A full online archive of references

InFocus - Immune Health, Nov 2020


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  33. Smith, Rowan and Sullivan. Medicinal Mushrooms:Their therapeutic properties and current medical usage with special emphasis on cancer treatments
  34. S. Bernardshaw*, E. Johnson* & G. Hetlandy. An Extract of the Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill Administered Orally Protects Against Systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Mice.  Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 62, 393–398
  35. G. Hetland*, E. Johnson?, T. Lyberg?, S. Bernardshaw§, A. M. A. Tryggestad* & B. Grinde–  Effects of the Medicinal Mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on Immunity, Infection and Cancer. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 68, 363–370
  36. GeirHetland,1 Egil Johnson,2, 3 Torstein Lyberg,4 andGunnarKvalheim1 (2011) TheMushroom Effects on Tumor, Infection, Allergy, and Inflammation Agaricus blazei Murill ElicitsMedicinal through ItsModulation of Innate Immunity and Amelioration of Th1/Th2 Imbalance and Inflammation. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Advances in Pharmacological Sciences Volume 2011, Article ID 157015, 10 pages
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  45. Chou, Wei-Ting, Sheih, I-Chuan, Fang, Tony. 2013. The Applications of Polysaccharides from Various Mushroom Wastes as Prebiotics in Different Systems. Journal of food science DO – 10.1111/1750-3841.12160


October 2020

Effect of Omega-3 Dosage on Cardiovascular Outcomes
Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.08.034.

British Heart Foundation: › files › medical-information-sheet.

British Dietetic Association:


BBC: Fish oil supplements for a healthy heart ‘nonsense’ – BBC News

Trans-ethnic analysis reveals genetic and non-genetic associations with COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. medRxiv 2020, 09.04.20188318; PREPRINT. doi:

Zinc supplementation affects favorably the frequency of migraine attacks: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Nutr J 2020, 19, 101:

Effects of fermented human milk oligosaccharides on gut microbiota and barrier function in adults. Nutrients 2020, 12(9), 2808; DOI: 10.3390/nu12092808

Paul Bastard et al. Auto-antibodies against type I IFNs in patients with life-threatening COVID-19Science, Sept. 24, 2010; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4585

Qian Zhang et al. Inborn errors of type I IFN immunity in patients with life-threatening COVID-19Science, Sept. 24, 2020; DOI: 10.1126/science.abd4570

Andrographis-mediated chemosensitization through activation of ferroptosis and suppression of β-catenin/Wnt-signaling pathways in colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis, 2020, bgaa090,


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Histamine & Nutrigenomics

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Hormones & Histamine

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HNMT – Interior Methylator

Adem Y. Dawed, Zhou et al, Variation in the Plasma Membrane Monoamine Transporter (PMAT) (Encoded by SLC29A4) and Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1) (Encoded by SLC22A1) and Gastrointestinal Intolerance to Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes: An IMI DIRECT Study. Diabetes Care Jun 2019, 42 (6) 1027-1033; DOI: 10.2337/dc18-2182

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National Center for Biotechnology Information. Gene.

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Szczepankiewicz A, Bręborowicz A, Sobkowiak P, Popiel A. Polymorphisms of two histamine-metabolizing enzymes genes and childhood allergic asthma: a case control study. Clin Mol Allergy. 2010;8:14. Published 2010 Nov 1. doi:10.1186/1476-7961-8-14

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Yoshikawa T, Nakamura T, Yanai K. Histamine N-Methyltransferase in the Brain. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(3):737. Published 2019 Feb 10. doi:10.3390/ijms20030737]

MAOB – a double edged sword

Fowler, J. S., Volkow, N. D., Wang, G.-J., Pappas, N., Logan, J., MacGregor, R., Alexoff, D., Shea, C., Schlyer, D., Wolf, A. P., Warner, D., Zezulkova, I., Cilento, R. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase B in the brains of smokers. Nature 379: 733-736, 1996.]

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OMIM® Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man®. The Johns Hopkins University.

ROS – the consequences

Hiramoto K, Kida T, Kikugawa K. Increased urinary hydrogen peroxide levels caused by coffee drinking. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Nov;25(11):1467-71. doi: 10.1248/bpb.25.1467. PMID: 12419961.

National Center for Biotechnology Information. dbSNP

Soerensen M, Christensen K, Stevnsner T, Christiansen L. The Mn-superoxide dismutase single nucleotide polymorphism rs4880 and the glutathione peroxidase 1 single nucleotide polymorphism rs1050450 are associated with aging and longevity in the oldest old. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009 May;130(5):308-14. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2009.01.005. Epub 2009 Feb 5. PMID: 19428448; PMCID: PMC2720516.

Yahyah Aman, Yumin Qiu, Jun Tao, Evandro F. Fang, Therapeutic potential of boosting NAD+ in aging and age-related diseases, Translational Medicine of Aging, Volume 2, 2018, Pages 30-37, ISSN 2468-5011,


 A mechanistic model and therapeutic interventions for COVID-19 involving a RAS-mediated bradykinin stormeLife, 2020; 9 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.59177.

SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates associated with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. PLoS ONE 2020, 15(9): e0239252:

A randomized controlled study of weighted chain blankets for insomnia in psychiatric disordersJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 2020; 16 (9): 1567 DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.8636.

Curcumin Can Decrease Tissue Inflammation and the Severity of HSV-2 Infection in the Female Reproductive MucosaInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020; 21 (1): 337 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21010337.

Fecal microbiota transplantation from mice exposed to chronic intermittent hypoxia elicits sleep disturbances in naïve miceExperimental Neurology, 2020; 334: 113439 DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113439.

September 2020




Chinese restaurant:,at%20its%20entrance%20this%20week.

COVID deaths per million, August 24:

Obesity and vaccine response:

Research summary for Prof Melinda Beck, who has a new paper in process:  


The Effect of a Multivitamin and Mineral Supplement on Immune Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled TrialNutrients, 2020; 12 (8): 2447 DOI: 10.3390/nu12082447


Revealing the targets and mechanisms of vitamin A in the treatment of COVID-19. Aging 2020; 12:15784-15796.

COVID-19 pandemic and admission rates for and management of acute coronary syndromes in England. Lancet 2020,  396, 10248, P381-389, August 8:

Excess Cardiac Arrest in the Community During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JACC. Cardiovascular interventions 2020, 13 (16), 1968–9:

Eggs: buried in the new guidelines available at

Antibiotic use and the development of inflammatory bowel disease: a national case-control study in SwedenThe Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30267-3.

Metabolic Syndrome and Viral Pathogenesis: Lessons from Influenza and CoronavirusesJournal of Virology, 2020; DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00665-20.

Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2020; 17 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9.

 A Randomized Controlled Trial of Long-Term (R)-α-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Promotes Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Adults without Altering Baseline Elevated Plasma Triglyceride Concentrations.The Journal of Nutrition, 2020, nxaa203,


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Air pollution and asthma

Air pollution and family related determinants of asthma onset and persistent wheezing in children: nationwide case-control studyBMJ, 2020; m2791 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m2791.


In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa  Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Preprints 2020, 2020040315.

Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNACannabis and Cannabinoid Research 2020; DOI: 10.1089/can.2020.0043.

The effects of acute cannabidiol on cerebral blood flow and its relationship to memory: An arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging study. J Psychopharmacology 2020, first published online August 7.

Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Drug-Drug InteractionsMedical Cannabis and Cannabinoids 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1159/000507998.


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  2. Mitochondria in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.Immunity. 2015;42(3):406-417. doi:10.1016/j.immuni.2015.02.002.
  3. Role of mitochondria in steroidogenesis.Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;26(6):771-790. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2012.05.002.
  4. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Neuronal Cell Death: Potential TherapeuticsAnnu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017;57:437-454. doi:10.1146/annurev-pharmtox-010716-105001.
  5. Metabolic features and regulation of the healing cycle – a new model for chronic disease pathogenesis and treatmentMitochondrion. 2019;46:278-297. doi:10.1016/j.mito.2018.08.001.
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7. HIF1-α-mediated gene expression induced by vitamin B1 deficiencyInt J Vitam Nutr Res. 2013;83(3):188-197. doi:10.1024/0300-9831/a000159.

  1. “Oxygenation, Nutrition and Cancer”, by Derrick Lonsdale MD, FACN, CNS:

  1. Evidence that protein requirements have been significantly underestimated.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(1):52-57. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328332f9b7,
  2. Changes in Plasma Acylcarnitine and Lysophosphatidylcholine Levels Following a High-Fructose Diet: A Targeted Metabolomics Study in Healthy WomenNutrients. 2018;10(9):1254, doi:10.3390/nu10091254.
  3. Mechanisms of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(3):465-472. doi:10.1139/H09-045
  4. Exercise Modifies the Gut Microbiota with Positive Health Effects.

Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2017, ID 3831972:


Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely associated with extensive abdominal aortic calcification in elderly women: a cross-sectional studyBritish Journal of Nutrition, 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114520002706.

Trajectories of childhood adversity and mortality in early adulthood: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet, 2020; 396 (10249): 489 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30621-8.

Influence of cinnamon on glycaemic control in subjects with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Endocrine Society 2020, publishd online July 212. DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa094.

Gut Microbiota in T1DM-Onset Pediatric Patients: Machine Learning Algorithms to Classify Microganisms Disease-Linked. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, published online July 21:

Resolution Response – Dr BARRY SEARS

Dietary Technologies to Optimize Healing from Injury-Induced Inflammation. Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry 2020, 19, 1-12. Open Access available at

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August 2020


Do vitamin D supplements help prevent respiratory tract infections?

BMJ 2017; 356 doi:


Brain delivery of supplemental docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. EBio Medicine 2020, Open Access, publishe July 17. DOI:

Women’s Health in the UK – Dietary and Health Challenges across the Life Cycle with a Focus on Micronutrients. J Virol Mycol 2020, 4: 118. DOI: 10.29011/2688-8750.100018.

Zinc and respiratory tract infections: Perspectives for COVID‑19 (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine 2020, 46, 17-26.

Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

medRxiv 2020, pre-print, 05.02.20080036; doi:

Influence of cinnamon on glycaemic control in subjects with prediabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Endocrine Society 2020, publishd online July 212. DOI: 10.1210/jendso/bvaa094.

Gut Microbiota in T1DM-Onset Pediatric Patients: Machine Learning Algorithms to Classify Microganisms Disease-Linked. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020, published online July 21:

Investigating Ketone Bodies as Immunometabolic Countermeasures Against Respiratory Viral Infections. Med 2020.


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Lustig: additional material from SIMON MARTIN

Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2011;4(3):146-162. DOI : 10.2174/1874473711104030146.

Hyper‐Palatable Foods: Development of a Quantitative Definition and Application to the US Food System Database. Obesity 2019; 27 (11): 1761. DOI: 10.1002/oby.22639.

Why it can be hard to stop eating even when you’re full: Some foods may be designed that way”, by Tera Fazzino and Kaitlyn Rohde. The Conversation, December 6, 2019:



  1. An Oral Formulation of the Probiotic, Bacillus subtilisHU58, was Safe and Well Tolerated in a Pilot Study of Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy. Sayed Yossef et al. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020, 1463108:
  2. Probiotic Bacillus Spores Protect Against Acetaminophen Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats. Neag, et al. Nutrients 2020, Mar; 12(3): 632. DOI: 10.3390/nu12030632.
  3. “A synbiotic concept containing spore-forming Bacillusstrains and a prebiotic fiber blend consistently enhanced metabolic activity by modulation of the gut microbiome in vitro.”Duysburgh, Cindy et al. International journal of pharmaceutics: X, vol. 1 100021. 6 Jul. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.ijpx.2019.100021.


MtcB, a member of the MttB superfamily from the human gut acetogen Eubacterium limosum, is a cobalamin-dependent carnitine demethylase. Duncan J. Kountz et al. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2020; jbc.RA120.012934.  DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.012934.

High-Fat Diet and Antibiotics Cooperatively Impair Mitochondrial Bioenergetics to Trigger Dysbiosis that Exacerbates Pre-inflammatory Bowel DiseaseCell Host & Microbe 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.001.

Standard gastroenterologist versus multidisciplinary treatment for functional gastrointestinal disorders (MANTRA): an open-label, single-centre, randomised controlled trial.  The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2020, July 14, 2020DOI:

The small intestine shields the liver from fructose-induced steatosis. Nat Metab 2020, 2, 586–93:

Fitness trade-offs incurred by ovary-to-gut steroid signalling in DrosophilaNature 2020, July 8. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2462-y.



  1. Short-term, but not acute, intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract improves insulin sensitivity and free-living postprandial glucose excursions in individuals with overweight or obesity. Nolan, A., Brett, R., Strauss, J.A. et alEur J Nutr2020:
  2. Effects of blackcurrant extract on arterial functions in older adults: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.Takanobu Okamoto et al. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2020, 42:7, 640-647, DOI: 10.1080/10641963.2020.1764015.
  3. Why So Many People with Diabetes Stop Taking Metformin”:


The Gut Microbiota in Prediabetes and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study. Cell Metabolism 2020, online July 10:


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Extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19Nat Med 26, 1017–1032 (2020).

Food & mood: a review of supplementary prebiotic and probiotic interventions in the treatment of anxiety and depression in adults. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020, bmjnph-2019-000053. DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000053.

Oxytocin reverses Aβ-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in miceBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2020, 528 (1): 174 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.04.046.

Antiviral and virucidal effects of curcumin on transmissible gastroenteritis virus in vitro. Journal of General Virology 2020; DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.001466.

Evidence for improved systemic and local vascular function after long‐term passive static stretching training of the musculoskeletal system. J Physiol 2020: doi:10.1113/JP279866.

Effects of 4- and 6-h Time-Restricted Feeding on Weight and Cardiometabolic Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with ObesityCell Metabolism, 2020; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.018

Avocado (Persea americana) pulp improves cardiovascular and autonomic recovery following submaximal running: a crossover, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. Sci Rep 10, 10703 (2020).

July 2020


Estimated Inactivation of Coronaviruses by Solar Radiation With Special Reference to COVID‐19. Jose‐Luis Sagripanti and C. David Lytle. Accepted for publication in Photochemistry and Photobiology 2020:


Obesity and covid-19: the role of the food industry. Tan M, He FJ, MacGregor GA. BMJ 2020, 369, Editorial. DOI: June 10.

Air Pollution as a Contributor to the Inflammatory Activity of Multiple Sclerosis/ Andrea Cortese, Luca Lova, Patrizia Comoli et al. Journal of Neuroinflammation 2020, PREPRINT May 11. DOI: 10.21203/

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids promote astrocyte differentiation and neurotrophin production independent of cAMP in patient-derived neural stem cells. Jiang-Zhou Yu et al. Molecular Psychiatry 2020, DOI: 10.1038/s41380-020-0786-5.

Randomized Trial of Lactin-V to Prevent Recurrence of Bacterial Vaginosis. Craig R. Cohen et al. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:1906-1915. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1915254.

Do arsenic levels in rice pose a health risk to the UK population? Manoj Menon et al. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 2020, 197, 110601.

Between-centre differences for COVID-19 ICU mortality from early data in England. Zhaozhi Qian et al. Accepted for publication in Intensive Care Medicine. Preprint:

Prone Positioning in Awake, Nonintubated Patients With COVID-19 Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. Alison E. Thompson et al.  JAMA Intern Med 2020; doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.3030.  

COVID and blood type:

Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals. Robbiani DF et al. Nature 2020.

“The end of exponential growth: The decline in the spread of coronavirus”, by Isaac Ben-Israel. The Times of Israel, April 19 , 2020:

Hydrocortisone, Ascorbic Acid and Thiamine (HAT Therapy) for the Treatment of Sepsis. Focus on Ascorbic Acid. Paul E Marik. Nutrients 2018, Nov 14;10(11):1762.

DOI: 10.3390/nu10111762


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  22. Kalinić D, Borovac Štefanović L, Jerončić A, Mimica N, Dodig G, Delaš I. Eicosapentaenoic acid in serum lipids could be inversely correlated with severity of clinical symptomatology in Croatian war veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Croat Med J. 2014;55(1):27-37.
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  29. Back SE, McCauley JL, Korte KJ, et al. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Pilot Trial of N-Acetylcysteine in Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016;77(11):e1439-e1446.
  30. Cohen J, Wei Z, Phang J, Laprairie RB, Zhang Y. Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;37(1):28-34.
  31. Cohen J, Wei Z, Phang J, Laprairie RB, Zhang Y. Cannabinoids as an Emerging Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2020;37(1):28-34.
  32. Shannon S, Opila-Lehman J. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report. Perm J. 2016;20(4):16-005. doi:10.7812/TPP/16-005
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Acne vulgaris, probiotics and the gut-brain-skin axis – back to the future? Bowe WP, Logan AC. Gut Pathog.2011 Jan 31;3(1):1. Free online at

The effect on the skin of emotional and nervous statestheoretical and practical consideration of a gastro-intestinal mechanism. Stokes J, Pillsbury D. Arch Derm Syphilol. 1930;22(6):962–993. doi:10.1001/archderm.1930.01440180008002.


Hookworm Treatment for Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis. Radu Tanasescu et al. JAMA Neurology 2020; DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1118

Patient genetics is linked to chronic wound microbiome composition and healing. Craig D. Tipton et al. PLOS Pathogens, 2020; 16 (6): e1008511 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008511

The Neurobiology of Social Distance, Danilo Bzdok, Robin I.M. Dunbar.

Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2020:

Vitamin K status, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: A participant-level meta-analysis of 3 US cohorts. Shea, MK et al.  Am J Clin Nutr 2020.

Daily listening to Mozart reduces seizures in individuals with epilepsy: A randomized control study. Marjan Rafiee et al. Epilepsia Open, 2020; 5 (2): 285 DOI: 10.1002/epi4.12400.

Copper(II)-binding equilibria in human blood. Kirsipuu, T., Zadorožnaja, A., Smirnova, J. et al. Sci Rep 2020, 10, 5686.

A dual effect of ursolic acid to the treatment of multiple sclerosis through both immunomodulation and direct remyelination. Yuan Zhang et al.

PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2000208117, 2020.

Chromatin Priming Renders T Cell Tolerance-Associated Genes Sensitive to Activation below the Signaling Threshold for Immune Response Genes. Sarah L. Bevington et al. Cell Reports 2020; 31 (10): 107748 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107748.

A neurotransmitter produced by gut bacteria modulates host sensory behaviour. Michael P. O’Donnell et al. Nature, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2395-5.

June 2020


“More is less and less is more? Breaking the cycle of polypharmacy with deprescribing”, by Dr Henry J. Woodford is Chair of the British Geriatric Society’s Medicine Optimisation SIG. January 21 2020:  

 “Reflections on the COVID-19 Pandemic”, by Dr Jeff Bland, PhD:


The Possible Role of Vitamin D in Suppressing Cytokine Storm and Associated Mortality in COVID-19 Patients. Ali Daneshkhah et al. medRxiv 2020, posted April 30. 2020:

Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Michael F. Holick et al. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2011, Volume 96, Issue 7, 1 July, 1911-30:

Persistent organic pollutant exposure and coeliac disease: a pilot study. Abigail Gaylord et al. Environmental Research 2020; 109439.

DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109439.

Niacin Cures Systemic NAD Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metabolism 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008.

C9orf72 suppresses systemic and neural inflammation induced by gut bacteria.  Nature 2020. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2288-7.

In Search of Preventative Strategies: Novel Anti-Inflammatory High-CBD Cannabis Sativa Extracts Modulate ACE2 Expression in COVID-19 Gateway Tissues. Wang B et al. Preprints 2020, 2020040315. DOI: 10.20944/preprints202004.0315.v1. Pre-print manuscript, not peer-reviewed.

Ketogenic Diets Alter the Gut Microbiome Resulting in Decreased Intestinal Th17 Cells. Qi Yan Ang et al. Cell 2020, May 20: DOI:

Association of social relationships with incident cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Gronewold J, Kropp R, Lehmann N et al. EAN Virtual Congress 2020. 


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Chronic stress, glucocorticoid receptor resistance, inflammation, and disease risk

Sheldon Cohen et al. PNAS 2012, April 2:  


Gut microbiota may underlie the predisposition of healthy individuals to COVID-19. Wanglong Gou et al. Pre-print: not peer-reviewed. medRxiv 2020.04.22.20076091; doi:

Gut Microbes Could Predict How Seriously Ill A Covid-19 Patient Might Get, Preliminary Study Suggests. By Kashmira Gander. April 28, 2020.

Genetic and metabolic links between the murine microbiome and memory. Jian-Hua Mao et al. Microbiome 2020, 8 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-020-00817-w.

Microbiota-induced type I interferons instruct a poised basal state of dendritic cells. Schaupp L et al. Cell 2020 May 6. doi:

Prof Glenn Gibson:

Can probiotics and prebiotics go viral? Prof Glenn Gibson.

March 18, 2020.

Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial.
De Vrese M et al. Clin Nutr 2005 Aug;24(4):481-91. Epub 2005 Apr 21.

Probiotics for Preventing Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Qiukui Hao et al. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015, Feb 3;(2):CD006895,  doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006895.pub3.

2019 Novel coronavirus infection and gastrointestinal tract. Qin Yan Gao et al. J Digestive Diseases 2020, First published:25 February 2020.

“Can bacteria help humans fight COVID-19?” Gregor Reid,

Professor, Western University and Lawson Institute. Nature Research Microbiology March 17, 2020:

“Coronavirus: Australian scientists map how immune system fights virus”.

March 17 2020:


Effects of blackcurrant extract on arterial functions in older adults: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Okamoto T et al. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension 2020, May 12: DOI: 10.1080/10641963.2020.1764015.

Effect of New Zealand Blackcurrant on Blood Pressure, Cognitive Function and Functional Performance in Older Adults. Cook MD et al. Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics 2020, online Jan 6. DOI:


Circulating plasma concentrations of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in men and women with heart failure and effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone inhibitors. Adriaan A Voors et al. European Heart Journal, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa373.

Plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme 2: novel biomarker in heart failure with implications for COVID-19. Marc A Pfeffer, Gavin Y Oudit. European Heart Journal, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa414.

Euro Heart J special issue:

Sugar‐Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the California Teachers Study. Lorena S. Pacheco et al. Journal of the American Heart Association 2020: DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.119.014883.

Reductive Stress Causes Pathological Cardiac Remodeling and Diastolic Dysfunction. Gobinath Shanmugam et al. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 2020:  DOI: 10.1089/ars.2019.7808.

The Mediterranean diet, plasma metabolome, and cardiovascular disease risk Liming Liang et al.  European Heart Journal 2020. DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa209.


“Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials”. Carine Dion et al. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016; 13: 28. DOI: 10.1186/s12986-016-0086-x.

“Proprietary arabinogalactan extract increases antibody response to the pneumonia vaccine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study in healthy volunteers”. Udani JK et al. Nutr J. 2010, Aug 26;9:32. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-9-32.

Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegans and increases muscle function in rodents. Ryu D et al. Nat Med. 2016;22(8):879‐888. DOI:10.1038/nm.4132


Synergistic effect of fasting-mimicking diet and vitamin C against KRAS mutated cancers. Maira Di Tano et al. Nature Communications, 2020; 11 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16243-3.

Glutathione Restricts Serine Metabolism to Preserve Regulatory T Cell FunctionCell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (5): 920 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.03.004.

Effect of yoga as add-on therapy in migraine (CONTAIN)Neurology, 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009473 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009473

Effect of Acupuncture for Postprandial Distress Syndrome: a Randomized Clinical Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020, May 12.

Elesclomol alleviates Menkes pathology and mortality by escorting Cu to cuproenzymes in miceScience, 2020; 368 (6491): 620 DOI: 10.1126/science.aaz8899.

Long-term dietary flavonoid intake and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias in the Framingham Offspring CohortThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2020; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqaa079.

Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study on the nutritional efficacy of a food for special medical purposes (FSMP) and a dietary supplement in reducing the symptoms of veisalgia. Bernhard Lieb, Patrick Schmitt.  BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health 2020. DOI:

May 2020

Quote of the Month

“On Covid-19, a Respected Science Watchdog Raises Eyebrows”, by Michael Schulson, April 24:
COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California.

Eran Bendavid et al. medRxiv 2020.04.14.20062463 (pre-print). DOI:

Also see report at

Self‐reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in Covid‐19.

Carol H. Yan et al. Allergy & Rhinology 2020, April 24:


Digestion of Intact Gluten Proteins by Bifidobacterium Species: Reduction of Cytotoxicity and Proinflammatory Responses. Natália Ellen Castilho de Almeida et al.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2020, 68, 15, 4485-92. March 20, 2020DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01421.

COVID-19, pneumonia & inflammasomes – the melatonin connection. Doris Loh. March 14, 2020.

Vitamin D on Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 (COVITD-19):

Vitamin D deficiency in Spain. Reality or myth? Navarro Valverde C, Quesada Gómez JM. Rev Osteoporos Metab Miner 2014; 6 (1) suplemento: 5-10.

Zinc in Infection and Inflammation. Gammoh NZ, Rink L. Nutrients. 2017 Jun 17;9(6). pii: E624. doi: 10.3390/nu9060624.

Is Quercetin a Safer Alternative to Hydroxychloroquine?

“Absolutely not”: Press Association, April 3, 2020

New analysis recommends less reliance on ventilators to treat coronavirus patients. Sharon Begley.

Respiratory Support in Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Patients, with a Focus on Resource-Limited Settings. Arjen M. Dondorp et al.  American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2020.  Available online: 21 April. DOI:

Assessment of coupled Zn concentration and natural stable isotope analyses of urine as a novel probe of Zn status.  Rebekah E. T. Moore et al. Metallomics, 2019,11, 1506-1517.

Phylogenetic network analysis of SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Peter Forster et al. PNAS  April 8, 2020.

Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. David Welch et al. Scientific Reports 2018, volume 8, Article number: 2752.

Ultraviolet Irradiation of Blood: “The Cure That Time Forgot”? Michael R. Hamblin.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 996: 295–309. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-56017-5_25.

PMID: 29124710

Pre-frailty factors in community-dwelling 40–75 year olds: opportunities for successful ageing. SJ Gordon, N Baker, M Kidd, A Maeder and KA Grimmer. BMC Geriatrics 2020, April.  DOI: 10.1186/s12877-020-1490-7.

Human Herpesvirus-6 Reactivation, Mitochondrial Fragmentation, and the Coordination of Antiviral and Metabolic Phenotypes in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Philipp Schreiner et al.

ImmunoHorizons 2020, 4 (4) 201-215. DOI: 10.4049/immunohorizons.2000006.

Free online at:


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“Treat vitamin D deficiency to prevent deadly lung attacks”:

Vitamin D to prevent exacerbations of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. David A. Jolliffe et al. Thorax 2019, 74: 337-345.DOI: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212092



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  1. Acute Oral Toxicity Test
    Test: LD50
    Lab: AMA Laboratories, New York, USA (Ref: WP96-BERN1/LD504881.DP). (Animal Experiment involving rats to determine any potential toxicity of MGN-3. Above material can be classified as non-toxic according to the reference. LD50 > 36.0g / kg.)
  2. Experience with Administration of Biobran in Patients with Chronic Rheumatism
    Author: Kenichi Ichihashi (Ichihashi Clinic)
    Journal: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapy Vol. 14/No.4
  3. Anti-HIV activity in vitro of MGN-3, an activated arabinoxylan from rice bran
    Author: M. Ghoneum
    Journal: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Journal 243, 25-29 (1998), Article No. RC978047. (This is a detailed write up of the abstract Ghoneum presented in July 1996 at the International Conference on AIDS in Vancouver.)
  4. Modified Rice Bran Improves Glucose Tolerance in NIDDM Adult Rats Given Streptozotocin as Neonates
    Authors: Ohara, K. Onai and H. Maeda, 2002
  5. Hyrolyzed rice bran reduces the aggravation of protein metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Presenters: Kitamura N., Ohara I., (Aichi Gakusen University) and Maeda H. (Daiwa Pharmaceutical)
    Event: 45th Annual Meeting of the American College of Nutrition in California. Kitamura 2004
  6. Therapeutic Effects of Biobran, Modified Arabinoxylan Rice Bran, in Improving Symptoms of Diarrhea Predominant or Mixed Type Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study
    Authors: Takeshi Kamiya, Michiko Shikano, Mamoru Tanaka, Keiji Ozeki, Masahide Ebi, Takahito Katano, Shingo Hamano, Hirotaka Nishiwaki, Hironobu Tsukamoto, Tsutomu Mizoshita, Yoshinori Mori, Eiji Kubota, Satoshi Tanida, Hiromi Kataoka, Noriaki Okuda, and Takashi Joh
    Journal: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014, Article ID 828137, 6 pages
  7. Evaluation of the effects of asthma prevention and symptom reduction by enzymatically modified rice-bran foods in asthmatic model mice
    Presenters: Kanbayashi H. and Endo Y., Department of Pathological Molecular Medicine, McMaster University
    Event: 52nd Conference of Japanese Society of Allergology, Jokohama, Japan
  8. Protective effect of low molecular fraction of MGN-3, a modified arabinoxylan from rice bran, on acute liver injury by inhibition of NF-kB and JNK/MAPK expression
    Presenters: Surina Zheng, Shunsuke Sugita, Shizuka Hirai, Yukari Egashira
    Event: International Immunopharmacology 14 (2012) 764–769
  9. Biobran-augmented maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells
    Authors: D. Cholujova, J. Jakugikova, J. Sedlak
    Journal: Neoplasma 56, 2, 2009.
  10. Activation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In Vitro by the Biological Response Modifier Arabinoxylan Rice Bran (MGN-3/Biobran)
    Authors: M. Ghoneum and S. Agrawal
    Journal: Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, Vol.24, no.4, 941-948 (2011)
  11. Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Activity of Aged Mice by Modified arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN3/Biobran)
    Authors: Ghoneum, Abedi
    Journal: J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:1581-8.
  12. Evalutation of flow cytometry-based assay for natural killer cell activity in clinical settings
    Authors: Valiathan, Lewis, Melillo, Leonard, Alis, Asthana
    Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 2011; 1365-3083
  13. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN3/Biobran) enhances natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity against neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo.
    Authors: Perez-Martinez, Valentin, Fernandez, Hernandez-Jimenez, Lopez-Collezo, Zerbes, Schworer, Nunez, Martin, Sallis, Diaz, Handgretinger and Pfeiffer.
    Journal: Cytotherapy, 2015, 0:1-2.
  14. An Open-label, randomized clinical trial to assess the immunomodulatory activity of a novel oligosaccharide compound in healthy adult
    Authors: K. H. Ali, A. B. Melillo, S. M. Leonard, D. Asthana, Judi M. Woolger, A. H. Wolfson, H. R. McDaniel, J. E. Lewis
    Journal: Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7): 265-279
  15. Biobran/MGN-3, an arabinoxylan rice bran, enhances NK cell activity in geriatric subjects: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ahmed F. Elsaid, Magda Shaheen and Mamdooh Ghoneum. Exp Ther Med. 2018 Mar;15(3):2313-2320. doi: 10.3892/etm.2018.5713. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
  16. Arabinoxylan rice bran (MGN-3/Biobran) alleviates radiation-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction of mice in a mitochondrion-dependent manner.  Zhao Z, Cheng W, Qu W, Wang K. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Apr;124:109855. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.109855. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Novel potent decameric peptide of Spirulina platensis reduces blood pressure levels through a PI3K/AKT/eNOS-dependent mechanism. Albino Carrizzo et al. Hypertension 2019;73:449–57.

Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus. Mark F. McCarty, James J. DiNicolantonio, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 2020,

An increased need for dietary cysteine in support of glutathione synthesis may underlie the increased risk for mortality associated with low protein intake in the elderly. McCarty MF, DiNicolantonio JJ. Age (Dordr) 2015, Oct;37(5):96. doi: 10.1007/s11357-015-9823-8. Epub 2015 Sep 11.


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12 Read more on the cytokine storm here

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Microbiome analyses of blood and tissues suggest cancer diagnostic approach. Gregory D. Poore et al. Nature 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2095-1.

Cécilia Samieri et al. Using network science tools to identify novel diet patterns in prodromal dementiaNeurology 2020; 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009399 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000009399.

Impairment of Glycolysis-Derived l-Serine Production in Astrocytes Contributes to Cognitive Deficits in Alzheimer’s Disease. Juliette Le Douce et al. Cell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (3): 503 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.02.004.

The citrus flavonoid nobiletin confers protection from metabolic dysregulation in high-fat-fed mice independent of AMPK. Nadya M. Morrow, Amy C. Burke, Joshua P. Samsoondar, Kyle E. Seigel, Andrew Wang, Dawn E. Telford, Brian G. Sutherland, Conor O’Dwyer, Gregory R. Steinberg, Morgan D. Fullerton, Murray W. Huff. Journal of Lipid Research, 2020; 61 (3): 387 DOI: 10.1194/jlr.RA119000542.

Dietary prebiotics alter novel microbial dependent fecal metabolites that improve sleep. Robert S. Thompson, Fernando Vargas, Pieter C. Dorrestein, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M. Berg, Monika Fleshner. Scientific Reports, 2020; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-60679-y

April 2020



Gut Dysbiosis during Influenza Contributes to Pulmonary Pneumococcal Superinfection through Altered Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production.

Sencio V et al. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 3;30(9):2934-2947.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.013.

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Associations of habitual fish oil supplementation with cardiovascular outcomes and all cause mortality: evidence from a large population based cohort study. Li Zhi-Hao, Zhong Wen-Fang, Liu Simin, Kraus Virginia Byers, Zhang Yu-Jie, Gao Xiang et alBMJ 2020; 368 :m456.

Hypothesis: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may increase the risk of severe COVID-19, James H Diaz. Journal of Travel Medicine, taaa041,


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Breadth of concomitant immune responses prior to patient recovery: a case report of non-severe COVID-19. Thevarajan, I., Nguyen, T.H.O., Koutsakos, M. et al. Nat Med (2020).

Published16 March 2020. DOI:

Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 3 months of life may reduce the risk of respiratory allergies and some asthma in children at the age of 6 years. Galya Bigman. Acta Paediatrica, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/apa.15162

Structure of intact IgE and the mechanism of ligelizumab revealed by electron microscopy. Rasmus K Jensen, Frederic Jabs, Michaela Miehe, Brian Mølgaard, Wolfgang Pfützner, Christian Möbs, Edzard Spillner, Gregers R Andersen. Allergy, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/all.14222

VIRUS – Simon Martin

Prof Michael Levitt interview:,7340,L-3800632,00.html.

Ebola stats:

Ebola antibodies: The Barcelona Institute for Global Health, ISGlobal –

Air vents: Air, Surface Environmental, and Personal Protective Equipment Contamination by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) From a Symptomatic Patient. Ong SWX, Tan YK, Chia PY, et al. JAMA. Published online March 04, 2020. DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.3227.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection. Cheng VC, Lau SK, Woo PC, Yuen KY. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20(4):660–694. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00023-07.

Italy’s National Institute of Health report:

NHS survey: Health Survey for England 2018 Longstanding Conditions:

Intensive Care National Audit and Research Centre report:

Into the Eye of the Cytokine Storm. Jennifer R. Tisoncik et al.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012 Mar; 76(1): 16–32. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.05015-11.

COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression.

Puja Mehta et al. The Lancet 2020, March 16. DOI:

Age-specific mortality during the 1918 influenza pandemic: unravelling the mystery of high young adult mortality. Gagnon A, Miller MS, Hallman SA, et al. PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e69586. Published 2013 Aug 5. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069586.

A, D and Chris Kresser:

ACE-2 graphic: “ACE-2: The Receptor for SARS-CoV-2”:

BLOOD TYPE – Peter D’Adamo

Relationship between the ABO Blood Group and the COVID-19 Susceptibility. Jiao Zhao et al. medRxiv 2020.03.11.20031096; doi:

Pre-print: not peer-reviewed.

Inhibition of the interaction between the SARS-CoV spike protein and its cellular receptor by anti-histo-blood group antibodies.

Guillon P et al. Glycobiology. 2008 Dec;18(12):1085-93. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwn093.

SCUTELLARIA – Anna Haynes (Boudrain in the issue)

The effects of acute and repeated oroxylin A treatments on Aβ25–35-induced memory impairment in mice. Dong Hyun Kim et al.

Neuropharmacology. Vol 55, Issue 5, October 2008, Pages 639-64.

Characterization of Chemical Constituents in Scutellaria baicalensis with Antiandrogenic and Growth-Inhibitory Activities toward Prostate Carcinoma.

Michael Bonham et al. Clin Cancer Res May 15 2005 (11) (10) 3905-3914; DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-1974.

Chinese Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) inhibits inflammation and proliferation on benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Bo-RamJin et al.  Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 235, 10 May 2019, Pages 481-488.


A Cardiovascular Disease-Linked Gut Microbial Metabolite Acts via Adrenergic Receptors. Ina Nemet, Prasenjit Prasad Saha, Nilaksh Gupta, Weifei Zhu, Kymberleigh A. Romano, Sarah M. Skye, Tomas Cajka, Maradumane L. Mohan, and others

Cell 2020Vol. 180, Issue 5, p862–877.e22, March 5.

Multi-omics Analysis of the Intermittent Fasting Response in Mice Identifies an Unexpected Role for HNF4α. Luke Hatchwell, Dylan J. Harney, Michelle Cielesh, Kieren Young, Yen Chin Koay, John F. O’Sullivan, Mark Larance. Cell Reports, 2020; 30 (10): 3566 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.051.

Propionic acid shapes multiple sclerosis disease course by immunomodulatory mechanism. Alexander Duscha, Aiden Haghikia et al. Cell 2020, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.035.

Biphasic chemotaxis of Escherichia coli to the microbiota metabolite indole. Jingyun Yang, Ravi Chawla, Kathy Y. Rhee, Rachit Gupta, Michael D. Manson, Arul Jayaraman, Pushkar P. Lele. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020; 201916974 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1916974117

Zebrafish-Based Screening of Antiseizure Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Magnolia officinalis Extract and Its Constituents Magnolol and Honokiol Exhibit Potent Anticonvulsant Activity in a Therapy-Resistant Epilepsy Model. Jing Li, Daniëlle Copmans, Michèle Partoens, Borbála Hunyadi, Walter Luyten, Peter de Witte. ACS Chemical Neuroscience, 2020; 11 (5): 730. DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00610.

IN PRACTICE – Jenny Phillips

  1. 2012 Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

  1. 2014 Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity

  1. 2019 Insulin resistance is a cardiovascular risk factor in humans
  2. 2015 Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and colorectal adenomas: A meta-analysis

  1. 2019 Insulin resistance in prostate cancer patients and predisposing them to acute ischemic heart disease
  2. 2017 Insulin Resistance and Neurodegeneration: Progress Towards the Development of New Therapeutics for Alzheimer’s Disease
  3. 2016 Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome


Case history

  1. Damasiewicz-Bodzek, A., Wielkoszyński, T. (2008) Serologic markers of celiac disease in psoriatic patients. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology; Sep2008, Vol. 22 Issue 9, p1055-1061.
    2. Bolla AM, Caretto A, Laurenzi A, Scavini M, Piemonti L (2019) Low carb diets in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients May; 11(5):962.
  2. Caldesi & Phillips (2019) The diabetes weight-loss cookbook Kyle books.

References In Focus gut:

Christina Georgallou:


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Saari A et al., “Antibiotic exposure in infancy and risk of being overweight in the first 24 months of life,” Pediatrics, pp. 135 (4): 617-626, 2015.


Robertson R et al., “The human microbiome and child growth- First 1000 days and beyond,” Trends in Microbiology, pp. 27 (2): 131-147 , 2019.


Stokholm et al., “Antibiotic use during pregnancy alters the commensal vaginal microbiota,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, pp. 20 (7): 629-635, 2014.


Browne P et al., “Human milk microbiome and maternal postnatal pyschosocial distress,” Frontiers in Microbiology, pp. 10, doi= 10. 3389/fmicb.2019.02333, 2019.


Chua MC et al., “Effect of synbiotic on the gut microbiota of Cesarean delivered infants. A randomised, double blind, multicenter study,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, pp. 65 (1): 102-106, 2017.


Kosuwon P et al., “A synbiotic mixture of scGOS/lcFOS and Bifidobacterium breve M-16V increases faecal Bifidobacterium in healthy young children,” Beneficial Microbes, pp. 541-552, 2018.


Patole et al., “Effect of Bifidobacterium breve M-16V supplementation on faecal Bifidobacteria in preterm neonates- a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” PLoS one, p. 9 (3): e89511, 2014.


Davidson L E et al., “Lactobacillus GG as an immune adjuvant for live-attenuated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 65 , no. 4, p. 501, 2011.


Schultz M et al., “Immunomodulatory consequences of oral administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG in healthy volunteers,” Jounral of Dairy Research, vol. 70, no. 2, p. 165, 2003.


Hikaru U et al., “Bifidobacteria prevents preterm infants from developing infection and sepsis,” International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, pp. 5 (1) 33-36, 2010.


Satoh Y et al., “Bifidobacteria prevents nectrotising enterocolitis and infection in preterm infants.,” International Journal of Probiotics & Prebiotics, p. 2; 49, 2007.


“Pharmaceutical Services Neotiating Comittee,” PSNC, May 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 Feb 2020].


Van der Aa et al., “Synbiotics prevent asthma-like symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis,” Allergy , pp. 170-177, 2011.


Stojkovic A et al., “CLinical trial (consort compliant): Optimal time period to achieve the effects on synbiotic- controlled wheezing and respiratory infections in young children,” Serbian journal of management , vol. 144, no. (1-2), pp. 38-45, 2016.


“Allergy UK,” 19 April 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 28 02 2020].


Hattori K et al., “Effects of administration of bifidobacteria on faecal microflora and clinical symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis,” Arerugi, pp. 5, 387, 2003.


Wolke D., “Systematic review and meta analysis: fussing and crying duractions and prevalence of colic in infants,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 185, pp. 55-61, 2017.


Chau K et al., “Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomised double blind placebo controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938,” J. Pediatr, vol. 166, pp. 74-78, 2014.


Savino F et al., “Preventative effects of oral probiotic on intantile colic: a prospective, randomised, blinded, controlled trial using Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938,” Beneficial Microbes, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 245-251, 2015.


Cazzola, “Efficacy of a synbiotic supplementation in the prevention of common winter diseases in children: a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study,” Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease, vol. 4, no. (5), pp. 271-8, 2010.

[22] Taniuchi S et al., “Administration of Bifidobacterium to infants with atopic dermatitis: changes in faecal microflora and clinical symptoms,” The Journal of Applied Research, pp. 5 (2): 387-396, 2005.


Aicacia Young/Karen Jones:

Alzheimer’s Society (2020) Facts for the media [online]. Available from: (Accessed 12 March 2020).

Anon (2020) Alzheimer’s disease [online]. Available from: (Accessed 12 March 2020).

Blatchford, P. et al. (2017) Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomised controlled human trial. Journal of Nutritional Science. [Online] 6.

Bourassa, M. et al. (2016) Butyrate, neuroepigenetics and the gut microbiome: Can a high fiber diet improve brain health?. Neuroscience Letters. [Online] 6256-63.

Chelakkot, C. et al. (2018) Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. [Online] 50 (2), e450-e450.

Faure, M. et al. (2006) Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. The Journal of Nutrition. [Online] 136 (6), 1558-1564.

Friedland, R. et al. (2020) What Are the Molecular Mechanisms by Which Functional Bacterial Amyloids Influence Amyloid Beta Deposition and Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders?. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. [Online] 21 (5), 1652.

Holzer, P. & Farzi, A. (2014) Neuropeptides and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. [Online] 195-219.

Kaliannan, K. et al. (2015) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia. Scientific Reports. [Online] 5 (1), .

Kaliannan, K. et al. (2015) A host-microbiome interaction mediates the opposing effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on metabolic endotoxemia. Scientific Reports. [Online] 5 (1), .

Liu, H. et al. (2018) Butyrate: A Double-Edged Sword for Health?. Advances in Nutrition. [Online] 9 (1), 21-29.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Loffredo, L. et al. (2020) Oxidative Stress and Gut-Derived Lipopolysaccharides in Neurodegenerative Disease: Role of NOX2. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. [Online] 20201-7.

Mancuso, C. & Santangelo, R. (2018) Alzheimer’s disease and gut microbiota modifications: The long way between preclinical studies and clinical evidence. Pharmacological Research. [Online] 129329-336.

McFarlin, B. et al. (2017) Oral spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced incidence of post-prandial dietary endotoxin, triglycerides, and disease risk biomarkers. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology. [Online] 8 (3), 117.

Poulose, S. et al. (2012) Anthocyanin-rich Açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) Fruit Pulp Fractions Attenuate Inflammatory Stress Signaling in Mouse Brain BV-2 Microglial Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. [Online] 60 (4), 1084-1093.

Powell, N. et al. (2017) The mucosal immune system: master regulator of bidirectional gut–brain communications. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. [Online] 14 (3), 143-159.

Rao, M. & Gershon, M. (2016) The bowel and beyond: the enteric nervous system in neurological disorders. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. [Online] 13 (9), 517-528.

Reddy, V. et al. (2020) Polyphenols in Alzheimer’s Disease and in the Gut–Brain Axis. Microorganisms. [Online] 8 (2), 199.

Schwartz, M. & Deczkowska, A. (2016) Neurological Disease as a Failure of Brain–Immune Crosstalk: The Multiple Faces of Neuroinflammation. Trends in Immunology. [Online] 37 (10), 668-679.

Serra, D. et al. (2020) Polyphenols in the management of brain disorders: Modulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. [Online] 1-27.

Shen, H. et al. (2020) New mechanism of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated by gut microbiota. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online] 100109884.

Shen, H. et al. (2020) New mechanism of neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s disease: The activation of NLRP3 inflammasome mediated by gut microbiota. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry. [Online] 100109884.

Sylvia, K. & Demas, G. (2018) A gut feeling: Microbiome-brain-immune interactions modulate social and affective behaviors. Hormones and Behavior. [Online] 9941-49.

Yang, J. et al. (2015) Xylooligosaccharide supplementation alters gut bacteria in both healthy and prediabetic adults: a pilot study. Frontiers in Physiology. [Online] 6.

Zhao, Y. et al. (2017) Microbiome-Derived Lipopolysaccharide Enriched in the Perinuclear Region of Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Frontiers in Immunology. [Online] 8.


