.v1.

Lower nocturnal blood glucose response to a potato-based mixed evening meal compared to rice in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Clinical Nutrition 2020, doi:

Vitamin C and vitamin C plus E improve the immune function in the elderly.

Experimental Gerontology 2020, 111118,

Global, regional, and national burden of ischaemic heart disease and its attributable risk factors, 1990-2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2020, doi:10.1093/ehjqcco/qcaa076.

2GBD 2017 Diet Collaborators. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 2019, 393:1958-1972.

Data shows the average age of death from coronavirus is 82.4 years.  David Rose. Daily Mail, 8 October 2020.

Stats are from the continuingly updated website of The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine of the University Oxford, that includes contributions from Prof Carl Heneghan and Dr Jason Oke, Senior Statistician at the Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences.,

Disorders of human coenzyme q10 metabolism: An overview. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2020, 21(18): 6695:

Older age and frailty are the chief predictors of mortality in COVID-19 patients admitted to an acute medical unit in a secondary care setting- a cohort study
BMC Geriatrics 2020, 10-16. DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-01803-5.

Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75-year olds: opportunities for successful ageing. BMC Geriatr 20, 96 (2020).

Is there scope for a novel mycelium category of proteins alongside animals and plants? Foods 2020, 9(9): 1151:


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Faecal microbiota transplantation from mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits sleep disturbances in naïve mice. Experimental Neurology 2020, 334, 113439:

Sleep fragmentation increases blood pressure and is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and fecal metabolome in ratsPhysiological Genomics 2020,  52 (7): 280. DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00039.2020.

Mucosal or systemic microbiota exposures shape the B cell repertoireNature, 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2564-6.

Associations of equol‐producing status with white matter lesion and amyloid‐β deposition in cognitively normal elderly JapaneseAlzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions 2020. DOI: 10.1002/trc2.12089.

Circadian Host-Microbiome Interactions in Immunity. Front Immunol 2020 Aug 14;11:1783. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01783.


Additive effects of green tea and coffee on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes RegistryBMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, 2020; 8 (1): e001252 DOI: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001252.

An Antioxidant Enzyme Therapeutic for COVID‐19Advanced Materials, 2020; 2004901 DOI: 10.1002/adma.202004901.

Increased Antioxidant Capacity and Pro