Humphrey Baccus:

  1. Cani, P. D. et al. Metabolic Endotoxemia. 56, 1761–1772 (2007).
  2. Festi, D. et al. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome. World J. Gastroenterol. 20, 16079–94 (2014).
  3. Corfield, A. P. The Interaction of the Gut Microbiota with the Mucus Barrier in Health and Disease in Human. Microorganisms 6, 78 (2018).
  4. Zhang, M. & Yang, X.-J. Effects of a high fat diet on intestinal microbiota and gastrointestinal diseases. World J. Gastroenterol. 22, 8905–8909 (2016).
  5. Nakatani, Y. et al. Endotoxin clearance and its relation to hepatic and renal disturbances in rats with liver cirrhosis. Liver 21, 64–70 (2001).
  6. Geerlings, S., Kostopoulos, I., de Vos, W. & Belzer, C. Akkermansia muciniphila in the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: When, Where, and How? Microorganisms 6, 75 (2018).
  7. Wexler, H. M. Bacteroides: The good, the bad, and the nitty-gritty. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20, 593–621 (2007).
  8. Naofumi Yoshida et al. Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides dorei Reduce Gut Microbial Lipopolysaccharide Production and Inhibit Atherosclerosis. (2018). doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.033714
  9. Vereecke, L. & Elewaut, D. Ruminococcus on the horizon in arthritic disease. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 13, (2017).
  10. Chua, H.-H. et al. Intestinal Dysbiosis Featuring Abundance of Ruminococcus gnavus Associates With Allergic Diseases in Infants. Gastroenterology 154, 154–167 (2018).
  11. Silverman, G. J. The microbiome in SLE pathogenesis. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 15, 72–74 (2019).
  12. Anh, F. F. Triggering Akkermansia with dietary polyphenols : A new weapon to combat the metabolic syndrome ? 7, 146–153 (2016).
  13. Zhou, K. Strategies to promote abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, an emerging probiotics in the gut, evidence from dietary intervention studies. doi:10.1016/j.jff.2017.03.045
  14. Shang, Q. et al. Dietary fucoidan improves metabolic syndrome in association with increased Akkermansia population in the gut microbiota of high-fat diet-fed mice. Artic. J. Funct. Foods (2017). doi:10.1016/j.jff.2016.11.002
  15. Sánchez-Tapia, M. et al. Nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) protects from metabolic endotoxemia by modifying gut microbiota in obese rats fed high fat/sucrose diet. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-05096-4
  16. Sirisinha, S. The pleiotropic role of vitamin A in regulating mucosal immunity.
  17. Paula Boroni Moreira, A., Fiche Salles Texeira, T., Barbosa Ferreira, A., do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, M. & de Cássia Gonçalves Alfenas, R. Review Article Influence of a high-fat diet on gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxaemia. (2020). doi:10.1017/S0007114512001213
  18. Chan, Y. S. et al. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology 19, 245–254 (2011).
  19. Bijak, M. Silybin, a Major Bioactive Component of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.)—Chemistry, Bioavailability, and Metabolism. Molecules 22, 1–11 (2017).
  20. Salem, M. Ben et al. Pharmacological Studies of Artichoke Leaf Extract and Their Health Benefits. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 70, 441–453 (2015).
  21. Papalini et al. Stress matters: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial on the effects of a multispecies probiotic on neurocognition. bioRxiv 263673 (2018). doi:10.1101/263673
  22. Hickl, J. et al. Mediterranean herb extracts inhibit microbial growth of representative oral microorganisms and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. (2018). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0207574
  23. Krebs, S., Omer, T. N. & Omer, B. Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) suppresses tumour necrosis factor alpha and accelerates healing in patients with Crohn’s disease – A controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine 17, 305–309 (2010).



March 2020


Pale Rider: the Spanish Flu of 1918 and how it changed the world, by Laura Spinney (Public Affairs, Hachette Book Group, New York, 2017).

Mortality Attributable to Influenza in England and Wales Prior to, during and after the 2009 Pandemic. Helen K. Green. PLoS One 2013; 8(12): e79360.

Published online 2013 Dec 11. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079360


NAD Repletion Rescues Female Fertility during Reproductive Aging. Michael J. Bertoldo et al. Cell Reports, 2020; 30 (6): 1670. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.01.058.

Evaluation of natural and botanical medicines for activity against growing and non-growing forms of B. burgdorferi. Feng Jie et al. Frontiers in Medicine 2020, Feb 20, Vol 7.      

Also see:      

The stress polarity signaling (SPS) pathway serves as a marker and a target in the leaky gut barrier: implications in aging and cancer. Pradipta Ghosh et al.

Life Science Alliance 2020 DOI: 10.26508/lsa.201900481.

L-( )-Ergothioneine Significantly Improves the Clinical Characteristics of Preeclampsia in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure Rat Model. Rachel D. Williamson et al. Hypertension 2020; 75 (2): 561. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.119.13929.

The biology of ergothioneine, an antioxidant nutraceutical. Irina Borodina et al. Nutrition Research Reviews 2020; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0954422419000301.

New nutraceutical combination reduces blood pressure and improves exercise capacity in hypertensive patients via a nitric oxide–dependent mechanism.

Albino Carrizzo et al. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2020, 9:e014923.

Originally published 20 Feb 2020.


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Candida auris Forms High-Burden Biofilms in Skin Niche Conditions and on Porcine Skin. Mark V. Horton et al. mSphere 2020; 5 (1) DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00910-19.


Emotion Regulation and Immune Functioning During Grief. Richard B. Lopez et al. Psychosomatic Medicine 2020; 82 (1): 2 DOI: 10.1097/PSY.0000000000000755.

The landscape of viral associations in human cancers. Marc Zapatka et al.  Nature Genetics, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41588-019-0558-9.

Methionine Metabolism Shapes T Helper Cell Responses through Regulation of Epigenetic Reprogramming. Dominic G. Roy et al. Cell Metabolism, 2020; 31 (2): 250 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.01.006.

Indole Alleviates Diet‐induced Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in a Manner Involving Myeloid Cell PFKFB3. Linqiang Ma et al. Hepatology, 2020; DOI: 10.1002/hep.31115.

A cell atlas of human thymic development defines T cell repertoire formation. Jong-Eun Park et al. Science 2020; 367 (6480): eaay3224 DOI: 10.1126/science.aay3224.

Lipid Droplet-Derived Monounsaturated Fatty Acids Traffic via PLIN5 to Allosterically Activate SIRT1. Charles P. Najt et al. Molecular Cell 2020; 77 (4): 810 DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2019.12.003

Nutritional Mushroom Treatment in Meniere’s Disease with Coriolus versicolor: a  rationale for therapeutic intervention in neuroinflammation and antineurodegeneration. Scuto M et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;21(1):E284. Dec 31. doi:10.3390/ijms21010284.

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Gut microbiome composition and diversity are related to human personality traits. lKaterina V.-A.Johnson. Human Microbiome Journal, Vol 15, March 2020, 100069.

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Dysregulation of Hypothalamic Gene Expression and the Oxytocinergic System by Soybean Oil Diets in Male MiceEndocrinology, 2020; DOI: 10.1210/endocr/bqz044

Tobacco exposure and somatic mutations in normal human bronchial epithelium.

Kenichi Yoshida, Kate Gowers et al. Nature 2019. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-1961-1

Clinical Evidence for Association of Acupuncture and Acupressure with Improved Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. He, Yihan, Xinfeng Guo, Brian H. May, Anthony Lin Zhang, Yihong Liu, Chuanjian Lu, Jun J. Mao, Charlie Changli Xue, and Haibo Zhang.  JAMA oncology 2019. DOI:10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.5233.

Defining pathological social withdrawal: proposed diagnostic criteria for hikikomori. Takahiro A. Kato, Shigenobu Kanba,  Alan R. Teo. World Psychiatry, 2020; 19 (1): 116. DOI: 10.1002/wps.20705.

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Nutrition for doctors
Cuerda et al – A clinical nutrition education in medical schools: results of an ESPEN survey – Clin Nutr 2017, 36:915-6.
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Human osteoarthritic synovial fluid increases excitability of mouse dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons: an in-vitro translational model to study arthritic pain. Chakrabarti, S et al. Rheumatology; 13 August 2019; DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez331

Vitamin C-enriched gelatin supplementation before intermittent activity augments collagen synthesis. G. Shaw, A. Lee-Barthel, M. L. Ross, B. Wang, K. Baar.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2016; DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.138594

Stress Relaxation and Targeted Nutrition to Treat Patellar Tendinopathy.

Baar K. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2019, Jul 1;29(4):453–457. DOI: 10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0231.

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Cerebrospinal fluid influx drives acute ischemic tissue swelling. Mestre H, Du T, Sweeney AM, Liu G, Samson AJ, Peng W, et al. Science 2020, Jan 30; DOI: 10.1126/science.aax7171.

Associations of Fish Oil Supplement Use with Testicular Function in Young Men.

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Effects of the microalgae Chlamydomonas on gastrointestinal health. Francis J. Fields, Franck Lejzerowicz, Dave Schroeder, Soo M. Ngoi, Miller Tran, Daniel McDonald, Lingjing Jiang, John T. Chang, Rob Knight, Stephen Mayfield. Journal of Functional Foods  2020; 65: 103738. DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2019.103738.

Hypothesis: Bacterial induced inflammation disrupts the orderly progression of the stem cell hierarchy and has a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. A.K. Marwaha, J.A. Morris, R.J. Rigby. Medical Hypotheses, 2020; 136: 109530 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109530.

Obese adolescents with PCOS have altered biodiversity and relative abundance in gastrointestinal microbiota. Beza Jobira et al. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2020. DOI: 10.1210/clinem/dgz263.

Taurine treatment of retinal degeneration and cardiomyopathy in a consanguineous family with SLC6A6 taurine transporter deficiencyHuman Molecular Genetics 2019; DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddz303.

January 2020


Potential of Manuka Honey as a Natural Polyelectrolyte to Develop Biomimetic Nanostructured Meshes With Antimicrobial PropertiesFrontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 2019; 7 DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00344

Researchers identify novel biomarkers to accurately measure dietary intake of key flavanols: studies were published in Nature Scientific Reports and are freely available on their website here:

Could a gene-environment interaction between NAPRT1 risk allele and pre-natal niacin deficiency explain 4 medical mysteries of schizophrenia research?  Fuller-Thomson, E., Mehta, R. Letter to the editor.  Schizophrenia Research 2019, available online 12 December.

Lipoteichoic acid from the cell wall of a heat killed Lactobacillus paracasei D3-5 ameliorates aging-related leaky gut, inflammation and improves physical and cognitive functions: from C. elegans to mice. GeroScience 2019; DOI: 10.1007/s11357-019-00137-4

Ten-Hour Time-Restricted Eating Reduces Weight, Blood Pressure, and Atherogenic Lipids in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.11.004.

Validation of a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for cytochrome P450 probe substrates caffeine, tolbutamide, dextromethorphan, and alprazolam in human serum reveals drug contamination of serum used for research. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 2019; 112983 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2019.112983.


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Boys with NAFLD:
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Water Science – NIKKI GRATRIX


  2. TEDx Talk by Gerald Pollack for more info:



* The upper-airway microbiota and loss of asthma control among asthmatic children. Nature Communications 2019, 10, 5714. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13698-x.

* Rectal Microbiome Composition Correlates with Humoral Immunity to HIV-1 in Vaccinated Rhesus Macaques. Sonny R. Elizaldi et al. mSphere 2019; 4 (6) DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00824-19.

* Cognitive performance in relation to hydration status and water intake among older adults, NHANES 2011–2014. Bethancourt, H.J., Kenney, W.L., Almeida, D.M. et al. Eur J Nutr (2019) doi:10.1007/s00394-019-02152-9.

* Mitochondrial DNA stress signalling protects the nuclear genome. Nature Metabolism, 2019; 1 (12): 1209 DOI: 10.1038/s42255-019-0150-8.

* High glycemic index and glycemic load diets as risk factors for insomnia: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019,  DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz275.

* Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reduction. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 2019; 16 (12): 1478 DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201907-538CME

* Relative D3 vitamin deficiency and consequent cognitive impairment in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease: Potential involvement of collapsin response mediator protein-2. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Dec 12:107910. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107910.

* Carotenoid metabolism at the intestinal barrier. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Nov 30:158580. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.158580.

* Biotin Supplementation Ameliorates Murine Colitis by Preventing NF-κB Activation.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Nov 28. pii: S2352-345X(19)30166-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2019.11.011. Free full text.

* BPA: have flawed analytical techniques compromised risk assessments? The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30381-X.

* Enriched Marine Oil Supplements Increase Peripheral Blood Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators Concentrations and Reprogram Host Immune Responses: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Circulation Research 2019, 12 Dec, Open access.

* Sexual dimorphism in immune development and in response to nutritional intervention in neonatal piglets. Frontiers in Immunology 2019: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02705.  

December 2019


Association of the Functional Medicine Model of Care with Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes. Beidelschies M, Alejandro-Rodriguez M, Ji X, Lapin B, Hanaway P, Rothberg MB. JAMA Netw Open 2019, 2(10):e1914017. doi:

Discrepancies in the Registries of Diet vs Drug Trials. Ludwig DS, Ebbeling CB, Heymsfield SB. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2(11):e1915360. doi:

Attenuation of capsaicin-induced ongoing pain and secondary hyperalgesia during exposure to an immersive virtual reality environment. Sam W. Hughes et al. PAIN Reports 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1097/PR9.0000000000000790.

Is running associated with a lower risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and is the more the better? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Zeljko Pedisic et al. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 2019; bjsports-2018-100493 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100493

Incidence of necrotising enterocolitis before and after introducing routine prophylactic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium probiotics. Claire Robertson et al. Archives of Disease in Childhood – Fetal and Neonatal Edition, 2019; fetalneonatal-2019-317346 DOI: 10.1136/archdischild-2019-317346.

Coupled electrophysiological, hemodynamic, and cerebrospinal fluid oscillations in human sleep. Nina E. Fultz et al. Science,  01 Nov 2019, 366, Issue 6465, 628-631, doi: 10.1126/science.aax5440.
The Glymphatic System: A Beginner’s Guide. Jessen NA et al. Neurochem Res 2015, Dec;40(12):2583-99. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1581-6.

Senolytics in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Results from a first-in-human, open-label, pilot study. Jamie N. Justice et al. EBioMedicine 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.12.052.

Quercetin, Inflammation and Immunity. Li Y et al. Nutrients 2016, Mar 15;8(3):167,  doi: 10.3390/nu8030167.

Senolytics decrease senescent cells in humans: Preliminary report from a clinical trial of Dasatinib plus Quercetin in individuals with diabetic kidney disease.

Hickson, LaTonya J. et al. EBioMedicine 2019,47, 446–456.

IHCAN chat – Marta Anhelush

  1. Teitella M, Richardson B. DNA methylation in the immune system. Clinical Immunology. 2003;109:2–5.
  2. Pacis A et al. Bacterial infection remodels the DNA methylation landscape of human dendritic cells. Genome Res. 2015, Dec;25(12):1801-11.
  3. Partearroyo T et al. Vitamin B(12) and folic acid imbalance modifies NK cytotoxicity, lymphocytes B and lymphoprolipheration in aged rats. Nutrients. 2013;5(12):4836–4848.
  4. Tserel L et al. Age-related profiling of DNA methylation in CD8+ T cells reveals changes in immune response and transcriptional regulator genes. Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 13107.
  5. Gallagher JC. Vitamin D and Aging. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America. 2013;42(2):319-332.


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  8. Ely PH. Is psoriasis a bowel disease? Successful treatment with bile acids and bioflavonoids suggests it is. Clin Dermatol. 2018 May – Jun;36(3):376-389.
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Pancreatic Enzyme Supplementation in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Food Allergies: An Open-Label Pilot Study. Paediatr Drugs. 2019 Feb;21(1):41-45.

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Research briefs

Gerrit Müller, Charlotte Lübow, Günther Weindl. Lysosomotropic beta blockers induce oxidative stress and IL23A production in Langerhans cellsAutophagy, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1686728

The Influence of Ketogenic Diets on Psoriasiform-Like Skin Inflammation. Felix Locker et al. The Influence of Ketogenic Diets on Psoriasiform-Like Skin InflammationJ Investigative Dermatology 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.07.718.

Association of Vitamin A Intake With Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk in the United States. Kim J, Park MK, Li W, Qureshi AA, Cho E. JAMA Dermatol 2019, 155 (11): 1260–68. doi:

Real-World Prevalence of Prurigo Nodularis and Burden of Associated Diseases.

Huang AH et al. J Invest Dermatol 2019, Aug 15. pii: S0022-202X(19)32690-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2019.07.697. [Epub ahead of print]


  1. Candida auris: The recent emergence of a multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen 

Kaitlin Forsberg et al. Medical Mycology 2019, Volume 57, Issue 1, January, Pages 1–12,

  2. Perfect, John R. The Antifungal Pipeline: A Reality Check. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2017, 16, May, 603:
  3. Fisher, Matthew C., et al. Worldwide Emergence of Resistance to Antifungal Drugs Challenges Human Health and Food Security. Science 2018, 360, 6390, May, 739. doi:10.1126/science.aap7999.
  4. Natural history of Candidaspecies and yeasts in the oral cavities of infants

C.Russell, K.M.Lay. Archives of Oral Biology 1973, 18, 8, August, 957-962:

  1. Markey L et al. Pre-colonization with the commensal fungus Candida albicans reduces murine susceptibility to Clostridium difficile infection. Gut Microbes 2018, Nov 2;9(6):497–509:
  2. Nobile CJ, Johnson AD. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease. Annu Rev Microbiol 2015 Oct 15;69(1):71–92:
  3. White TC et al. Resistance Mechanisms in Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002, Jun 1;46(6):1704:

Inflammation and gastrointestinal Candida colonization. Kumamoto CA. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14(4):386–391. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2011.07.015.

Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Gunsalus KTW et al. mSphere 2015. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00020-15.

Dietary Supplementation With Medium-Chain Triglycerides Reduces Candida Gastrointestinal Colonization in Preterm Infants. Arsenault AB et al. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2019;38(2):

IN PRACTICE – Alex Manos

  1. Guilford et al. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness. Toxins (Basel). 2014 Feb; 6(2): 608–23.
  2. Kong, Changsu et al. “Evaluation of mycotoxin sequestering agents for aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol: an in vitro approach.” SpringerPlus vol. 3 346. 8 Jul. 2014, doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-346.


Other resources:

Winnie-Pui-Pui Liew and Sabran Mohd-Redzwan (2018) Mycotoxin: Its Impact on Gut Health and Microbiota, Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol., 26

Brewer et al., Detection of Mycotoxins in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Toxins (Basel). 2013 Apr; 5(4): 605–617.
Zain (2011) Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 129-144.

Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic Environmental Illness. Neil Nathan, MD. (Victory Belt Publishing, 2018.) 


NMN transporter study
Grozio, A., Mills, KF, Yoshino J. et al. Slc12a8 is a nicotinamide mononucleotide transporter. Nat Metab 2019, 1, 47–57, doi:10.1038/s42255-018-0009-4


Vitamin D-VDR signaling inhibits Wnt/beta-catenin-mediated melanoma progression and promotes anti-tumor immunity. Sathya Muralidhar et al. Cancer Research 2019; canres.3927.2018, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3927.

Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dellinger, R.W., Santos, S.R., Morris M et al.  npj Aging Mech Dis 2017, 3, 17, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0016-9.  

Repeat dose NRPT (nicotinamide riboside and pterostilbene) increases NAD+ levels in humans safely and sustainably: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Dellinger, R.W., Santos, S.R., Morris, M. et al.  npj Aging Mech Dis 2017, 3, 17, doi:10.1038/s41514-017-0016-9.

Principal Results of the VITamin D and OmegA-3 TriaL (VITAL) and Updated Meta-analyses of Relevant Vitamin D Trials. Manson JE, Bassuk SS, Buring JE; VITAL Research Group. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2019, Nov 13:105522, doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105522.  

Neurogenesis and prolongevity signaling in young germ-free mice transplanted with the gut microbiota of old mice. Parag Kundu et al. Science Translational Medicine  2019; 11 (518): eaau4760, doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau4760.

Aging Induces an Nlrp3 Inflammasome-Dependent Expansion of Adipose B Cells That Impairs Metabolic Homeostasis. Christina D. Camell et al. Cell Metabolism, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.10.006.

Society for Endocrinology annual conference, 2019, P184:

Vitamin B12 Deficiency Leads To Fatty Acid Metabolism Dysregulation and Increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in Human Adipocytes and in Maternal Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue. Jinous Samavat et al.  

November 2019


Exploiting the Zonulin Mouse Model to Establish the Role of Primary Impaired Gut Barrier Function on Microbiota Composition and Immune Profiles. Miranda-Ribera A, Ennamorati M, Serena G, et al. Front Immunol. 2019;10:2233. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.02233.

Inequalities in Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide in Parks and Playgrounds in Greater London, Charlotte Sheridan et al. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16173194. Also see interactive map online at

El-Salhy M, Haltebakk JG, Gilja OH, et al. Effects of faecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Presented at UEG Week October 21, 2019.

New releases

Liposomal-glutathione provides maintenance of intracellular glutathione and neuroprotection in mesencephalic neuronal cells. Zeevalk GD et al.
Neurochem Res 2010 ,Oct;35(10):1575-87. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0217-0. Epub 2010 Jun 10.

Polyphenols From Grape and Blueberry Improve Episodic Memory in Healthy Elderly with Lower Level of Memory Performance: A Bicentric Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study. Memophenol-Bensalem, J et al.  J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2019, Jun 18;74(7):996-1007. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gly166.
Memophenol – Activ’Inside (2019). CTS-0162-A1_Clinical study 2_one shot_what are clinical results on students_V04.
Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Silveri, M et al. NMR in Biomedicine 2008, 21(10), pp.1066-1075.

Improved Attentional Performance Following Citicoline Administration in Healthy Adult Women. McGlade E et al. Food and Nutrition Sciences 2012, 03(06), pp.769-77.

 BEN BROWN – Arsenic

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Breast cancer
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Tumor Autonomous Effects of Vitamin D Deficiency Promote Breast Cancer Metastasis. Williams JD et al. Endocrinology. 2016 Apr;157(4):1341-7. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-2036. Epub 2016 Mar 2.


A randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of lactolycopene on semen quality in healthy males. Elizabeth A. Williams, Madeleine Parker, Aisling Robinson, Sophie Pitt, Allan A. Pacey. European Journal of Nutrition, 2019,  DOI: 10.1007/s00394-019-02091-5.

Attenuation of constitutive DNA damage signaling by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Halicka HD, Zhao H, Li J, Traganos F, Studzinski GP, Darzynkiewicz Z. Aging (Albany NY). 2012 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Rate of Change of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Following Sublingual and Capsular Vitamin D Preparations. Williams, Claire E., Elizabeth A. Williams, and Bernard M. Corfe. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, September 23, 2019.

Antioxidants: Scientific Literature Landscape Analysis. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 Jan 8;2019:8278454. doi: 10.1155/2019/8278454. eCollection 2019. Yeung AWK et al.
Evaluation of antioxidant treatments for the modulation of macrophage function in the context of retinal degeneration. Elbaz-Hayoun S et al. Mol Vis. 2019 Sep 5;25:479-488. eCollection 2019.

Protective effect of carnosic acid, a pro-electrophilic compound, in models of oxidative stress and light-induced retinal degeneration T. Rezaie et al.

Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2012; DOI: 10.1167/iovs.12-10793.

Creatine uptake regulates CD8 T cell antitumour immunity. Stefano Di Biase, Xiaoya Ma, Xi Wang, Jiaji Yu, Yu-Chen Wang, Drake J. Smith, Yang Zhou, Zhe Li, Yu Jeong Kim, Nicole Clarke, Angela To, Lili Yang. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 2019; jem.20182044 DOI: 10.1084/jem.20182044.

Phenolic compounds from coffee by-products modulate adipogenesis-related inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance in adipocytes, via insulin/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. Miguel Rebollo-Hernanz, Qiaozhi Zhang, Yolanda Aguilera, Maria A. Martín-Cabrejas, Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia.  Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2019; 132: 110672 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2019.110672

Intra-articular Corticosteroid Injections in the Hip and Knee: Perhaps Not as Safe as We Thought? Andrew J. Kompel, Frank W. Roemer, Akira M. Murakami, Luis E. Diaz, Michel D. Crema, Ali Guermazi. Radiology, 2019; 190341 DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2019190341.

Ming-Feng Hsueh, Patrik Önnerfjord, Michael P. Bolognesi, Mark E. Easley, Virginia B. Kraus. Analysis of “old” proteins unmasks dynamic gradient of cartilage turnover in human limbsScience Advances, 2019; 5 (10): eaax3203 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax3203.

Cartilage regeneration – SIMON MARTIN

Prof Keith Baar: personal communication, and quotes from a Just Fly Sports podcast, July 3 2019, complete transcript at Recommend following him on Twitter: @MuscleScience. All his papers are listed on his UC Davis website at – except the seminal first one on tendon repair! That is:
Rehabilitation and nutrition protocols for optimising return to play from traditional ACL reconstruction in elite rugby union players: A case study. Gregory Shaw, Ben Serpell & Keith Baar. Journal of Sports Sciences 2019, 37:15, 1794-1803, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2019.1594571.
Also worth listening to is the Institute of Performance Nutrition’s podcast with Dr Laurent Bannock interviewing Prof Baar:

Dr Kaayla Daniel: She reports on Dr Prudden’s research here:
She has fully explained the history and science behind bone broth in contributions to Nourishing Broth: An Old-Fashioned Remedy for the Modern World (the follow-up book to Nourishing Traditions), co-authored with Sally Fallon Morell of the Weston A. Price Foundation.

Advertorial – page 16:

Aminzadeh et al. (2016) Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills. Iranian Red Crescent medical journal, 18(10), e38909.

Blasi et al. (1992) Early differential molecular response of a macrophage cell line to yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans. Infection and immunity, 60(3), 832–837.

Chauvel et al. (2012) A versatile overexpression strategy in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans: identification of regulators of morphogenesis and fitness. PloS one, 7(9), e45912.

Cheng et al. (2006) Cellular and Molecular Biology of Candida albicans Estrogen Response. Eukaryotic Cell, 5 (1) 180-191.

Edman et al. (1986) Zinc status in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 155(5), 1082 – 1085

Finkel and Mitchell (2011) Genetic control of Candida albicans biofilm development. Nature reviews. Microbiology, 9(2), 109–118.

Ghannoum et al. (2015) The Role of Echinocandins in Candida Biofilm–Related Vascular Catheter Infections: In Vitro and In Vivo Model Systems. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 61(6), S618–S621.

Gunsalus et al. (2015) Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. mSphere 1(1):e00020-15.

Hall et al. (2010) CO2 Acts as a Signalling Molecule in Populations of the Fungal Pathogen Candida

albicans. PLoS Pathog, 6(11): e1001193.

Horowitz et al. (1984) Sugar chromatography studies in recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 29(7) 441-443.

Kim et al. (2016) Oral manifestations in vitamin B12 deficiency patients with or without history of gastrectomy. BMC oral health, 16(1), 60.

Krasowska et al. (2009) The antagonistic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans filamentation, adhesion and biofilm formation. FEMS Yeast Research, 9(8), 1312–1321.

Manohar et al. (2001) Anti-fungal activities of Origanum oil against Candida albicans. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 228,111-117.

Marangoni et al. (2017) In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases. PLoS ONE, 12(11): e0188567.

Martinez et al. (2009) Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Letters in applied microbiology, 48. 269-74.

Mathé and Van Dijck, (2013) Recent insights into Candida albicans biofilm resistance mechanisms. Current genetics, 59(4), 251–264.

Matsubara et al. (2016). Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62. 1143–53.

Meri et al. (2004) The Hyphal and Yeast Forms of Candida albicans Bind the Complement Regulator C4b-Binding Protein. Infection and immunity, 72. 6633-41.

Murzyn et al, (2010) The effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on Candida albicans-infected human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 and Intestin 407. FEMS Microbiol Letter, 310, 17–23.

Nobile and Johnson (2015) Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease. Annual review of microbiology69, 71–92.

Paillaud et al. (2004) Oral candidiasis and nutritional deficiencies in elderly hospitalised patients. British Journal of Nutrition, 92(5), 861-867.

Peters et al. (2014) Candida vaginitis: when opportunism knocks, the host responds. PLoS pathogens, 10(4), e1003965.

Pfaller et al. (2010) Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: A 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion. J Clin Microbiol 48: 1366–1377.

Pietrzak et al. (2018) Prevalence and Possible Role of Candida Species in Patients with Psoriasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2018, Article ID 9602362, 7 pages.

Santana et al. (2013) Dietary carbohydrates modulate Candida albicans biofilm development on the denture surface. PloS one, 8(5), e64645.

Shuford et al. (2005) Effects of fresh garlic extract on Candida albicans biofilms. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 49(1), 473.

Takahashi et al. (2012) Inhibition of Candida Mycelia Growth By a Medium Chain Fatty Acids, Capric Acid in Vitro and Its Therapeutic Efficacy in Murine Oral Candidiasis]. Medical Mycology Journal, 53(4), 255-61.

Tournu and Van Dijck (2012) Candida Biofilms and the Host: Models and New Concepts for Eradication, International Journal of Microbiology, vol. 2012, Article ID 845352, 16 pages.

Tsui et al. (2016) Pathogenesis of Candida albicans Biofilm. Pathogens and Disease, 74. ftw018.

Tsutsumi-Arai et al. (2019) Grapefruit seed extract effectively inhibits the Candida albicans biofilms development on polymethyl methacrylate denture-base resin. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0217496.

Turner and Butler (2014) The Candida pathogenic species complex. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 4(9), a019778.

Uppuluri et al. (2010) Dispersion as an important step in the Candida albicans biofilm developmental cycle. PLoS pathogens, 6(3), e1000828.

Vargas et al. (1993) Modulating effect of dietary carbohydrate supplementation on Candida albicans colonization and invasion in a neutropenic mouse model. Infection and immunity, 61, 619-26.

Williams and Lewis (2011) Pathogenesis and treatment of oral candidosis. Journal of oral microbiology, 3, 10.3402/jom.v3i0.5771.

Williams et al. (2013) Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces. Journal of oral microbiology, 5, 10.3402/jom.v5i0.22434.

October 2019

WELCOME -Simon Martin

  1. Ashkan Afshin, Patrick John Sur, Kairsten A. Fay, Leslie Cornaby, Giannina Ferrara, Joseph S Salama, Erin C Mullany, Kalkidan Hassen Abate, Cristiana Abbafati, Zegeye Abebe, Mohsen Afarideh, Anju Aggarwal, Sutapa Agrawal, Tomi Akinyemiju, Fares Alahdab, Umar Bacha, Victoria F Bachman, Hamid Badali, Alaa Badawi, Isabela M Bensenor, Eduardo Bernabe, Sibhatu Kassa K Biadgilign, Stan H Biryukov, Leah E Cahill, Juan J Carrero, Kelly M. Cercy, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Anh Kim Dang, Meaza Girma Degefa, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Alireza Esteghamati, Sadaf Esteghamati, Jessica Fanzo, Carla Sofia e Sá Farinha, Maryam S Farvid, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery L. Feigin, Joao C Fernandes, Luisa Sorio Flor, Nataliya A. Foigt, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Morsaleh Ganji, Johanna M. Geleijnse, Richard F Gillum, Alessandra C Goulart, Giuseppe Grosso, Idris Guessous, Samer Hamidi, Graeme J. Hankey, Sivadasanpillai Harikrishnan, Hamid Yimam Hassen, Simon I. Hay, Chi Linh Hoang, Masako Horino, Farhad Islami, Maria D. Jackson, Spencer L. James, Lars Johansson, Jost B. Jonas, Amir Kasaeian, Yousef Saleh Khader, Ibrahim A. Khalil, Young-Ho Khang, Ruth W Kimokoti, Yoshihiro Kokubo, G Anil Kumar, Tea Lallukka, Alan D Lopez, Stefan Lorkowski, Paulo A. Lotufo, Rafael Lozano, Reza Malekzadeh, Winfried März, Toni Meier, Yohannes A Melaku, Walter Mendoza, Gert B.M. Mensink, Renata Micha, Ted R Miller, Mojde Mirarefin, Viswanathan Mohan, Ali H Mokdad, Dariush Mozaffarian, Gabriele Nagel, Mohsen Naghavi, Cuong Tat Nguyen, Molly R Nixon, Kanyin L Ong, David M. Pereira, Hossein Poustchi, Mostafa Qorbani, Rajesh Kumar Rai, Christian Razo-García, Colin D Rehm, Juan A Rivera, Sonia Rodríguez-Ramírez, Gholamreza Roshandel, Gregory A Roth, Juan Sanabria, Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta, Benn Sartorius, Josef Schmidhuber, Aletta Elisabeth Schutte, Sadaf G. Sepanlou, Min-Jeong Shin, Reed J.D. Sorensen, Marco Springmann, Lucjan Szponar, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Amanda G Thrift, Mathilde Touvier, Bach Xuan Tran, Stefanos Tyrovolas, Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja, Irfan Ullah, Olalekan A Uthman, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Tommi Juhani Vasankari, Stein Emil Vollset, Theo Vos, Giang Thu Vu, Linh Gia Vu, Elisabete Weiderpass, Andrea Werdecker, Tissa Wijeratne, Walter C Willett, Jason H Wu, Gelin Xu, Naohiro Yonemoto, Chuanhua Yu, Christopher J L Murray. Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017The Lancet, 2019; 393 (10184): 1958 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30041-8


Probiotics Reduce Health Care Cost and Societal Impact of Flu-Like Respiratory Tract Infections in the USA: An Economic Modeling Study. Irene Lenoir-Wijnkoop et al. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00980.

Circulating Micronutrient Biomarkers Are Associated With 3 Measures of Frailty: Evidence From the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Aisling M. O’Halloran, et al. JAMDA 2019, Sept: in press. DOI:

Prolonging healthy aging: Longevity vitamins and proteins. Bruce N. Ames.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Oct 2018, 115 (43) 10836-10844; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809045115.

Emma Derbyshire. Could we be overlooking a potential choline crisis in the United Kingdom? BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health, 2019; bmjnph-2019-000037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjnph-2019-000037

Alternate Day Fasting Improves Physiological and Molecular Markers of Aging in Healthy, Non-obese Humans. Slaven Stekovic et al. Cell Metabolism 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.07.016

BEN BROWN – glutathione

  1. Forman HJ, Zhang H, Rinna A. Glutathione: overview of its protective roles, measurement, and biosynthesis. Mol Aspects Med. 2009 Feb-Apr;30(1-2):1-12.
  2. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.
  3. Deponte M. The Incomplete Glutathione Puzzle: Just Guessing at Numbers and Figures? Antioxid Redox Signal. 2017 Nov 20;27(15):1130-1161
  4. Sies H. Glutathione and its role in cellular functions. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999 Nov;27(9-10):916-21.
  5. Wu G, Fang YZ, Yang S, Lupton JR, Turner ND. Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. J Nutr. 2004 Mar;134(3):489-92.
  6. Teskey G, Abrahem R, Cao R, Gyurjian K, Islamoglu H, Lucero M, Martinez A, Paredes E, Salaiz O, Robinson B, Venketaraman V. Glutathione as a Marker for Human Disease. Adv Clin Chem. 2018;87:141-159.
  7. Atkuri KR, Mantovani JJ, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA. N-Acetylcysteine—a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;7(4):355-9.
  8. Paschalis V, Theodorou AA, Margaritelis NV, Kyparos A, Nikolaidis MG. N-acetylcysteine supplementation increases exercise performance and reduces oxidative stress only in individuals with low levels of glutathione. Free Radic Biol Med 2018;115:288–97.
  9. Rushworth GF, Megson IL. Existing and potential therapeutic uses for N-acetylcysteine: the need for conversion to intracellular glutathione for antioxidant benefits. Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;141(2):150-9.
  10. Lang CA, Mills BJ, Mastropaolo W, Liu MC. Blood glutathione decreases in chronic diseases. J Lab Clin Med. 2000 May;135(5):402-5.
  11. van ‘t Erve TJ, Wagner BA, Ryckman KK, Raife TJ, Buettner GR. The concentration of glutathione in human erythrocytes is a heritable trait. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Dec;65:742-749.
  12. Richie JP Jr, Abraham P, Leutzinger Y. Long-term stability of blood glutathione and cysteine in humans. Clin Chem. 1996 Jul;42(7):1100-5.
  13. Sedda V, De Chiara B, Parolini M, et al. Plasma glutathione levels are independently associated with γ-glutamyltransferase activity in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Free. Radic. Res. 2008;42(2):135–141.
  14. Koenig G, Seneff S. Gamma-Glutamyltransferase: A Predictive Biomarker of Cellular Antioxidant Inadequacy and Disease Risk. Dis Markers. 2015;2015:818570.
  15. Lee DH, Jacobs DR Jr. Is serum gamma-glutamyltransferase a marker of exposure to various environmental pollutants? Free Radic Res. 2009 Jun;43(6):533-7.
  16. Bulusu S, Sharma M. What does serum γ-glutamyltransferase tell us as a cardiometabolic risk marker? Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 May;53(Pt 3):312-32.
  17. Bradley R, Fitzpatrick AL, Jenny NS, Lee DH, Jacobs DR Jr. Associations between total serum GGT activity and metabolic risk: MESA. Biomark Med. 2013 Oct;7(5):709-21.
  18. Bulusu S, Sharma M. What does serum γ-glutamyltransferase tell us as a cardiometabolic risk marker? Ann Clin Biochem. 2016 May;53(Pt 3):312-32.
  19. Lee DH, Steffes MW, Jacobs DR Jr. Can persistent organic pollutants explain the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and type 2 diabetes? Diabetologia. 2008 Mar;51(3):402-7.
  20. Minich DM, Brown BI. A Review of Dietary (Phyto)Nutrients for Glutathione Support. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 3;11(9).



Colonic spirochetosis is associated with colonic eosinophilia and irritable bowel syndrome in a general population in Sweden. Walker MM et al. Hum Pathol. 2015 Feb;46(2):277-83. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2014.10.026. Epub 2014 Nov 15.


Hazel A Everitt, Sabine Landau, Gilly O’Reilly, Alice Sibelli, Stephanie Hughes, Sula Windgassen, Rachel Holland, Paul Little, Paul McCrone, Felicity L Bishop, Kim Goldsmith, Nicholas Coleman, Robert Logan, Trudie Chalder, Rona Moss-Morris. Cognitive behavioural therapy for irritable bowel syndrome: 24-month follow-up of participants in the ACTIB randomised trialThe Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30243-2

Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency:

Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency as a Potential Masquerader in Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Kim, S.B., Calmet, F.H., Garrido, J. et al. Dig Dis Sci (2019).

Functional variants in the sucrase–isomaltase gene associate with increased risk of irritable bowel syndrome. Henström M, Diekmann L, Bonfiglio F, et al. Gut 2018, 67: 263-270.

Diet-induced remission in chronic enteropathy is associated with altered microbial community structure and synthesis of secondary bile acids. Shuai Wang et al. Microbiome 2019; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s40168-019-0740-4

CBD – Dr Elisabeth Philipps

  4. Jay L Goldstein (2015) Gastrointestinal injury associated with NSAID use: a case study and review of risk factors and preventative strategies

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7: 31–41. 

  5. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Apr; 3(4): 1084–1092. 

Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Amir Klein and  Rami Eliakin.
11. Elisabeth Philipps (2019). Pain Management nutrihub webinar

  1. Perry G. Fine (2013) The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain Rambam Maimonides Med J 4(4): e0022.
  2. Pertwee RG. Cannabinoid receptors and pain. Prog Neurobiol. 2001 Apr; 63(5):569-611.
  3. Kozono S, Matsuyama T, Biwasa KK, et al. Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010;394: 928–33.
  4. Are cannabinoids an effective and safe treatment option in the management of pain? A qualitative systematic review. Campbell FA, Tramèr MR, Carroll D, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. BMJ. 2001 Jul 7; 323(7303):13-6.
  5. Cannabinoids in pancreatic cancer: correlation with survival and pain.

Michalski CW, Oti FE, Erkan M, Sauliunaite D, Bergmann F, Pacher P, Batkai S, Müller MW, Giese NA, Friess H, Kleeff J. Int J Cancer. 2008 Feb 15; 122(4):742-50.

  1. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain. Johnson JR, Burnell-Nugent M, Lossignol D, Ganae-Motan ED, Potts R, Fallon MT. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Feb; 39(2):167-79.
  2. Perry G. Fine, The Endocannabinoid System, Cannabinoids, and Pain Rambam Maimonides Med J 2013, 4(4): e0022. 
  3. Klein K, et al. Pharmacogenomics of cytochrome P450 3A4: recent progress toward the “missing heritability” problem. Frontiers in Genetics. 2013; 4:12.
  4. Zanger U, et al. Functional pharmacogenetics/genomics of human cytochromes P450 involved in drug biotransformation. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2008; 392(6):1093-108.
  5. Yamaori S, et al. Potent inhibition of human cytochrome P450 3A isoforms by cannabidiol: role of phenolic hydroxyl groups in the resorcinol moiety. Life Sciences. 2011; 88(15-16):730-6.
  6. Yamaori S, et al. Cannabidiol, a major phytocannabinoid, as a potent atypical inhibitor for CYP2D6. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 2011; 39(11):2049-56.
  7. Geffrey AL, et al. Drug-drug interaction between clobazam and cannabidiol in children with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2015; 56(8):1246-51.
  8. Grayson L, et al. An interaction between warfarin and cannabidiol, a case report. Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports. 2018; 9:10-11.
  9. Project CBD Releases Educational Primer on Cannabinoid-Drug Interactions. | Project CBD, 14 Jan. 2019,
  10. Gertsch J, Pertwee RG, Di Marzo V. Phytocannabinoids beyond the Cannabis plant – do they exist? Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Jun; 160(3):523-9.

For example, the terpene beta-caryophyllene, commonly found in plants including hemp, black pepper, cinnamon, clove, and other spices, selectively binds to the CB2 receptor at nanomolar concentrations and acts as a full agonist, effectively reducing neuropathic pain in a CB2 receptor-dependent manner.

  1. Zimmer A, Racz I, Klauke AL, Markert A, Gertsch J. Betacaryophyllene, a phytocannabinoid acting on CB2 receptors. IACM 5th Conference on cannabinoids in medicine; Cologne, Germany. 2009:
  2. Shannon S, Lewis N, Lee H, Hughes S. Cannabidiol in anxiety and sleep: A large case series. Perm J, 2019;23:18-041. DOI:
  3. J Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2014, 39, 564–566 doi: 10.1111/jcpt.12179. Case Report.
  4. Vaughn LK, Denning G, Stuhr KL, de Wit H, Hill MN, Hillard CJ. Endocannabinoid signalling: has it got rhythm? Br J Pharmacol. 2010;160(3):530–43.
  5. 31. Roth T. Effects of excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue on overall health and cognitive function. J Clin Psychiatry 2015;76(9):e1145.
  6. Murillo-Rodriguez E, Sarro-Ramirez A, Sanchez D, Mijangos- Moreno S, Tejeda-Padron A, Poot-Ake A, et al. Potential effects of cannabidiol as a wake-promoting agent. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2014;12(3):269–72
  7. Russo EB, Guy GW, Robson PJ. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine. Chem Biodivers. 2007;4(8):1729–43
  8. Nicholson AN, Turner C, Stone BM, Robson PJ. Effect of Delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early- morning behavior in young adults. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2004;24(3):305–13.



Modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet modulates gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids in association with Alzheimer’s disease markers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Ravinder Nagpal, Bryan J. Neth, Shaohua Wang, Suzanne Craft, Hariom Yadav. EBioMedicine 2019, DOI: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.032

Host-Microbe-Drug-Nutrient Screen Identifies Bacterial Effectors of Metformin Therapy. Pryor R et al. Cell. 2019 Sep 5;178(6):1299-1312.e29. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.003. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Lima, YC et al. Whey protein sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bert.) increases mitochondrial biogenesis markers in the skeletal muscle of resistance-trained rats. Nutrition & Metabolism 2019, 16, 65. Open Access:

Temporal changes in postprandial blood transcriptomes reveal subject-specific pattern of expression of innate immunity genes after a high-fat meal. Danielle G Lemay et al. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 2019; 72: 108209 DOI: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.06.007.

Blindness Caused by a Junk Food Diet. Rhys Harrison, Vicki Warburton, Andrew Lux, Denize Atan. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.7326/L19-0361.

IN PRACTICE – Andy Jancewicz

  1. Dayna M. Yorks, DO, et al, November 2017, Effects of Group Fitness Classes on Stress and Quality of Life of Medical Students. J American Osteopathic Association: Vol 117, No. 11.
  2. Brown B, Brain on Fire: dietary patterns for Alzheimer’s and cognitive decline.

IHCAN, October 2017, p12-15.

  1. Jancewicz A, 2001, Tai Chi Chuan’s role in maintaining independence in ageing people with chronic disease- literature review. J Bodywork and Movement Therapies, January 2001, p70-77.
  2. Blair SN, Garcia ME, 1996 Get up and move: A call to action for older men and women. J American Geriatrics Society 44: 599-600.
  3. Bland J, Personalised Lifestyle Medicine: the future – as Jeff Bland sees it.

IHCAN, May 2019, p18-19.

  1. Ashish Sharma MD et al, Letters to the Editor. Exercise for Mental Health

Prim Care Companion, J Clin Psychiatry 2006;8(2).

September 2019

The economic case for prevention of population vitamin D deficiency: a modelling study using data from England and Wales. Aguiar et’ al.  European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019, Aug 20.

Aguiar, M., Andronis, L., Pallan, M., Högler, W., and Frew, E. (2019). The economic case

Birnbaum, AK, Karanam, A, Marino, SE, et al. Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2019; 60: 1586– 1592.

Characteristics and patient pathways of Lyme disease patients: a retrospective analysis of hospital episode data in England and Wales (1998-2015) 
Tulloch et alBMC Public Health 2019 
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7245-8

Green R, Lanphear B, Hornung R, et al. Association Between Maternal Fluoride Exposure During Pregnancy and IQ Scores in Offspring in Canada. JAMA Pediatr. Published online August 19, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1729

Ashley J. Malin, Corina Lesseur, Stefanie A. Busgang, Paul Curtin, Robert O. Wright, Alison P. Sanders. Fluoride exposure and kidney and liver function among adolescents in the United States: NHANES, 2013–2016Environment International, 2019; 105012 DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2019.105012

Mariosa D, Carreras-Torres R, Martin RM, Johansson M, Brennan P
What can Mendelian randomization tell us about causes of cancer?
Int J Epidemiol, 48(3):816–21. Published 25 July 2019;

Omega-3 Fatty Acids for the Management of Hypertriglyceridemia: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association. Ann C. Skulas-Ray et al. Ciculation 2019, 19 Aug.

Prevalence and Severity of Sesame Allergy in the United States. Warren CM, Chadha AS, Sicherer SH, Jiang J, Gupta RS. JAMA Netw Open. Published online August 02, 20192(8):e199144. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9144.

Fatty Acid Metabolites Combine with Reduced β Oxidation to Activate Th17 Inflammation in Human Type 2 Diabetes. Dequina A. Nicholas et al. Cell Metabolism,

2019, online Aug 1.

Amir Minerbi, Emmanuel Gonzalez, Nicholas J.B. Brereton, Abraham Anjarkouchian, Ken Dewar, Mary-Ann Fitzcharles, Stéphanie Chevalier, Yoram Shir. Altered microbiome composition in individuals with fibromyalgiaPAIN, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001640.

NEWS extra

Whole genome sequencing revealed new molecular characteristics in multidrug resistant staphylococci recovered from high frequency touched surfaces in London.

Rory Cave et al. Scientific Reports 2019, vol 9, Article number: 9637.

Maija P T Ylilauri, Sari Voutilainen, Eija Lönnroos, Heli E K Virtanen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen, Jukka T Salonen, Jyrki K Virtanen, Associations of dietary choline intake with risk of incident dementia and with cognitive performance: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, , nqz148,

Effect of Montmorency tart cherry juice on cognitive performance in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Chai SC et al.  Food Funct. 2019 Jul 17;10(7):4423-4431. doi: 10.1039/c9fo00913b.

NEW RELEASES – vitamin D

Worm N. Heilkraft D: How the sun vitamin protects against heart attack, cancer and other lifestyle diseases. systemed Verlag, Lünen. 2010, p12.

LansdowAnaglin, Rebecca ES, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British journal of psychiatry, 2013, 202. Jg., Nr. 2, S. 100-107.

Provost SC. Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1998 Feb;135(4):319-23.

In a study, substitution with vitamin D three times significantly shortened sputum conversion in patients with open lung tuberculosis. Lancet (2011; doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61889-2)

Reins RV and McDermott  AM: Vitamin D: Implications for Ocular Disease and Therapeutic Potential. Exp Eye Res. 2015 May; 134: 101–110.

BEN BROWN – Fibromyalgia

  1. Borchers AT, Gershwin ME. Fibromyalgia: A Critical and Comprehensive Review. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2015 Oct;49(2):100-51.
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Does Irritable Bowel Syndrome Exist? Identifiable and Treatable Causes of Associated Symptoms Suggest It May Not”. Gastrointest. Disord. 20191(3), 314-340;


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Extra stories:

Identification of new therapeutic targets for osteoarthritis through genome-wide analyses of UK Biobank data. Nature Genetics, 5: 230–6 (2019).

Ma Hao, Li Xiang, Sun Dianjianyi, Zhou Tao, LeySylvia H, Gustat Jeanette et al. Association of habitual glucosamine use with risk of cardiovascular disease: prospective study in UK Biobank BMJ 2019; 365 :l1628.


Eran Blacher et al. Potential roles of gut microbiome and metabolites in modulating ALS in miceNature, 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1443-5.

 de la Rubia JE et al. Efficacy and tolerability of EH301 for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human pilot study. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener. 2019 Feb;20(1-2):115-122. Epub 2019 Jan 22.  

Diana Matheoud et al. Intestinal infection triggers Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms in Pink1−/− miceNature 2019, July 17. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1405-y.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2019, Jul 1;44(4):269-276. Randomized controlled trial of a gluten-free diet in patients with schizophrenia positive for antigliadin antibodies (AGA IgG): a pilot feasibility study. Kelly DL et al.

Veronika L Tchesnokova et al. Pandemic uropathogenic fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli have enhanced ability to persist in the gut and cause bacteriuria in healthy women, Clinical Infectious Diseases 2019, July 4, ciz547,

Claire Buchta Rosean et al. Pre-existing commensal dysbiosis is a host-intrinsic regulator of tissue inflammation and tumour cell dissemination in hormone receptor-positive breast cancerCancer Research 2019, July, canres.3464.2018 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3464.

Nat Med. 2019 Jul;25(7):1164-1174. doi: 10.1038/s41591-019-0461-z. Epub 2019 Jun 24. Microbiota therapy acts via a regulatory T cell MyD88/RORγt pathway to suppress food allergy. Abdel-Gadir A et al.

(Also see Curr Opin Immunol. 2019 Jul 11;60:141-147. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2019.06.001. Regulation of oral immune tolerance by the microbiome in food allergy. Stephen-Victor E, Chatila TA.)


Karin Müller et al. ‘Poly(ADP ribose) links the DNA damage response and biomineralization.’ Cell Reports (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.038.

Human species-specific loss of CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase enhances atherosclerosis via intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Kunio Kawanishi, Chirag Dhar, Raymond Do, Nissi Varki, Philip L. S. M.Gordts, Ajit Varki

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jul 2019, 201902902, DOI:10.1073/pnas.1902902116.

Santosh Dhakal et al. Amish (Rural) vs. non-Amish (Urban) Infant Faecal Microbiotas Are Highly Diverse and Their Transplantation Lead to Differences in Mucosal Immune Maturation in a Humanized Germfree Piglet ModelFrontiers in Immunology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01509.

Clara Depommier et al. Supplementation with Akkermansia muciniphila in overweight and obese human volunteers: a proof-of-concept exploratory studyNature Medicine, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41591-019-0495-2.

Strategies to promote abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, an emerging probiotics in the gut, evidence from dietary intervention studies. Kequan Zhou.  J Funct Foods 2017, Jun; 33: 194–201. Published online 2017 Mar 29. doi: 10.1016/j.jff.2017.03.045.

Neuron, Kim and Kwon et al.: “Transneuronal Propagation of Pathologic a-Synuclein from the Gut to the Brain Models Parkinson’s Disease”

Rían W. Manville, Geoffrey W. Abbott. Cilantro leaf harbors a potent potassium channel–activating anticonvulsantThe FASEB Journal, 2019; fj.201900485R DOI: 10.1096/fj.201900485R.

Obón-Santacana, Romaguera et al. Dietary Inflammatory Index, Dietary Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity, and Colorectal and Breast Cancer Risk (MCC-Spain Study)Nutrients, 2019; 11 (6): 1406 DOI: 10.3390/nu11061406

July 2019


Borrelia burgdorferi peptidoglycan is a persistent antigen in patients with Lyme arthritis. Brandon L. Jutras et al. PNAS 2019,  first published June 17:

Pre-existing commensal dysbiosis is a host-intrinsic regulator of tissue inflammation and tumor cell dissemination in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

Claire Buchta Rosean, Raegan R Bostic, Joshua C. M. Ferey, Tzu-Yu Feng, Francesca NAzar, Kenneth S Tung, Mikhail G Dozmorov, Ekaterina Smirnova, Paula D. Bos and Melanie R Rutkowski

Cancer Res, May 7, 2019 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-3464.

Schwabl P et al (2018), Assessment of microplastic concentrations in human stool – Preliminary results of a prospective study, Presented at UEG Week 2018 Vienna, October 24, 2018. 
Liang Lu, Zhiqin Wan, Ting Luo, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin. Polystyrene microplastics induce gut microbiota dysbiosis and hepatic lipid metabolism disorder in mice,

Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 631–632, 2018, Pages 449-458,

Role of vitamin D supplementation for primary prevention of cancer: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Varun Samji, Tarek Haykal, Yazan Zayed, Inderdeep Gakhal, Vijay Veerapaneni, Michelle Obeid, Babikir Kheiri, Sunil Badami, Ghassan Bachuwa, and Rizwan Danish. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2019 37:15_suppl, 1534-1534.

M Kyla Shea, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Richard F Loeser, Sarah L Booth. Vitamin K Status and Mobility Limitation and Disability in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition StudyThe Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glz108.

Perceptions of Constipation Among the General Public and People With Constipation Differ Strikingly From Those of General and Specialist Doctors and the Rome IV Criteria. Dimidi, Eirini PhD1; Cox, Camilla MSc1; Grant, Robert MSc2; Scott, S. Mark PhD3; Whelan, Kevin PhD. American Journal of Gastroenterology, June 4, 2019,

doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000267.

Heini Natri, Angela R. Garcia, Kenneth H. Buetow, Benjamin C. Trumble, Melissa A. Wilson. The Pregnancy Pickle: Evolved Immune Compensation Due to Pregnancy Underlies Sex Differences in Human DiseasesTrends in Genetics, 2019; 35 (7): 478 DOI: 10.1016/j.tig.2019.04.008.


Terry Wahls quote: The Seventy Percent Solution, Terry L. Wahls, MD. J Gen Intern Med 26(10):1215–6. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-010-1631-3.


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Developing the evidence for kinesiology-style manual muscle testing: A series of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Anne M. Jensen, Richard Stevens , Amanda Burls. Australasian Integrative Medicine Association Conference Abstracts, Sydney, Australia/ Advances in Integrative Medicine 2014, 1 (3): 158.  

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Daniel J Blum, Emmanuel During, Fiona Barwick, Polina Davidenko, Jamie M Zeitzer. 0009 Restless Leg Syndrome: Does It Start With A Gut Feeling? Sleep, 2019; 42 (Supplement_1): A4 DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsz067.008.

High sensitivity and interindividual variability in the response of the human circadian system to evening light. Andrew J. K. Phillips, Parisa Vidafar, Angus C. Burns, Elise M. McGlashan, Clare Anderson, Shantha M. W. Rajaratnam, Steven W. Lockley, Sean W.Cain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jun 2019, 116 (24) 12019-12024; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1901824116.

Kelsey E. McLimans, Bridget E Clark, Alexandra Plagman, Colleen Pappas, Brandon Klinedinst, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Auriel A Willette. Is CSF SOD1 a Biomarker of Tau but not Amyloid Induced Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s Disease? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 2019; DOI: 10.1089/ars.2019.7762.

Joint Analysis of Metabolite Markers of Fish Intake and Persistent Organic Pollutants in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Swedish Adults.

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Butyrate, a metabolite of intestinal bacteria, enhances sleep. Éva Szentirmai et al.

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Blood test

A nanoelectronics-blood-based diagnostic biomarker for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

  1. Esfandyarpour, A. Kashi, M. Nemat-Gorgani, J. Wilhelmy, and R. W. Davis

PNAS first published April 29, 2019


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And theoretical background from:
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Redox modulation of cellular stress response and lipoxin A4 expression by Hericium Erinaceus in rat brain: relevance to Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis        Trovato A, Siracusa R, Di Paola R, Scuto M, Ontario ML, Bua O, Di Mauro P, Toscano MA, Petralia CC, Maiolino L, Serra A, Cuzzocrea S, Calabrese V.. Immun Ageing. 13:23. doi: 10.1186/s12979-016-0078-8. Jul 9 2016.

Neurology, April 23, 2019; 92 (17). Reproductive period and risk of dementia in a diverse cohort of health care members. Paola Gilsanz et al. DOI:

Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Yashvee Dunneram, Darren C Greenwood, Victoria J Burley and Janet E Cade.

Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 30 April 2018, doi: 10.1136/jech-2017-209887.

Gail A. Greendale, et al. Changes in body composition and weight during the menopause transitionJCI Insight, 2019; 4 (5) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.124865.

Muhleisen, A. L., & Herbst-Kralovetz, M. (2016). Menopause and the vaginal microbiome. Maturitas91, 42-50.

Mitchell CM et al. 2017. Associations between improvement in genitourinary symptoms of menopause and changes in the vaginal ecosystem. Menopause.

Front. Microbiol., 14 February 2019 |

Comparison of the Vaginal Microbiomes of Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women. Karol Gliniewicz et al.

Microb Ecol. 2013 Apr;65(3):773-80. doi: 10.1007/s00248-012-0154-3. Epub 2012 Dec 19. The restoration of the vaginal microbiota after treatment for bacterial vaginosis with metronidazole or probiotics.

Ling Z et al.

Gregor Reid. “Has knowledge of the vaginal microbiome altered approaches to health and disease?” F1000Res. 2018; 7: 460. Published online 2018 Apr 13. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.13706.1.

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2019 Feb 1;366(4). doi: 10.1093/femsle/fnz025.

Vaginal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a conceptual analysis. Ma D et al.


Beibei Yang, Jinbao Wei, Peijun Ju, Jinghong Chen. Effects of regulating intestinal microbiota on anxiety symptoms: A systematic reviewGeneral Psychiatry, 2019; 32: e100056 DOI: 10. 1136/gpsych-2019-100056.

Anna M. Wang, Subechhya Pradhan, Jennifer M. Coughlin, Aditi Trivedi, Samantha L. DuBois, Jeffrey L. Crawford, Thomas W. Sedlak, Fredrick C. Nucifora, Gerald Nestadt, Leslie G. Nucifora, David J. Schretlen, Akira Sawa, Peter B. Barker. Assessing Brain Metabolism With 7-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Patients With First-Episode Psychosis. JAMA Psychiatry, 2019; 76 (3): 314 DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.3637

Thomas W. Sedlak, Bindu D. Paul, Gregory M. Parker, Lynda D. Hester, Adele M. Snowman, Yu Taniguchi, Atsushi Kamiya, Solomon H. Snyder, Akira Sawa. The glutathione cycle shapes synaptic glutamate activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2019; 116 (7): 2701 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1817885116

Thomas W. Sedlak, Leslie G. Nucifora, Minori Koga, Lindsay S. Shaffer, Cecilia Higgs, Teppei Tanaka, Anna M. Wang, Jennifer M. Coughlin, Peter B. Barker, Jed W. Fahey, Akira Sawa. Sulforaphane Augments Glutathione and Influences Brain Metabolites in Human Subjects: A Clinical Pilot Study. Molecular Neuropsychiatry, 2017; 3 (4): 214 DOI: 10.1159/000487639

Changwei Li, Jiang He, Shengxu Li, Wei Chen, Lydia Bazzano, Xiao Sun, Luqi Shen, Lirong Liang, Ye Shen, Xiaoying Gu, Tanika N Kelly. Novel Metabolites Are Associated With Augmentation Index and Pulse Wave Velocity: Findings From the Bogalusa Heart StudyAmerican Journal of Hypertension, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpz046

‘Training for a first-time marathon reverses vascular ageing’ presented during the Young Investigator Award session on Friday 3 May at EuroCMR 2019.

Fuehrer D, Fennessy C, Reese RJ. 2014. Runners With More Training Miles Finish Marathons Faster. Runners World. Available online at:

Jones S, D’Silva A, Bhuva A, et al. Improved Exercise-Related Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption Following Uptake of Endurance Training Measured Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Front Physiol. 2017;8:1018. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.01018.

Epigenomics. 2019 Feb;11(3):349-362. doi: 10.2217/epi-2018-0081. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Role of histone acetylation in gastric cancer: implications of dietetic compounds and clinical perspectives.

Calcagno DQ et al.

Cynthia Larbey, Susan M. Mentzer, Bertrand Ligouis, Sarah Wurz, Martin K. Jones. Cooked starchy food in hearths ca. 120 kya and 65 kya (MIS 5e and MIS 4) from Klasies River Cave, South AfricaJournal of Human Evolution, 2019; 131: 210 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.03.015.

Ziad Al Nabhani, Sophie Dulauroy, Rute Marques, Clara Cousu, Shahed Al Bounny, François Déjardin, Tim Sparwasser, Marion Bérard, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Gérard Eberl. A Weaning Reaction to Microbiota Is Required for Resistance to Immunopathologies in the AdultImmunity, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.02.014

Multipotent fetal-derived Cdx2 cells from placenta regenerate the heart. Sangeetha Vadakke-Madathil, Gina LaRocca, Koen Raedschelders, JesseYoon, Sarah J. Parker, Joseph Tripodi, Vesna Najfeld, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Hina W. Chaudhry

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May 2019, 201811827; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1811827116.

Tamia A. Harris, Sureka Gattu, Daniel C. Propheter, Zheng Kuang, Shai Bel, Kelly A. Ruhn, Andrew L. Chara, Marshall Edwards, Chenlu Zhang, Jay-Hyun Jo, Prithvi Raj, Christos C. Zouboulis, Heidi H. Kong, Julia A. Segre, Lora V. Hooper. Resistin-like Molecule α Provides Vitamin-A-Dependent Antimicrobial Protection in the SkinCell Host & Microbe, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2019.04.004.

Desai T, Roberts M, Bottom L. Effects of Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on cardio-metabolic markers in metabolic syndrome participants: a pilot study. Journal of Functional Foods. 2019; 57: 286-298.

IN PRACTICE – Thalia Pellegrini

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Ebringer A, Rashid T, Wilson C,  The Link between Ankylosing Spondylitis, Crohn’s Disease, Klebsiella, and Starch Consumption Clin Dev Immunol. 2013; 2013: 872632.

 Zhang LZhang YJChen JHuang XLFang GSYang LJDuan YWang J. The association of HLA-B27 and Klebsiella pneumoniae in ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review .Microb Pathog. 2018 Apr;117:49-54

The relationship between Klebsiella infection and ankylosing spondylitis Baillière’s Clinical Rheumatology Volume 3, Issue 2, August 1989, Pages 321-338

May 2019


“Nutritional epidemiology is a scandal. It should just go to the waste bin”:

John Ioannidis second quote is here: Report by Sam Bloch.

Why Most Published Research Findings Are False. John P. A. Ioannidis. PLoS Med. 2005 Aug; 2(8): e124. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124.

Ng K et al. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The SUNSHINE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Apr 9;321(14):1370-1379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.2402.



Hu XY et al. Andrographis paniculata (Chuān Xīn Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 4;12(8):e0181780. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181780.

Leveraging Human Microbiome Features to Diagnose and Stratify Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 2019, in press.

Emily B. Hollister et al. doi:

Louise Saul, Iris Mair, Alasdair Ivens, Pamela Brown, Kay Samuel, John D. M. Campbell, Daniel Y. Soong, Nadine Kamenjarin, Richard J. Mellanby. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Restrains CD4 T Cell Priming Ability of CD11c Dendritic Cells by Upregulating Expression of CD31Frontiers in Immunology, 2019; 10 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00600


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  94. Liu J, Ames BN. Reducing mitochondrial decay with mitochondrial nutrients to delay and treat cognitive dysfunction, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Nutr Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(2):67-89.
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  99. Ostojic SM. Advanced physiological roles of guanidinoacetic acid. Eur J Nutr. 2015 Dec;54(8):1211-5.
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(1) G. J. Egger, A. F. Binns, and S. R. Rossner, “The emergence of “lifestyle medicine” as a structured approach for management of chronic disease,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 190, no. 3, pp. 143–145, 2009.

(2) W. S. Dysinger, “Lifestyle medicine competencies for primary care physicians,” Virtual Mentor, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 306–310, 2013.

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(4) G. Egger, A. Binns, and S. Rossner, Lifestyle Medicine, McGraw- Hill, Sydney, Australia, 2008.

(5) W. H. Herman, T. J. Hoerger, M. Brandle et al., “The cost effectiveness of lifestyle modification or metformin in preventing type 2 diabetes in adults with impaired glucose tolerance,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 323–332, 2005.

(6) G. Xie, X. Li, H. Li, andW. Jia, “Toward personalized nutrition: comprehensive phytoprofiling and metabotyping,” Journal of Proteomic Research, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1547–1559, 2013.

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(9) P. C. Santos, J. E. Krieger, and A. C. Pereira, “Molecular diagnostic and pathogenesis of hereditary hemochromatosis,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 1497–1511, 2012.

(10) E.Mocchegiani, R.Giacconi, L.Costarelli et al., “Zinc deficiency and IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism in old people from different European countries: effect of zinc supplementation. ZINCAGE study,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 433–444, 2008.

(11) T. R. Neyestani, A. Djazayery, S. Shab- Bidar et al., “Vitamin D receptor Fok-I polymorphism modulates diabetic host response to vitamin D intake: need for a nutrigenetic approach,” Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 550–556, 2013.

(12) A. Fischer, C. Schmelzer, G. Rimbach, P. Niklowitz, T. Menke, and F. D¨oring, “Association between genetic variants in the Coenzyme Q10metabolism and Coenzyme Q10 status in humans,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 4, article 245, 2011.

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(19) U. Görman, J. C. Mathers, K. A. Grimaldi, J. Ahlgren, and K. Nordström, “Do we know enough? A scientific and ethical analysis of the basis for genetic-based personalized nutrition,” Genes and Nutrition. In press.


Joe Pizzorno: “Mitochondria – Fundamental to Life and Health”. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2014 Apr; 13(2): 8–15.

  1. Wesselink et al. Feeding mitochondria: Potential role of nutritional components to improve critical illness convalescence. Clinical Nutrition 2018, Aug 31. pii: S0261-5614(18)32426-9. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.08.032.

Genes (Basel). 2018 Jan 9; 9(1). pii: E22. doi: 10.3390/genes9010022.

The Aging Mitochondria. Theurey PPizzo P.

Elsa Sanchez-Lopez et al. Choline Uptake and Metabolism Modulate Macrophage IL-1β and IL-18 ProductionCell Metabolism, April 11, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2019.03.011/.

Ale-Agha N, Goy C, Jakobs P, Spyridopoulos I, Gonnissen S, Dyballa-Rukes N, et al. (2018) CDKN1B/p27 is localized in mitochondria and improves respiration-dependent processes in the cardiovascular system–New mode of action for caffeine. PLoS Biol 16(6): e2004408.

Nasca C et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Aug 21;115(34):8627-8632. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1801609115. Epub 2018 Jul 30. Acetyl-l-carnitine deficiency in patients with major depressive disorder.


  1. Mohr D, Bowry VW, Stocker R. Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Jun 26;1126(3):247-54.
  2. Ross D et al. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1): chemoprotection, bioactivation, gene regulation and genetic polymorphisms. Chem Biol Interact. 2000 Dec 1;129(1-2):77-97.
  3. Kelsey KT, Ross D, Traver RD et al.  Ethnic variation in the prevalence of a common NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase polymorphism and its implications for anticancer chemotherapy.  Br J Cancer 1997;76:852–854.

‘Game-changing’ study may open door to new cancer therapies’: Jamie Morton, NZ Herald, Nov 21, 2018:

Martina Bajzikova et al. Reactivation of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase-Driven Pyrimidine Biosynthesis Restores Tumor Growth of Respiration-Deficient Cancer Cells. Cell Metabolism, Volume 29, Issue 2, 5 February 2019, Pages 399-416.e10. doi:


Vitamin D and magnesium

  1. Genetics of hereditary disorders of magnesium homeostasis. Schlingmann, Karl P, Konrad, Martin and Seyberth, Hannsjorg W. 1, 2004, Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 19, pp. 13-25.
  2. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2005-2006, Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food and Water Compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium. Moshfegh, A, et al. s.l. : U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2009.
  3. Short-term magnesium deficiency downregulates telomerase, upregulates neutral sphingomyelinase and induces oxidative DNA damage in cardiovascular tissues: relevance to atherogenesis, cardiovascular diseases and aging. Shah, N.C, et al. 3, s.l. : International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Vol. 7, pp. 497-514.
  4. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy. Grober, Uwe, Schmidt, Joachim and Kisters, Klaus. 9, s.l. : Nutrients, Vol. 7, pp. 8199-8226.
  5. Vitamin D: The “sunshine” vitamin. Nair, Rathish and Maseeh, Arun. 2, s.l. : Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics, 2012, Vol. 3, pp. 118-126.
  6. Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes – Pitfalls and Possibilities. Prasad, Rashmi B and Groop, Leif. 1, s.l. : Genes, 2015, Vol. 6, pp. 87-123.
  7. Treatment of hypovitaminosis D in infants and toddlers. Gordon, CM, et al. s.l. : Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 2008, Vol. 93, pp. 2716-2721.
  8. Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, et al. s.l. : JAMA, 2005, Vol. 293, pp. 2257-2264.
  9. Vitamin D and calcium intakes and breast cancer risk in pre- and postmenopausal women. Anderson, LN, et al. s.l. : American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2010, Vol. 91, pp. 1699-1707.
  10. Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Wang, TJ and Pencina MJ, Booth SL, Jacques PF, Ingelsson E, Lanier K, et al. s.l. : Circulation, 2008, Vol. 117, pp. 503-511.
  11. Novel CYP27B1 gene mutations in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A. Demir, Korcan, et al. 7, s.l. : PLoS One, Vol. 10.
  12. Genome-wide association study of circulating vitamin D levels. Ahn, Jiyoung, et al. 13, s.l. : Human Molecular Genetics, Vol. 19, pp. 2739-2745.
  13. Inherited and acquired disorders of magnesium homeostasis. Wolf, Matthias Tilmann Florian. 2, s.l. : Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 2017, Vol. 29, pp. 187-198.
  14. NIH U.S. National Library of Medicine. Gitelman Syndrome. Genetics Home Reference. [Online] [Cited: March 28, 2019.]
  15. Magnesium in cystic fibrosis – systemic review of the literature. Santi, M, et al. 2, s.l. : Paediatric Pulmonology, 2016, Vol. 51, pp. 196-202.
  16. Oral magnesium supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis improves clinical and functional variables: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Gontijo-Amaral, Clesio, Guimaraes, Elizabet V and Camargos, Paulo. 1, s.l. : The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2012, Vol. 96, pp. 50-56.
  17. Magnesium Basics. Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm and Ketteler, Markus. 1, s.l. : Clinical Kidney Journal, 2012, Vol. 5, pp. i3-i14.
  18. Vitamin D, the gut microbiome and inflammatory bowel disease. Tabatabaeizadeh, Seyed-Amir, et al. 75, s.l. : Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2018, Vol. 23.
  19. Synergistic induction of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide gene expression by vitamin D and stilbenoids. Guo, C, et al. 3, s.l. : Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2014, Vol. 58, pp. 528-536.

Ramagopalan SV et al. A ChIP-seq-defined genome-wide map of vitamin D receptor binding: Associations with disease and evolution. Genome Res 2010, 20:1352-60.  doi:10.1101/gr.107920.110.

Qi Dai, Xiangzhu Zhu, JoAnn E Manson, Yiqing Song, Xingnan Li, Adrian A Franke, Rebecca B Costello, Andrea Rosanoff, Hui Nian, Lei Fan, Harvey Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Chang Yu, Martha J Shrubsole. Magnesium status and supplementation influence vitamin D status and metabolism: results from a randomized trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 108 (6): 1249 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy274

Wang, et al. Gut microbiota have blood types as human. Science Bulletin. Volume 63, Issue 20, 30 October 2018, Pages 1311-1313.


Metabolic health

A dataset quantifying polypharmacy in the United States. Katie J. Quinn and Nigam H. Shah. Sci Data. 2017; 4: 170167. doi: 10.1038/sdata.2017.167

Long-term conditions and multi-morbidity. The Kings Fund:

The prevalence and determinants of polypharmacy at age 69: a British birth cohort study. Mark James Rawle et al. BMC Geriatr 2018; 18: 118. doi: 10.1186/s12877-018-0795-2

Prevalence of Optimal Metabolic Health in American Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2016. Araújo J, Cai J, Stevens J. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2019 Feb;17(1):46-52. doi: 10.1089/met.2018.0105.

Brain health

  1. McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T. S., Bebbington, P. E., & Jenkins, R. (2009). Adult psychiatric morbidity in England, 2007: results of a household survey. The NHS Information Centre for health and social care.
  2. Praveetha Patalay, Suzanne H Gage, Changes in millennial adolescent mental health and health-related behaviours over 10 years: a population cohort comparison study, International Journal of Epidemiology, , dyz006,
  3. B. Bratsberg and O. Rogeberg, ‘Flynn effect and its reversal are both environmentally caused’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018),
  4. ‘Metabolism of alpha-linolenic acid’ by Dr. Diane H. Morris, Flax Council,
  5. Vogiatzoglou A1, Refsum H, Johnston C, Smith SM, Bradley KM, de Jager C, Budge MM, Smith AD., ‘Vitamin B12 status and rate of brain volume loss in community-dwelling elderly’ Neurology 2008
  6. Smith, David. (2017). Two nutrients are better than one: B-vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of dementia. Journal of Nutrition & Intermediary Metabolism. 8. 66. 10.1016/j.jnim.2017.04.018.

Alice L. Chen, Kenneth M. Lum, Pablo Lara-Gonzalez, Daisuke Ogasawara, Armand B Cognetta, Alan To, William H. Parsons, Gabriel M. Simon, Arshad Desai, Michael Petrascheck, Liron Bar-Peled, Benjamin F. Cravatt. Pharmacological convergence reveals a lipid pathway that regulates C. elegans lifespanNature Chemical Biology, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41589-019-0243-4.

Courtney R Chang, Monique E Francois, Jonathan P Little. Restricting carbohydrates at breakfast is sufficient to reduce 24-hour exposure to postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glycemic variabilityThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy261.

Adam Schaffner et al. Vitamin B12 modulates Parkinson’s disease LRRK2 kinase activity through allosteric regulation and confers neuroprotectionCell Research, 2019; 29 (4): 313 DOI: 10.1038/s41422-019-0153-8

Ng K et al. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Progression-Free Survival Among Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: The SUNSHINE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019 Apr 9;321(14):1370-1379. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.2402.

In Focus - Medicinal Mushrooms May 2019

Digestion feature:

  1. The Global Fungal Red List Initiative (access: 29.03.2019)
  2. Lu L et al. PCR-based sensitive detection of medicinal fungi Hericium species from ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Aug;25(8):975-80.
  3. Wang M et al. Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake): a unique resource for developing functional foods and medicines. Food Funct. 2014 Dec;5(12):3055-64.
  4. Shang XD et al. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion’s Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms. 2013;15(2):165-74.
  5. Liu JH et al. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of bioactive components isolated from Hericium erinaceus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Sep 10. pii: S0378-8741(15)30130-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2015.09.004. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Wang M et al. A polysaccharide from cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus and its anti-chronic atrophic gastritis activity. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015 Nov;81:656-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2015.08.043. Epub 2015 Aug 24.
  7. Wong JY et al. Gastroprotective Effects of Lion’s Mane Mushroom Hericium erinaceus (Bull.:Fr.) Pers. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) Extract against Ethanol-Induced Ulcer in Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:492976.
  8. Wang M et al. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced H2O2 in human gastric mucosa cell. PloS One. 2017 Jul 24;12(7):e0181546. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0181546. eCollection 2017.
  9. Chen DL et al. Extracts from Hericium erinaceus relieve inflammatory bowel disease by regulating immunity and gut microbiota. Oncotarget. 2017;8(49):85838-57.
  10. Wang D. et al. A polysaccharide from cultured mycelium of Hericium erinaceus relieves ulcerative colitis by counteracting oxidative stress and improving mitochondrial function. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 Mar 15;125:572-579. doi: 10. 1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.12.092. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Sport feature:

1 Cordyceps Industry in China, Mycology An International Journal on fungal Biology

ISSN: 2150-1203 (Print) 2150-1211 (Online) Journal homepage:

 3 Life Sci. 2004 Dec 10;76(4):385-95. Pharmacological basis of ‘Yin-nourishing’ and ‘Yang-invigorating’ actions of Cordyceps, a Chinese tonifying herb.

Siu KM1, Mak DH, Chiu PY, Poon MK, Du Y, Ko KM.

4 Cordyceps can increase the ATP stores in the liver J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Jun;7(3):231-40)

5 Koh JH. Antifatigue and antistress effect of the hot-water fraction from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 May;26(5):691-4.


J Diet Suppl. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2018 Jan 13.

Published before final editing as: J Diet Suppl. : 1–13. Published online 2016 Jul 13. doi:  10.1080/19390211.2016.1203386 Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation. Katie R. Hirsch,1 Abbie E. Smith-Ryan,1,2 Erica J. Roelofs,1,3 Eric T. Trexler,1,2 and Meredith G. Mock1

7 Nicodemus K, Hagan R, Zhu J, Baker C. Supplementation with Cordyceps Cs-4 fermentation product promotes fat metabolism during prolonged exercise. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2001;33:164.

Neurodegenerative feature:

Cohen N1, Cohen J1, Asatiani MD2, Varshney VK3, Yu HT4, Yang YC4, Li YH4, Mau JL5, Wasser SP6.

Chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal value of fruit bodies and submerged cultured mycelia of culinary-medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2014;16(3):273-91.

Chin J H, Vora N,The global burden of neurologic diseases (2012) Int J Med Mushrooms. 2012;14(5):427-46.

Kevin Spelman et al. (2017) Neurlogical Activity of Lion´s Mane (Hericium erinaceus). Journal Compilation

Lai, P.-L., Naidu, M., Sabaratnam, V., Wong, K.-H., David, R. P., Kuppusamy, U. R., … Malek, S. N. A. (2013). Neurotrophic properties of the Lion’s mane medicinal mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Malaysia. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 15(6), 539–554.

Li, I.-C., Lee, L.-Y., Tzeng, T.-T., Chen, W.-P., Chen, Y.-P., Shiao, Y.-J., & Chen, C.-C. (2018). Neurohealth Properties of Hericium erinaceus Mycelia Enriched with Erinacines. Behavioural Neurology, 2018, 5802634.

Menken, M., TL, M., & JF, T. (2000). The global burden of disease study: Implications for neurology. Archives of Neurology, 57(3), 418–420. Retrieved from

Mori K1, Obara Y, Hirota M, Azumi Y, Kinugasa S, Inatomi S, Nakahata N (2008)Nerve growth factor-inducing activity of Hericium erinaceus in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells.Biol Pharm Bull. 2008 Sep;31(9):1727-32.

Tsai-Teng, T., Chin-Chu, C., Li-Ya, L., Wan-Ping, C., Chung-Kuang, L., Chien-Chang, S., … Shiao, Y.-J. (2016). Erinacine A-enriched Hericium erinaceusmycelium ameliorates Alzheimer’s disease-related pathologies in APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Journal of Biomedical Science, 23, 49.

Zhang, C.-C., Cao, C.-Y., Kubo, M., Harada, K., Yan, X.-T., Fukuyama, Y., & Gao, J.-M. (2017). Chemical Constituents from Hericium erinaceus Promote Neuronal Survival and Potentiate Neurite Outgrowth via the TrkA/Erk1/2 Pathway. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(8).

Promotional feature:

  1. Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, Lee JM, Bae SM, Sin JI, Kim YW, Namkoong SE, Lee IP (2004). Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14:589-94.
  2. Ahn WS, Kim DJ, Chae GT, Lee JM, Bae SM, Sin JI, Kim YW, Namkoong SE, Lee IP (2004). Natural killer cell activity and quality of life were improved by consumption of a mushroom extract, Agaricus blazei Murill Kyowa, in gynecological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer 14:589-94.
  3. Cui XY, Cui SY, Zhang J, Wang ZJ, Yu B, Sheng ZF, Zhang XQ, Zhang YH (2012). Extract of Ganoderma lucidum prolongs sleep time in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 139(3):796-800.
  4. Dai Yu-C, Yang Z-L, Cui B-K, et al (2009). Species diversity and utilization of medicinal mushrooms and fungi in China (review). Int J Med Mush: 11: 287−302.
  5. Horneber M1, Bueschel G, Dennert G, Less D, Ritter E, Zwahlen M. How many cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012 Sep;11(3):187-203. doi: 10.1177/1534735411423920. Epub 2011 Oct 21.
  6. Li EK, Tam LS, Wong CK, Li WC, Lam CWK, Wachtel-Galor S, Benzie IFF, Bao YX, Leung PC, Tomlinson B (2007). Safety and Efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) and San Miao San Supplementation in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism (Arthritis Care & Research) 57, 1143–1150.
  7. Oba K, Teramukai S, Kobayashi M,·Matsui T,·Kodera Y,·Sakamoto Y (2007) Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curative resections of gastric cáncer. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 56, 905-911.
  8. Ohwada S, Ogawa T, Makita F, Tanahashi Y, Ohya T, Tomizawa N, Satoh Y, Kobayashi I, Izumi M, Takeyoshi I, Hamada K, Minaguchi S, Togo Y, Toshihiko T, Koyama T, Kamio M (2006). Beneficial effects of protein-bound polysaccharide K plus tegafur/uracil in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer: analysis of immunological parameters. Oncol Rep 15:861-8.
  9. Okuno K, Uno K (2011). Efficacy of orally administered Lentinula edodes mycelia extract for advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy: a pilot study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 12(7):1671-4.
  10. Roca-Lema D, Martinez-Iglesias O, Fernández de Ana Portela C, Rodríguez-Blanco A, Valladares-Ayerbes M, Díaz-Díaz A, Casas-Pais A, Prego C, Figueroa A. In Vitro Anti-proliferative and Anti-invasive Effect of Polysaccharide-rich Extracts from Trametes Versicolor and Grifola Frondosa in Colon Cancer Cells. Int J Med Sci 2019; 16(2):231-240. doi:10.7150/ijms.28811
  11. Sakamoto J, Morita S, Oba K, Matsui T, Kobayashi M, Nakazato H, Ohashi Y (2006) Efficacy of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with polysaccharide K for patients with curatively resected colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 55, 404-411.
  12. Standish LJ, Alschuler LN, Weaver M, Nezami M (2014). Botanical and mycological medicine in integrative oncology, in Integrative Oncology ed. Donald I. Abrans, Andrew Weil Oxford University Press.
  13. Torkelson CJ, Sweet E, Martzen MR, Sasagawa M, Wenner CA, Gay J, Putiri A, Standish LJ (2012). Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Trametes versicolor in Women with Breast Cancer. ISRN Oncol. 2012; 2012: 251632.
April 2019


Thermally Abused Frying Oil Potentiates Metastasis to Lung in a Murine Model of Late-Stage Breast Cancer. Anthony Cam et al. Cancer Prev Res March 18 2019. DOI: 10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0220.

Takashi Mori, Naoki Koyama, Jun Tan, Tatsuya Segawa, Masahiro Maeda, Terrence Town. Combined treatment with the phenolics (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and ferulic acid improves cognition and reduces Alzheimer-like pathology in miceJournal of Biological Chemistry, 2019; 294 (8): 2714 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.004280.

Lei Feng, Irwin Kee-Mun Cheah, Maisie Mei-Xi Ng, Jialiang Li, Sue Mei Chan, Su Lin Lim, Rathi Mahendran, Ee-Heok Kua, Barry Halliwell. The Association between Mushroom Consumption and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study in SingaporeJournal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2019; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-180959.

Associations of Dietary Cholesterol or Egg Consumption With Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality. Victor W. Zhong, PhD1Linda Van Horn, PhD1Marilyn C. Cornelis, PhD1; et alJohn T. Wilkins, MD, MS1Hongyan Ning, MD, MS1Mercedes R. Carnethon, PhD1Philip Greenland, MD1Robert J. Mentz, MD2,3Katherine L. Tucker, PhD4Lihui Zhao, PhD1Arnita F. Norwood, PhD5Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, MD, ScM1Norrina B. Allen, PhD1

JAMA. 2019;321(11):1081-1095. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.1572.

The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in Helicobacter pylori

infection: a placebo-controlled, single-blind study. Martin Buckley et al. BMC Nutrition, 2018, 4:48:


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  2. Baxter AJ, Scott KM, Vos T, Whiteford HA. Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychol Med. 2013 May;43(5):897-910.
  3. Smith K. Mental health: a world of depression. Nature. 2014 Nov 13;515(7526):181.
  4. Dale E, Bang-Andersen B, Sánchez C. Emerging mechanisms and treatments for depression beyond SSRIs and SNRIs. Biochem Pharmacol. 2015 May 15;95(2):81-97.
  5. Pandarakalam JP. Challenges of Treatment-resistant Depression. Psychiatr Danub. 2018 Sep;30(3):273-284.
  6. Liu B, Liu J, Wang M, Zhang Y, Li L. From Serotonin to Neuroplasticity:
  7. Evolvement of Theories for Major Depressive Disorder. Front Cell Neurosci. 2017 Sep 28;11:305.
  8. Jentsch MC, Van Buel EM, Bosker FJ, Gladkevich AV, Klein HC, Oude Voshaar RC,  Ruhé EG, Eisel UL, Schoevers RA. Biomarker approaches in major depressive disorder evaluated in the context of current hypotheses. Biomark Med. 2015;9(3):277-97.
  9. Sarris J, Logan AC, Akbaraly TN, Amminger GP, Balanzá-Martínez V, Freeman MP,  Hibbeln J, Matsuoka Y, Mischoulon D, Mizoue T, Nanri A, Nishi D, Ramsey D, Rucklidge JJ, Sanchez-Villegas A, Scholey A, Su KP, Jacka FN; International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research. Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Mar;2(3):271-4.
  10. Manosso LM, Moretti M, Rodrigues AL. Nutritional strategies for dealing with depression. Food Funct. 2013 Dec;4(12):1776-93
  11. Gadad BS, Jha MK, Czysz A, Furman JL, Mayes TL, Emslie MP, Trivedi MH. Peripheral biomarkers of major depression and antidepressant treatment response: Current knowledge and future outlooks. J Affect Disord. 2018 Jun;233:3-14.
  12. Montgomery SA, Thal LJ, Amrein R. Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment  of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2003 Mar;18(2):61-71.
  13. Veronese N, Stubbs B, Solmi M, Ajnakina O, Carvalho AF, Maggi S. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation and the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychosom Med. 2018 Feb/Mar;80(2):154-159.
  14. Nasca C, Bigio B, Lee FS, Young SP, Kautz MM, Albright A, Beasley J, Millington DS, Mathé AA, Kocsis JH, Murrough JW, McEwen BS, Rasgon N. Acetyl-l-carnitine deficiency in patients with major depressive disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Aug 21;115(34):8627-8632.
  15. Deepmala, Slattery J, Kumar N, Delhey L, Berk M, Dean O, Spielholz C, Frye R.  Clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry and neurology: A systematic review. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Aug;55:294-321.
  16. Dean O, Giorlando F, Berk M. N-acetylcysteine in psychiatry: current therapeutic evidence and potential mechanisms of action. J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011;36:78–86
  17. Conus P, Seidman LJ, Fournier M, Xin L, Cleusix M, Baumann PS, Ferrari C, Cousins A, Alameda L, Gholam-Rezaee M, Golay P, Jenni R, Woo TW, Keshavan MS, Eap CB, Wojcik J, Cuenod M, Buclin T, Gruetter R, Do KQ. N-acetylcysteine in a Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial: Toward Biomarker-Guided Treatment in Early Psychosis. Schizophr Bull. 2018 Feb 15;44(2):317-327.
  18. McNamara RK, Strawn JR. Role of Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric  Practice. PharmaNutrition. 2013 Apr;1(2):41-49.
  19. Kirkland AE, Sarlo GL, Holton KF. The Role of Magnesium in Neurological Disorders. Nutrients. 2018 Jun 6;10(6).
  20. Rajizadeh A, Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Yassini-Ardakani M, Dehghani A. Effect of magnesium supplementation on depression status in depressed patients with magnesium deficiency: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2017 Mar;35:56-60.
  21. Zhang M, Robitaille L, Eintracht S, Hoffer LJ. Vitamin C provision improves mood in acutely hospitalized patients. Nutrition. 2011 May;27(5):530-3.
  22. Smith AD, Refsum H. Homocysteine, B Vitamins, and Cognitive Impairment. Annu Rev Nutr. 2016 Jul 17;36:211-39.
  23. Kennedy DO. B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy–A Review. Nutrients. 2016 Jan 27;8(2):68.
  24. Petrilli MA, Kranz TM, Kleinhaus K, Joe P, Getz M, Johnson P, Chao MV, Malaspina D. The Emerging Role for Zinc in Depression and Psychosis. Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 30;8:414.
  25. Karakuła-Juchnowicz H, Szachta P, Opolska A, Morylowska-Topolska J, Gałęcka M, Juchnowicz D, Krukow P, Lasik Z. The role of IgG hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis and therapy of depressive disorders. Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb;20(2):110-118.
  26. Bayes A, Parker G. How to choose an antidepressant medication. Acta Psychiatr  Scand. 2019 Mar;139(3):280-291.

International Society for Nutritional Psychiatry Research consensus position statement: nutritional medicine in modern psychiatry. World Psychiatry. 2015 Oct; 14(3): 370–371, doi: 10.1002/wps.20223.

Daniel F. Zegarra-Ruiz, Asmaa El Beidaq, Alonso J. Iñiguez, Martina Lubrano Di Ricco, Silvio Manfredo Vieira, William E. Ruff, Derek Mubiru, Rebecca L. Fine, John Sterpka, Teri M. Greiling, Carina Dehner, Martin A. Kriegel. A Diet-Sensitive Commensal Lactobacillus Strain Mediates TLR7-Dependent Systemic AutoimmunityCell Host & Microbe, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.11.009

Christopher E. Zwilling, Tanveer Talukdar, Marta K. Zamroziewicz, Aron K. Barbey. Nutrient biomarker patterns, cognitive function, and fMRI measures of network efficiency in the aging brain. NeuroImage, 2019; 188: 239 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.12.007

Limon et al. Malassezia Is Associated with Crohn’s Disease and Exacerbates Colitis in Mouse Models. Cell Host & Microbe, 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2019.01.007

Free fatty acids rewire cancer metabolism in obesity-associated breast cancer via estrogen receptor and mTOR signaling

Zeynep Madak-Erdogan et al. Cancer Research 2019, Published OnlineFirst March 12,
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2849.


Akihito Harusato, Emilie Viennois, Lucie Etienne-Mesmin, Shingo Matsuyama, Hirohito Abo, Satoru Osuka, Nicholas W Lukacs, Yuji Naito, Yoshito Itoh, Jian-Dong Li, Didier Merlin, Andrew T. Gewirtz, Timothy L. Denning. Early-life microbiota exposure restricts myeloid-derived suppressor cell-driven colonic tumourigenesisCancer Immunology Research, 2019; canimm.0444.2018 DOI: 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-18-0444

Human Gut Microbiome Response Induced by Fermented Dairy Product Intake in Healthy Volunteers. Olesya Volokh et al. Nutrients. 4 Mar 2019.

 Association of Maternal Probiotic Supplementation With Human Milk Oligosaccharide Composition. Research Letter. Antti E. Seppo et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2019;173(3):286-288. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4835.

Vienna E. Brunt et al. Suppression of the gut microbiome ameliorates age-related arterial dysfunction and oxidative stress in miceThe Journal of Physiology, 2019; DOI: 10.1113/JP277336


A genome-wide cross trait analysis from UK Biobank highlights the shared genetic architecture of asthma and allergic diseases. Zhaozhong Zhu, Phil Hyoun Lee, et al.  Nature Genetics 2018, DOI:10.1038/s41588-018-0121-0.

Daniel Reker, Steven M. Blum, Christoph Steiger, Kevin E. Anger, Jamie M. Sommer, John Fanikos and Giovanni Traverso. Inactive” ingredients in oral medicationsScience Translational Medicine, 2019 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aau6753

Healthy infants harbor intestinal bacteria that protect against food allergy

Taylor Feehley et al. Nature Medicine 2019, 25:448–53.

Histamine-releasing factor enhances food allergy.

Ando T et al. J Clin Invest. 2017 Dec 1;127(12):4541-4553. doi: 10.1172/JCI96525.

In Focus Supplement - April 2019

Sarah Oboh:

  1. Maintz, L and Novak, N. (2007) Histamine and histamine intolerance. Am J Clin Nutr. 85(5):1185-1196.
  2. Izquierdo-Casas, J. et al. (2018) Diamine oxidase (DAO) supplement reduces headache in episodic migraine patients with DAO deficiency: A randomized double-blind trial. Clin Nutr. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.01.013. [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Schmidt WU, Sattler J, Hesterberg R, et al. .Human intestinal diamine oxidase (DAO) activity in Crohn’s disease: a new marker for disease assessment? Agents Actions 1990;30:267–70.
  4. Mennigen R, Kusche J, Streffer C, Krakamp B. Diamine oxidase activities in the large bowel mucosa of ulcerative colitis patients. Agents Actions  1990;30:264–6.
  5. Guslandi, M. et al. (2003) A pilot trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in ulcerative colitis. European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. Vol. 15 pp. 697 – 698.
  6. McFarland L.V., (2010), ‘Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients’. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 16(18):2202–2222. 
  7. Kotowska M. et al., (2005), ‘Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial’.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 21(5):583–590.
  8. Krämer, S. et al. (2008). Selective Activation of Human Intestinal Mast Cells by Escherichia coli Hemolysin. J Immunol. 181 (2) 1438-1445. 
  9. Hung, CR. (2005) Modulation of gastric hemorrhage and ulceration by oxidative stress and histamine release in Salmonella typhimurium-infected rats. Inflammopharmacology. 13(1-3):235-48. 
  10. Vighi, G. et al (2008) Allergy and the gastrointestinal system. Clin. Exp. Immunol. Sept;153(1):3-6  
  11. Dev, S., Mizuguchi, H., Das, A. K., Matsushita, C., Maeyama, K., Umehara, H., … & Fukui, H. (2008). Suppression of histamine signaling by probiotic Lac-B: a possible mechanism of its anti-allergic effect. Journal of pharmacological sciences, 107(2), 159-166
  12. Galdeano CM et al., (2004) Role of viability of probiotic strains in their persistence in the gut and in mucosal immune stimulation. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;97(4):673-81

Penny Shaw: (bland, J 2016) (Wallace, M 2014). (Detzel, C 2015) (Nebot-vivinus, M 2014) (Marchbank, T 2011) (Miller A, 1999) (Van der Hulst, 1993) (Deloose, 2016) (Nieuwenhuji, V et al, 1998) ( Miyano, et al 2013) (Adzet, T 1987) (Kraft, K 1998)

Aicacia Young:

  1. Mosca A, et al. Gut Microbiota Diversity and Human Diseases: Should We Reintroduce Key Predators in Our Ecosystem? Front Microbiol. 2016;7:455.
  2. Le Chatelier E, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546.
  3. Lingheim L, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168390.
  4. Chelakkot C, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Exp & Molecular Med. 2018;50:e450.
  5. Dao MC, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65:426-436.
  6. Schneeberger M, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:16643.
  7. Martin R, et al. Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 1226.
  8. Picard C, et al. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents – physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;22:495–512.
  9. Stenman LK, et al. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(4):437-445.
  10. Collado MC, et al. Imbalances in fecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active celiac disease. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:232.
  11. Gao X, et al. Obesity in school-aged children and its correlation with gut E. coli and Bifidobacteria: a case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:64.
  12. Akay HK, et al. The relationship between bifidobacterial and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3-year-old children in Turkey. Anaerobe. 2014;28:98-103.
  13. Possemiers S, et al. Evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis strain HU-58 in the SHIME technology platform. ProDigest Final Report. 2013: 1-40.
  14. Blatchford P, et al. Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomized controlled human trial. J Nutr Sci. 2017; 6: e52.
  15. Everard A, Lazarevic V, Derrien M, et al. Responses of Gut Microbiota and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism to Prebiotics in Genetic Obese and Diet-Induced Leptin-Resistant Mice. Diabetes. 2011 Nov; 60(11): 2775–2786.
  16. Finegold SM, et al. Xylooligosaccharide increases bifidobacteria but not lactobacilli in human gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2014;5(3):436-45.
  17. Depeint F, et al. Prebiotic evaluation of a novel galactooligosaccharide mixture produced by the enzymatic activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171, in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study 1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):785-91.
  18. Faure M, et al. Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1558-64.


  1. Citi S. Intestinal barriers protect against disease. Science. 2018;359(6380):1097-1098.
  1. Michielan A, et al. Intestinal Permeability in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Pathogenesis, Clinical Evaluation, and Therapy of Leaky Gut. Mediators Inflamm. 2015; 2015:628157.
  1. Maes M, et al. The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2008;29(1):117-24.
  1. Paiardini M, et al. Mucosal immune dysfunction in AIDS pathogenesis. AIDS Rev. 2008;10(1):36-46.
  1. Kandulski A, et al. Gastroesophageal reflux disease–from reflux episodes to mucosal inflammation. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9(1):15-22.
  1. Liu H, et al. Early gut mucosal dysfunction in patients with acute pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2008;36(2):192-6.
  1. de Punder K, et al. Stress Induces Endotoxemia and Low-Grade Inflammation by Increasing Barrier Permeability. Front Immunol. 2015;6:223.
  1. Schmitz H, et al. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) regulates the epithelial barrier in the human intestinal cell line HT-29/B6. Journal of Cell Science. 1999;112(1):137–146.
  1. Coskun M. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease. Front Med. 2014;1:24.
  1. Su L, et al. TNFR2 activates mlck-dependent tight junction dysregulation to cause apoptosis-mediated barrier loss and experimental colitis. Gastroenterology. 2013;145(2):407–415.
  1. Vinolo MAR, et al. Regulation of Inflammation by Short Chain Fatty Acids. Nutrients. 2011; 3(10): 858–876.
  1. Matsuoka K, et al. The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Semin Immunopathol. 2015; 37: 47–55.
  1. Detzel CJ, et al. Bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate binds pro-inflammatory bacterial compounds and prevents immune activation in an intestinal co-culture model. PloS one. 2015;10(4):e0120278.
  1. Faure M, et al. Specific Amino Acids Increase Mucin Synthesis and Microbiota in Dextran Sulfate Sodium–Treated Rats. J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1558-64.
  1. Mosca A, et al. Gut Microbiota Diversity and Human Diseases: Should We Reintroduce Key Predators in Our Ecosystem? Front Microbiol. 2016;7:455.
  2. Le Chatelier E, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546.
  3. Lingheim L, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168390.
  4. Chelakkot C, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Exp & Molecular Med. 2018;50:e450.
  5. Dao MC, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65:426-436.
  6. Schneeberger M, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:16643.
  7. Martin R, et al. Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 1226.
  8. Picard C, et al. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents – physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;22:495–512.
  9. Stenman LK, et al. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(4):437-445.
  10. Collado MC, et al. Imbalances in fecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active celiac disease. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:232.
  11. Gao X, et al. Obesity in school-aged children and its correlation with gut E. coli and Bifidobacteria: a case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:64.
  12. Akay HK, et al. The relationship between bifidobacterial and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3-year-old children in Turkey. Anaerobe. 2014;28:98-103.
  13. Possemiers S, et al. Evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis strain HU-58 in the SHIME technology platform. ProDigest Final Report. 2013: 1-40.
  14. Blatchford P, et al. Consumption of kiwifruit capsules increases Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance in functionally constipated individuals: a randomized controlled human trial. J Nutr Sci. 2017; 6: e52.
  15. Everard A, Lazarevic V, Derrien M, et al. Responses of Gut Microbiota and Glucose and Lipid Metabolism to Prebiotics in Genetic Obese and Diet-Induced Leptin-Resistant Mice. Diabetes. 2011 Nov; 60(11): 2775–2786.
  16. Finegold SM, et al. Xylooligosaccharide increases bifidobacteria but not lactobacilli in human gut microbiota. Food Funct. 2014;5(3):436-45.
  17. Depeint F, et al. Prebiotic evaluation of a novel galactooligosaccharide mixture produced by the enzymatic activity of Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171, in healthy humans: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled intervention study 1–3. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):785-91.
  18. Mosca A, et al. Gut Microbiota Diversity and Human Diseases: Should We Reintroduce Key Predators in Our Ecosystem? Front Microbiol. 2016;7:455.
  19. Le Chatelier E, et al. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013;500:541-546.
  20. Lingheim L, et al. Alterations in Gut Microbiome Composition and Barrier Function Are Associated with Reproductive and Metabolic Defects in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Pilot Study. PLoS One. 2017;12(1):e0168390.
  21. Chelakkot C, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila-derived extracellular vesicles influence gut permeability through the regulation of tight junctions. Exp & Molecular Med. 2018;50:e450.
  22. Shin N, et al. An increase in the Akkermansia spp. population induced by metformin treatment improves glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese mice. Gut. 2014;63:727-735.
  23. Dao MC, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila and improved metabolic health during a dietary intervention in obesity: relationship with gut microbiome richness and ecology. Gut. 2016;65:426-436.
  24. Schneeberger M, et al. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Scientific Reports. 2015; 5:16643.
  25. Matsuoka K, et al. The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Semin Immunopathol. 2015; 37: 47–55.
  26. Martin R, et al. Functional Characterization of Novel Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Strains Isolated from Healthy Volunteers: A Step Forward in the Use of F. prausnitzii as a Next-Generation Probiotic. Front Microbiol. 2017; 8: 1226.
  27. Picard C, et al. Review article: bifidobacteria as probiotic agents – physiological effects and clinical benefits. Aliment Pharmacol Ther.  2005;22:495–512.
  28. Stenman LK, et al. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Benef Microbes. 2014;5(4):437-445.
  29. Collado MC, et al. Imbalances in fecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active celiac disease. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:232.
  30. Gao X, et al. Obesity in school-aged children and its correlation with gut E. coli and Bifidobacteria: a case-control study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:64.
  31. Akay HK, et al. The relationship between bifidobacterial and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3-year-old children in Turkey. Anaerobe. 2014;28:98-103.
  32. Possemiers S, Van de Genachte N. Evaluation of the Bacillus subtilis strain HU-58 in the SHIME technology platform. ProDigest Final Report. 2013: 1-40.

Adrienne Benjamin:

[1] Dukowicz AC, Lacy BE & Levine GM (2007) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review Gasterenterol Hepatol 3(2):112-122

2 Bures J et al (2010) Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome World J Gastroenterol 16(24):2978-2990

3 Pyleris E et al (2012) The Prevalence of Overgrowth by Aerobic Bacteria in the Small Intestine by Small Bowel Culture: Relationship with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Dig Dis Sci 57:1321-1329

4 Shah A et al (2019) Systematic Review with meta-analysis: the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in inflammatory bowel disease Aliment Pharmacol Ther 49:624-635

5 Ghoshal UD, Srivastava D (2014) Irritable bowel syndrome and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: Meaningful association or unnecessary hype World J Gastroenterol 20(10):2482-2491

6 Salem A & Ronald BC (2014) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) J Gastroint Dig Syst 4:225

7 Dukowicz AC, Lacy BE & Levine GM (2007) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Comprehensive Review Gasterenterol Hepatol 3(2):112-122

8 Quigley EMM (2019) The Spectrum of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) Curr Gastroenterol Rep

9 Grace, E et al (2013) Review article: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth – prevalence, clinical features, current and developing diagnostic tests, and treatment Aliment Pharmacol Ther 38:674-688

10 Choung RS et al (2011) Clinical predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by duodenal aspirate culture

11 Chen B et al (2017) Prevalence and predictors of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in irritable bowel syndrome: a systemic review and meta-analysis. J Gastroenterol

12 Su T et al (2018) Meta-analysis: proton pump inhibitors moderately increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth J of Gastroenterol 53(1):27-36

13 Adike A & DiBaise JK (2017) Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth – Nutritional Implications, Diagnosis, and Management Gastroenterol Clin N Am

14 Gewecke K, Nannen-Ottens S (2017) Bacterial overgrowth: nutrition as part of the therapeutic concept Ernahrungs Umschau 64(4):67-73; 64(5):74-78

15 Chen WC & Quigley EMM (2014) Probiotics, prebiotics & synbiotics in small intestinal bacterial overgrowth:

16 Shah SC et al (2013) Meta-analysis: antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013 28:925-934

17 Gatta L & Scarpignato C (2017) Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin is effective and safe for the treatment of small intestine bacterial overgrowth Aliment Pharmacol Ther 45:604-616

18 McIntosh K et al (2016) FODMAPs alter symptoms and the metabolome of patients with IBS: a randomised controlled trial Gut 0 :1-11

19 Magge S & Lembo A (2012) Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Gastroenterol Hepatol 8(11):739-745

20 Altobelli E et al (2017) Low-FODMAP Diet Improves Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms: A Meta-Analysis Nutrients 9:940; doi:10.3390/nu9090940

21 Konturek PC, Brzozowski T, Konturek SJ (2011) Stress and the gut: Pathophysiology, clinical consequences, diagnostic approach and treatment options J Physiol Pharmacol 62(6):591-599

22 Chedid V et al Herbal Therapy Is Equivalent to Rifaximin for the Treatment of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth Global Adv Health Med 3(3):16-24

23 Zhong C et al (2017) Probiotics for Preventing and Treating Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of Current Evidence J Clin Gastroenterol 51:300-311


March 2019


Ana Rodriguez-Mateos, Geoffrey Istas, Lisa Boschek, Rodrigo P Feliciano, Charlotte E Mills, Céline Boby, Sergio Gomez-Alonso, Dragan Milenkovic, Christian Heiss. Circulating anthocyanin metabolites mediate vascular benefits of blueberries: insights from randomized controlled trials, metabolomics, and nutrigenomicsThe Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/gerona/glz047

Zgaga, L.; Laird, E.; Healy, M. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Measurement in Human Hair: Results from a Proof-of-Concept study. Nutrients 201911, 423.

Chronic Inflammation Permanently Reshapes Tissue-Resident Immunity in Celiac Disease. Toufic Mayassi et al. Cell 2019, 176: 5. DOI:

Adjunctive vitamin D in tuberculosis treatment: meta-analysis of individual participant data. David A. Jolliffe, Davaasambuu Ganmaa, Christian Wejse, Rubhana Raqib, Md. Ahsanul Haq, Nawal Salahuddin, Peter K. Daley, Anna P. Ralph, Thomas R. Ziegler and Adrian R. Martineau. European Respiratory Journal, Published online February 6, 2019.

Ascorbic acid supplementation improves postprandial glycaemic control and blood pressure in individuals with type 2 diabetes: Findings of a randomized cross‐over trial. Shaun A. Mason et al. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, First published: 04 November 2018.

Lund KS, Siersma V, Brodersen J, et al. Efficacy of a standardised acupuncture approach for women with bothersome menopausal symptoms: a pragmatic randomised study in primary care (the ACOM study). BMJ Open 2019;9:e023637. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023637.


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  19. Jarrett BY, Lujan ME. Impact of hypocaloric dietary intervention on ovulation  in obese women with PCOS. Reproduction. 2016 Oct 31. pii: REP-16-0385. (Epub ahead of print)
  20. Frary JM, Bjerre KP, Glintborg D, Ravn P. The effect of dietary carbohydrates  in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review. Minerva Endocrinol. 2016 Mar;41(1):57-69.
  21. Sordia-Hernández LH, Ancer Rodríguez P, Saldivar Rodriguez D, Trejo Guzman S,Servín Zenteno ES, Guerrero González G, Ibarra Patiño R. Effect of a low glycemic diet in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and anovulation – a randomized controlled trial. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2016;43(4):555-559.
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  24. McGrice M, Porter J. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017 Feb 27;9(3).
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  26. Vagi SJ, Azziz-Baumgartner E, Sjödin A, Calafat AM, Dumesic D, Gonzalez L, Kato K, Silva MJ, Ye X, Azziz R. Exploring the potential association between brominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluorinated compounds, phthalates, and bisphenol A in polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2014 Oct 28;14:86.
  27. Yang Q, Zhao Y, Qiu X, Zhang C, Li R, Qiao J. Association of serum levels of typical organic pollutants with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a case-control  study. Hum Reprod. 2015 Aug;30(8):1964-73.
  28. Kandaraki E, Chatzigeorgiou A, Livadas S, Palioura E, Economou F, Koutsilieris M, Palimeri S, Panidis D, Diamanti-Kandarakis E. Endocrine disruptors and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): elevated serum levels of bisphenol A in women with PCOS. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Mar;96(3):E480-4.
  29. Zhou W, Fang F, Zhu W, Chen ZJ, Du Y, Zhang J. Bisphenol A and Ovarian Reserve among Infertile Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Dec 27;14(1).
  30. Hyland C, Bradman A, Gerona R, Patton S, Zakharevich I, Gunier RB, Klein K. Organic diet intervention significantly reduces urinary pesticide levels in U.S. children and adults. Environ Res. 2019 Jan 29. pii: S0013-9351(19)30024-6.
  31. Rudel RA, Gray JM, Engel CL, et al. Food packaging and bisphenol A and bis(2-ethyhexyl) phthalate exposure: findings from a dietary intervention. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jul;119(7):914-20. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1003170.
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  33. Wehr E, Pieber TR, Obermayer-Pietsch B. Effect of vitamin D3 treatment on glucose metabolism and menstrual frequency in polycystic ovary syndrome women: a  pilot study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011 Nov;34(10):757-63.
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  35. Irani M, Seifer DB, Grazi RV, Irani S, Rosenwaks Z, Tal R. Vitamin D Decreases Serum VEGF Correlating with Clinical Improvement in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with PCOS: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2017 Mar 28;9(4).
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  57. Heidary M, Yazdanpanahi Z, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Parsanezhad ME, Emamghoreishi M,  Akbarzadeh M. Effect of chamomile capsule on lipid- and hormonal-related parameters among women of reproductive age with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Res  Med Sci. 2018 Apr 26;23:33.

HYBRID DIET – Patrick Holford

  1. Sarah J. Hallberg et al Effectiveness and Safety of a Novel Care Model for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes at 1 Year: An Open-Label, Non-Randomized, Controlled Study

Diabetes Therapy April 2018, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 583–612.

  1. Courchesne-Loyer A, et al., ‘Inverse relationship between brain glucose and ketone metabolism in adults during short-term moderate dietary ketosis: A dual tracer quantitative positron emission tomography study.’ 2017 Jul;37(7):2485-2493; see also Cunnane SC et al., ‘Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.’J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017 Jul;37(7):2485-2493
  3. Wang C1 et al Endo-lysosomal dysfunction: a converging mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases.Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2018 Feb;48:52-58.
  4. E. White, ‘Autophagy, metabolism, and cancer’, Clinical Cancer Research (2015), 21(22):5037–5046.
  5. Bueno NB et al Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013 Oct;110(7):1178-87.


  1. David S. Ludwig The case against carbohydrates gets stronger LA Times Nov 14, 2018
  2. J.M. Chan, et al., ‘Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I and prostate cancer risk: a prospective study’, Science (1998), vol 279(5350):563–566; see also M.J. Gunter et al., ‘Insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute (2009), vol 101(1):48–60.=
  3. Vandenberghe et al., ‘Tricaprylin alone increases plasma ketone response more than coconut oil or other medium-chain triglycerides: an acute crossover study in healthy adults’, Current Developments in Nutrition (2017), vol 1(4):e000257.
    10. C. Ebbeling et al., ‘Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial’ British Medical Journal 2018;363:k4583
  4. P.M. Johnson and P.J. Kenny, ‘Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats’, Nature Neuroscience (2010), vol 13(5)–635–641.


Kim Vriens et al. Evidence for an alternative fatty acid desaturation pathway increasing cancer plasticityNature, 2019; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-0904-1.

Jeewon Garcia-So, Xinwen Zhang, Xiaohua Yang, Mara Roxana Rubinstein, De Yu Mao, Jan Kitajewski, Kang Liu, Yiping W. Han. 

Omega-3 fatty acids suppress Fusobacterium nucleatum–induced placental inflammation originating from maternal endothelial cellsJCI Insight, 2019; 4 (3) DOI: 10.1172/jci.insight.125436.

Poorna ChandraRao Yalagala, Dhavamani Sugasini, Sridevi Dasarathi, Kalipada Pahan, Papasani V. Subbaiah. Dietary lysophosphatidylcholine-EPA enriches both EPA and DHA in the brain: Potential treatment for depressionJournal of Lipid Research, 2018; jlr.M090464 DOI: 10.1194/jlr.M090464.

Association of reported fish intake and supplementation status with the omega-3 index.

K.H. Jackson et al. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids

Vol142, March 2019, 4-10: DOI:

Marine fish oil is more potent than plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the prevention of mammary tumors. JiajieLiu et al. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

Volume 55, May 2018, Pages 41-52

LYME – Dr Bill Rawls.

  1. Berende A, ter Hofstede HJ, Vos FJ, et al. Randomized Trial of Longer-Term Therapy for Symptoms Attributed to Lyme Disease. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(13):1209-1220.
    2.Rudenko N, Golovchenko M, Vancova M, et al. Isolation of live Borrelia burgdorferi senso lato spirochaetes from patients with undefined disorders and symptoms not typical for Lyme borreliosis. Clin Microb Infect. 2016;22(3):267. Epub 2015 Dec 8.
    3. Perez-Cobas AE, Gosalbes MJ, Friedrichs A, et al. Gut microbiota disturbance during antibiotic therapy, a multi-omic approach. Gut. 2013;62(11):1591-1601. Epub 2012 Dec 12.
    4. Morgun A, Dzutsev A, Dong X, et al. Uncovering effects of antibiotics on the host and microbiota using transkingdom gene networks. Gut. 2015;64(11):1732-1742. Epub 2015 Jan 22.
    5. Kalghatgi S, Spina CS, Costello JC, et al. Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in Mammalian cells. Sci Transl Med. 2013;5(192):192ra85.
    6. Macfarlane S, Woodmansey EJ, Macfarlane GT. Colonization of mucin by human intestinal bacteria and establishment of biofilm communities in a two-stage continuous culture system. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71(11):7483-7492.
    7. Macfarlane S, Dillon JF. Microbial biofilms in the human gastrointestinal tract. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102(5):1187-1196.
    8. Macfarlane S, Bahrami B, Macfarlane GT. Mucosal biofilm communities in the human intestinal tract. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2011;75:111-143.


Ting Fu et al. FXR Regulates Intestinal Cancer Stem Cell ProliferationCell, 2019; 176 (5): 1098 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.036.

Xin Wu, Jing Shi, Wan-xia Fang, Xiao-yu Guo, Ling-yun Zhang, Yun-peng Liu, Zhi Li. Allium vegetables are associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer: A hospital-based matched case-control study in ChinaAsia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2019; DOI: 10.1111/ajco.13133


Lupus nephritis is linked to disease-activity associated expansions and immunity to a gut commensal. Doua Azzouz et al. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. Published Online First: 19 February 2019. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214856.

 Old age-associated phenotypic screening for Alzheimer’s disease drug candidates identifies sterubin as a potent neuroprotective compound from Yerba santa

Wolfgang Fischer, Antonio Currais, Zhibin Liang, Antonio Pinto and Pamela Maher.

Redox Biology, Volume 21, February 2019, 101089

open access:

Haruki Nakamura, Akinori Hara, Hiromasa Tsujiguchi, Thao Thi Thu Nguyen, Yasuhiro Kambayashi, Sakae Miyagi, Yohei Yamada, Keita Suzuki, Yukari Shimizu, Hiroyuki Nakamura. Relationship between Dietary n-6 Fatty Acid Intake and Hypertension: Effect of Glycated Hemoglobin LevelsNutrients, 2018; 10 (12): 1825 DOI: 10.3390/nu10121825

Stephen J. Carter, Gary R. Hunter, J. Walker Blackston, Nianjun Liu, Elliot J. Lefkowitz, William J. Van Der Pol, Casey D. Morrow, Jesseca A. Paulsen, Laura Q. Rogers. Gut microbiota diversity associates with cardiorespiratory fitness in post-primary treatment breast cancer survivorsExperimental Physiology, 2019; DOI: 10.1113/EP087404.

Philip Strandwitz, Ki Hyun Kim, Darya Terekhova, Joanne K. Liu, Anukriti Sharma, Jennifer Levering, Daniel McDonald, David Dietrich, Timothy R. Ramadhar, Asama Lekbua, Nader Mroue, Conor Liston, Eric J. Stewart, Marc J. Dubin, Karsten Zengler, Rob Knight, Jack A. Gilbert, Jon Clardy, Kim Lewis. GABA-modulating bacteria of the human gut microbiotaNature Microbiology, 2018; DOI: 10.1038/s41564-018-0307-3.

Asher Preska Steinberg, Sujit S Datta, Thomas Naragon, Justin C Rolando, Said R Bogatyrev, Rustem F Ismagilov. High-molecular-weight polymers from dietary fibre drive aggregation of particulates in the murine small intestineeLife, 2019 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.40387.001.

Luoping Zhang, Iemaan Rana, Rachel M. Shaffer, Emanuela Taioli, Lianne Sheppard. Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting EvidenceMutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2019.02.001.

Petra Bacher et al. Human Anti-fungal Th17 Immunity and Pathology Rely on Cross-Reactivity against Candida albicansCell, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.041.

Puneet Seth, Paishiun N. Hsieh, Suhib Jamal, Liwen Wang, Steven P. Gygi, Mukesh K. Jain, Jeff Coller, Jonathan S. Stamler. Regulation of MicroRNA Machinery and Development by Interspecies S-NitrosylationCell, Feb. 21, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.01.037

AONM Advertorial:

1. Moutailler S, Valiente Moro C, Vaumourin E, Michelet L, Tran FH, Devillers E, et al. (2016)
Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10(3):
2. Johnson, L., Wilcox, S., Mankoff, J., & Stricker, R. B. (2014). Severity of chronic Lyme disease
compared to other chronic conditions: a quality of life survey. PeerJ, 2, e322.
3. Birtles, R. J., Laycock, G., Kenny, M. J., Shaw, S. E. & Day, M. J. (2002). Prevalence of
Bartonella species causing bacteraemia in domesticated and companion animals in the
United Kingdom. Vet Rec 151, 225–229.
5. Davies, S, Abdullah, S, Helps, C, Tasker, S, Newbury, H & Wall, R 2017, ‘Prevalence of ticks
and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain’
Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 244, pp. 129-135
7. Mansfield, K. L., Jizhou, L., Phipps, L. P., & Johnson, N. (2017). Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in
the Twenty-First Century. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 7, 298

February 2019


Martami F et al The effects of a multispecies probiotic supplement on inflammatory markers and episodic and chronic migraine characteristics: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Cephalalgia. Jan 2019.

Christian Timbol, James Baraniuk. Chronic fatigue syndrome in the emergency departmentOpen Access Emergency Medicine, 2019; Volume 11: 15 DOI: 10.2147/OAEM.S176843

Qi Dai, Xiangzhu Zhu, JoAnn E Manson, Yiqing Song, Xingnan Li, Adrian A Franke, Rebecca B Costello, Andrea Rosanoff, Hui Nian, Lei Fan, Harvey Murff, Reid M Ness, Douglas L Seidner, Chang Yu, Martha J Shrubsole. Magnesium status and supplementation influence vitamin D status and metabolism: results from a randomized trialThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 108 (6): 1249 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy274

Anne Marie Uwitonze, Mohammed S. Razzaque. Role of Magnesium in Vitamin D Activation and FunctionThe Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 2018; 118 (3): 181 DOI: 10.7556/jaoa.2018.037

Chester R, Khondoker M, Shepstone L, et al. Self-efficacy and risk of persistent shoulder pain: results of a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis

Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 09 January 2019. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-099450.

Kate L Mandeville, Rosie Barker, Alice Packham, Charlotte Sowerby, Kielan Yarrow, Hannah Patrick. Financial interests of patient organisations contributing to technology assessment at England’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: policy review.BMJ. DOI: 10.1136/BMJ.K5300

Hall, K et al. COMT modifies alpha-tocopherol effects in cancer prevention: gene-supplement interactions in two randomized clinical trialsJNCI, 2019 DOI: 10.1093/jnci/djy204.

Tamara Lucas, Richard Horton. The 21st-century great food transformationThe Lancet, 2019; DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33179-9.


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Yifan Wu, Shuqi Du, Jennifer L. Johnson, Hui-Ying Tung, Cameron T. Landers, Yuwei Liu, Brittany G. Seman, Robert T. Wheeler, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Farrah Kheradmand, Hui Zheng, David B. Corry. Microglia and amyloid precursor protein coordinate control of transient Candida cerebritis with memory deficitsNature Communications, 2019; 10 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07991-4

Kristin M. Wall, William Kilembe, Bellington Vwalika, Cecile Dinh, Paul Livingston, Yeuk-Mui Lee, Shabir Lakhi, Debi Boeras, Htee Khu Naw, Ilene Brill, Elwyn Chomba, Tyronza Sharkey, Rachel Parker, Erin Shutes, Amanda Tichacek, W. Evan Secor, Susan Allen. Schistosomiasis is associated with incident HIV transmission and death in Zambia. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2018; 12 (12): e0006902 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006902.

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Jone Tamosauskaite, Janice L Atkins, Luke C Pilling, Chia-Ling Kuo, George A Kuchel, Luigi Ferrucci, David Melzer; Hereditary Hemochromatosis Associations with Frailty, Sarcopenia and Chronic Pain: Evidence from 200,975 Older UK Biobank Participants, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, gly270,

Metabolic rewiring of macrophages by CpG potentiates clearance of cancer cells and overcomes tumor-expressed CD47−mediated ‘don’t-eat-me’ signal, Nature Immunology (2019). DOI: 10.1038/s41590-018-0292-y ,

Brooke C. Wilson, Tommi Vatanen, Wayne S. Cutfield, Justin M. O’Sullivan. The Super-Donor Phenomenon in Faecal Microbiota TransplantationFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 2019; 9 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00002

Suzanna Maria Zick, Ananda Sen, Afton Luevano Hassett, Andrew Schrepf, Gwen Karilyn Wyatt, Susan Lynn Murphy, John Todd Arnedt, Richard Edmund Harris. Impact of Self-Acupressure on Co-Occurring Symptoms in Cancer SurvivorsJNCI Cancer Spectrum, 2018; 2 (4) DOI: 10.1093/jncics/pky064

Marta Gallego et al. Peptides with Potential Cardioprotective Effects Derived from Dry-Cured Ham ByproductsJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2019; DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b05888.

Maria A Lankinen, Alexander Fauland, Bun-ichi Shimizu, Jyrki Ågren, Craig E Wheelock, Markku Laakso, Ursula Schwab, Jussi Pihlajamäki. Inflammatory response to dietary linoleic acid depends on FADS1 genotypeThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2019; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy287

Kenichiro Kinouchi, Christophe Magnan, Nicholas Ceglia, Yu Liu, Marlene Cervantes, Nunzia Pastore, Tuong Huynh, Andrea Ballabio, Pierre Baldi, Selma Masri, Paolo Sassone-Corsi. Fasting Imparts a Switch to Alternative Daily Pathways in Liver and MuscleCell Reports, 2018; 25 (12): 3299 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.077

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  1. Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency Reconsidered: Current Research Supports the Theory in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel, and Other Treatment-Resistant Syndromes. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res.2016 Jul 1;1(1):154-165. doi: 10.1089/can.2016.0009. eCollection 2016.
  2. Endocannabinoids in chronic migraine: CSF findings suggest a system failure.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Jun;32(6):1384-90. Epub 2006 Nov 22.

Sarchielli P et al.

  1. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System. Russo EB1.

Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2016 Jul;37(7):594-605. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2016 May 11.


  2. Astrup T, et al: ‘Thromboplastic and Fibrinolytic Activity of the Human Aorta.‘ Circulation Research, Volume VII, November 1959.

Nuclear receptor HNF4A transrepresses CLOCK:BMAL1 and modulates tissue-specific circadian networks. Meng Qu, Tomas Duffy, Tsuyoshi Hirota, and Steve A. Kay. PNAS published ahead of print December 10, 2018

Oral Vitamin C (500 mg/day) to Pregnant Smokers Improves Infant Airway Function at 3 Months (VCSIP): A Randomized Trial.

McEvoy CT et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Dec 7. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201805-1011OC. [Epub ahead of print].

Noah Snyder-Mackler, Joaquín Sanz, Jordan N. Kohn, Tawni Voyles, Roger Pique-Regi, Mark E. Wilson, Luis B. Barreiro, and Jenny Tung. Social status alters chromatin accessibility and the gene regulatory response to glucocorticoid stimulation in rhesus macaquesPNAS, 2018 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1811758115.

December 2018


Estimation of global insulin use for type 2 diabetes, 2018–30: a microsimulation analysis. Sanjay Basu et al. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 2018. Published online Nov 20. DOI:

Expenditures and Prices of Antihyperglycemic Medications in the United States: 2002-2013. Xinyang Hua et al. JAMA. 2016;315(13):1400-1402. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.0126

Gonzalez, PS et al. Mannose impairs tumour growth and enhances chemotherapy. Nature 2018, Nov 21. DOI:

Carole A. Federico, Taiji Wang, Adélaïde Doussau, Jeffrey S. Mogil, Dean Fergusson, Jonathan Kimmelman. Assessment of Pregabalin Postapproval Trials and the Suggestion of Efficacy for New IndicationsJAMA Internal Medicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.5705.

Blue light exposure decreases systolic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and improves endothelial function in humans. Manuel Stern et al. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2018; 204748731880007 DOI: 10.1177/2047487318800072

BEN BROWN – Nature


  1. United Nations. The World’s Cities in 2016.
  2. Natural England. Monitor of Engagement with the Natural Environment: 2015 to 2016. Results for the seventh year of the MENE survey which provides data on how people use the natural environment in England. 2015.
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participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental wellbeing than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Mar 1;45(5):1761-72.

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  8. Li Q, Kobayashi M, Inagaki H, Hirata Y, Li YJ, Hirata K, Shimizu T, Suzuki H,  Katsumata M, Wakayama Y, Kawada T, Ohira T, Matsui N, Kagawa T. A day trip to a forest park increases human natural killer activity and the expression of anti-cancer proteins in male subjects. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2010 Apr-Jun;24(2):157-65.
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  10. Nishimura Y, Takahashi K, Mase A, Kotani M, Ami K, Maeda M, Shirahama T, Lee S, Matsuzaki H, Kumagai-Takei N, Yoshitome K, Otsuki T. Enhancement of NK Cell Cytotoxicity Induced by Long-Term Living in Negatively Charged-Particle Dominant  Indoor Air-Conditions. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 14;10(7):e0132373.
  11. Lee S, Yamamoto S, Nishimura Y, Matsuzaki H, Yoshitome K, Hatayama T, Ikeda M, Yu M, Sada N, Kumagai-Takei N, Otsuki T. Decrease in Serum Amyloid a Protein Levels Following Three-month Stays in Negatively Charged Particle-dominant Indoor Air Conditions. Biomed Environ Sci. 2018 May;31(5):335-342.
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  13. Ghaly M, Teplitz D. The biological effects of grounding the human body during sleep, as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain and stress. J Altern Complement Med 2004 10(5):767-776.
  14. Sinatra ST, et al. Electric Nutrition: The Surprising Health and Healing Benefits of Biological Grounding (Earthing). Altern Ther Health Med. 2017 Sep;23(5):8-16.
  15. Probandt D, Eickhorst T, Ellrott A, Amann R, Knittel K. Microbial life on a sand grain: from bulk sediment to single grains. ISME J. 2018 Feb;12(2):623-633.
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  17. Trends Microbiol. 2015 Jun;23(6):354-66
  18. Hirano S, Yokota Y, Eda M, Kuda T, Shikano A, Takahashi H, Kimura B. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Tennozu-SU2 on Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in Human  Enterocyte-Like HT-29-Luc Cells and BALB/c Mice. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins.  2017 Mar;9(1):64-70.
  19. Komano Y, Shimada K, Naito H, Fukao K, Ishihara Y, Fujii T, Kokubo T, Daida H. Efficacy of heat-killed Lactococcus lactis JCM 5805 on immunity and fatigue during consecutive high intensity exercise in male athletes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Aug 2;15(1):39.
  20. Obregon-Tito AJ, Tito RY, Metcalf J, Sankaranarayanan K, Clemente JC, Ursell LK, Zech Xu Z, Van Treuren W, Knight R, Gaffney PM, Spicer P, Lawson P, Marin-Reyes L, Trujillo-Villarroel O, Foster M, Guija-Poma E, Troncoso-Corzo L, Warinner C, Ozga AT, Lewis CM. Subsistence strategies in traditional societies distinguish gut microbiomes. Nat Commun. 2015 Mar 25;6:6505.
  21. Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations.

Sonnenburg ED, Smits SA, Tikhonov M, Higginbottom SK, Wingreen NS, Sonnenburg JL. Nature 2016, Jan 14;529(7585):212-5

  1. Logan AC, Jacka FN, Prescott SL. Immune-Microbiota Interactions: Dysbiosis as a Global Health Issue. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016 Jan;16(2):13.

 NUTRIGENOMICS – Kara Fitzgerald

  1. Understanding the regulatory and transcriptional complexity of the genome through structure. Tim R. Mercer and John S. Mattick. Genome Res. 2013 Jul; 23(7): 1081–1088.

doi: 10.1101/gr.156612.113.

  1. Lobo, I. (2008) Epistasis: Gene interaction and the phenotypic expression of complex diseases like Alzheimer’s. Nature Education1(1):180.
  2. Major Heart Disease Genes Prove Elusive. Jennifer Couzin-Frankel. Science 04 Jun 2010: Vol. 328, Issue 5983, pp. 1220-21. DOI: 10.1126/science.328.5983.1220.
    4. The Elusive ALS Genes. Ken Garber. Science 04 Jan 2008: Vol. 319, Issue 5859, pp. 20
    DOI: 10.1126/science.319.5859.20.
    5. Genes and Autoimmune Diseases — A Complex Inheritance. Highlights of the 54th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; October 26-30, 2004; Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Sara M Mariani, PhD. MedGenMed. 2004; 6(4): 18.
  3. Combined effect of CYP1B1COMTGSTP1, and MnSODgenotypes and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. J Gynecol Oncol. 2011 Jun 30; 22(2): 110–119.

doi: 10.3802/jgo.2011.22.2.110.

  1. Association analyses of more than 140,000 men identify 63 new prostate cancer susceptibility loci. Fredrick R. Schumacher et al. Nature Genetics, 2018, 50: 928–936.
  2. Heather M. Ochs-Balcom et al. Physical activity modifies genetic susceptibility to obesity in postmenopausal women. Menopause, 2018; 1 DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001134.

Ossenkoppele R, Rabinovici GD, Smith R, et al. Discriminative Accuracy of [18F]flortaucipir Positron Emission Tomography for Alzheimer Disease vs Other Neurodegenerative Disorders. JAMA, 2018; 320 (11): 1151–1162 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2018.12917.

Adam P Spira, Yang An, Mark N Wu, Jocelynn T Owusu, Eleanor M Simonsick, Murat Bilgel, Luigi Ferrucci, Dean F Wong, Susan M Resnick. Excessive daytime sleepiness and napping in cognitively normal adults: associations with subsequent amyloid deposition measured by PiB PET. Sleep, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/sleep/zsy152.

Ross S. Mancini, Yanfei Wang, Donald F. Weaver. Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 2018; 12 DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2018.00735.


Nutritional status, brain network organization, and general intelligence

Marta K.Zamroziewicz et al. NeuroImage, Volume 161, 1 November 2017, Pages 241-250.

Maternal Dietary Choline Status Influences Brain Gray and White Matter Development in Young Pigs. Austin T Mudd et al. Current Developments in Nutrition, 2: 6, 1 June 2018,


Makrides, L Duley, SF Olsen. Fish oil and other prostaglandin precursor supplementation during pregnancy for reducing pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, low birth weight and intrauterine growth restriction. Cochrane Review, 2018 DOI:

Long-term intake of vegetables and fruits and subjective cognitive function in US men.

Changzheng Yuan, Elinor Fondell, Ambika Bhushan, Alberto Ascherio, Olivia I. Okereke, Francine Grodstein, Walter C. Willett. Neurology 2018, first published Nov 21, 2018, DOI:

Angele M. De Silva, Rían W. Manville, Geoffrey W. Abbott. Deconstruction of an African folk medicine uncovers a novel molecular strategy for therapeutic potassium channel activationScience Advances, 2018; 4 (11): eaav0824 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav0824

 Wahl D et al. Comparing the Effects of Low-Protein and High-Carbohydrate Diets and Caloric Restriction on Brain Aging in Mice. Cell Rep. 2018 Nov 20;25(8):2234-2243.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.10.070.

Salas-Huetos A et al. The Effect of Nutrients and Dietary Supplements on Sperm Quality Parameters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Advances in Nutrition, 2018; 9(6), 833-848. DOI: 10.1093/advances/nmy057.

Calorie restriction
1.  Cash A. Oxaloacetic Acid Supplementation as a Mimetic of Calorie Restriction. Open Longevity Science. 2009;3:22-7.

  1. Williams DS, Cash A, Hamadani L, Diemer T. Oxaloacetate supplementation increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans through an AMPK/FOXO-dependent pathway. Aging Cell. 2009;8(6):765-8.
  2. Shintani H, Shintani T, Ashida H, Sato M. Calorie Restriction Mimetics: Upstream-Type Compounds for Modulating Glucose Metabolism. Nutrients. 2018;10(12): open access at
  3. Lane, M.A; Ingram, D.K; Roth, G.S. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose feeding in rats mimics physiologic effects of calorie restriction. J. Anti Aging Med. 1998, 1, 327-337.

Gut-brain mechanism
1. Pellegrini C et al (2018) Interplay among gut microbiota, intestinal mucosal barrier and enteric neuro-immune system: a common path to neurodegenerative diseases? Acta Neuropathol 136:345. doi:10.1007/s00401-018-1856-5.

  1. Kaelberer et al (2018) A gut-brain neural circuit for nutrient sensory transduction. Science 361(6408):eaat5236. doi:10.1126/science.aat5236.
  2. Bohórquez and Liddle (2015) The gut connectome: making sense of what you eat. J Clin Invest125(3):888–890. doi:10.1172/JCI81121.


  1. Urolithin A induces mitophagy and prolongs lifespan in C. elegansand increases muscle function in rodents. Dongryeol Ryu et al. Nature Medicine 2016, 22: 879–88.
  2. Does larch arabinogalactan enhance immune function? A review of mechanistic and clinical trials. Carine Dion, Eric Chappuis, and Christophe Ripoll. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2016, 13: 28, doi:  10.1186/s12986-016-0086-x.
November 2018


 Precision identification of diverse bloodstream pathogens in the gut microbiome. Tamburini FB, Andermann TM, Tkachenko E, Senchyna F, Banaei N, Bhatt AS. Nat Med. 2018 Oct 15. doi: 10.1038/s41591-018-0202-8.

Development of the Highly Processed Food Withdrawal Scale. Appetite 2018,

Vol 131, 1 December, 148-154.

Bruce N. Ames. Prolonging healthy ageing: Longevity vitamins and proteins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1809045115 

Bruce N. Ames. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of ageing through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage. PNAS November 21, 2006 103 (47) 17589-17594;


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  2. Da Costa K.A., Badea M., Fischer L.M., Zeisel S.H. Elevated serum creatine phosphokinase in choline-deficient humans: Mechanistic studies in C2C12 mouse myoblasts. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2004;80:163–170.
  3. Da Costa K.A., Niculescu M.D., Craciunescu C.N., Fischer L.M., Zeisel S.H. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006;84:88–94.
  4. Zeisel SH, da Costa KA. Choline: an essential nutrient for public health. Nutr Rev. 2009 Nov;67(11):615-23.
  5. Bidulescu A, Chambless LE, Siega-Riz AM, Zeisel SH, Heiss G. Repeatability and measurement error in the assessment of choline and betaine dietary intake: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Nutr J 2009, 8(1): 14.
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  8. Ganz AB, Klatt KC, Caudill MA. Common Genetic Variants Alter Metabolism and Influence Dietary Choline Requirements. Nutrients. 2017 Aug 4;9(8).
  9. Ganz AB, Shields K, Fomin VG, Lopez YS, Mohan S, Lovesky J, Chuang JC, Ganti A, Carrier B, Yan J, Taeswuan S, Cohen VV, Swersky CC, Stover JA, Vitiello GA, Malysheva OV, Mudrak E, Caudill MA. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the  expense of betaine synthesis. FASEB J. 2016 Oct;30(10):3321-3333.
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  16. Zeisel SH. Nutrition in pregnancy: the argument for including a source of choline. Int J Womens Health. 2013 Apr 22;5:193-9.
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  19. Ross RG, Hunter SK, Hoffman MC, McCarthy L, Chambers BM, Law AJ, Leonard S, Zerbe GO, Freedman R. Perinatal Phosphatidylcholine Supplementation and Early Childhood Behavior Problems: Evidence for CHRNA7 Moderation. Am J Psychiatry. 2016 May 1;173(5):509-16.
  20. Ideraabdullah FY, Zeisel SH. Dietary Modulation of the Epigenome. Physiol Rev. 2018 Apr 1;98(2):667-695.
  21. Stephenson J, Heslehurst N, Hall J, Schoenaker DAJM, Hutchinson J, Cade JE, Poston L, Barrett G, Crozier SR, Barker M, Kumaran K, Yajnik CS, Baird J, Mishra  GD. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health. Lancet. 2018 May 5;391(10132):1830-1841.


Mingfei Zhao, Brian W Whitcomb, Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe, JoAnn E Manson, Susan E Hankinson, Bernard A Rosner, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson. Physical activity is not related to risk of early menopause in a large prospective studyHuman Reproduction, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/humrep/dey267.

Yashvee Dunneram, Darren Charles Greenwood, Victoria J Burley, Janet E Cade. Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort StudyJournal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2018; DOI: 10.1136/jech-2017-209887

  1. Reduce hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms: a beneficial proprietary Siberian rhubarb root extract, Kristen Haabala, ND, and Mark Kaye, DC. Naturopathic Doctor News and Review, posted Dec 7, 2012:
    2. A Non-Hormone Approach to Menopause Management, by Stephanie Clark. Life Extension Magazine, October 2018.

Fiona S Atkinson, Dale Hancock, Peter Petocz, Jennie C Brand-Miller. The physiologic and phenotypic significance of variation in human amylase gene copy number. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 108 (4): 737 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy164

  1. Falchi et al. Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity. Nature Genetics, 2014 DOI: 10.1038/ng.2939

Endogenous metabolites of vitamin E limit inflammation by targeting 5-lipoxygenase. Nature Communications, 2018; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-06158-5.

Suleiman Furmli, Rami Elmasry, Megan Ramos, Jason Fung. Therapeutic use of intermittent fasting for people with type 2 diabetes as an alternative to insulinBMJ Case Reports, 2018; bcr-2017-221854 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2017-221854

White J, Xiong S, Malvin N, Khoury-Hanold W, Heuckeroth R, Stappenbeck T, Diamond MS. Intestinal dysmotility syndromes following system infection by flaviviruses. Cell. Oct, 4, 2018.


October 2018

Jørgensen L, Gøtzsche P, Jefferson T. The Cochrane HPV vaccine review was incomplete and ignored important evidence of bias. BMJ Evid Based Med 2018, Jul 27.
Prophylactic vaccination against human papillomaviruses to prevent cervical cancer and its precursors. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2018;5:CD009069.pmid:29740819.

Index of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine industry clinical study programmes and non-industry funded studies: a necessary basis to address reporting bias in a systematic review. Syst Rev 2018;7:8. doi:10.1186/s13643-018-0675-z pmid:29347995.

HPV vaccine safety: Cochrane launches urgent investigation into review after criticisms. BMJ 2018; 362 doi: (Published 09 August 2018).

Greenhalgh T, Howick J, Maskrey N; Evidence Based Medicine Renaissance Group. Evidence based medicine: a movement in crisis? BMJ. 2014 Jun 13;348:g3725. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g3725.

 Resveratrol Supplementation Reduces Pain and Inflammation in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients Treated with Meloxicam: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study. Published Online ahead of print Journal of Medicinal Food, August 30, 2018: (Free access to October 17.)

Cell 2018 Sep 6;174(6):1388-1405.e21. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.08.041.

Personalized Gut Mucosal Colonization Resistance to Empiric Probiotics Is Associated with Unique Host and Microbiome Features.

A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of a multi-strain probiotic formulation

(Bio-Kult®) in the management of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

Ishaque et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2018, 18:71:

Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 Reduces Depression Scores and Alters Brain Activity: A Pilot Study in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Gastroenterology, Volume 153, Issue 2, August 2017, Pages 448-459.e8.

Does probiotic consumption reduce antibiotic utilization for common acute infections? A systematic review and meta-analysis 

European Journal of Public Health, cky185,

Published: 14 September 2018.

Qingqing Zhang, Yucheng Wu, Xiaoqiang Fei. Effect of probiotics on body weight and body-mass index: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trialsInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 2016; 67 (5): 571 DOI: 10.1080/09637486.2016.1181156.

Elmira Akbari, Zatollah Asemi, Reza Daneshvar Kakhaki, Fereshteh Bahmani, Ebrahim Kouchaki, Omid Reza Tamtaji, Gholam Ali Hamidi, Mahmoud Salami. Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Metabolic Status in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind and Controlled TrialFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2016; 8 DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2016.00256

Anna G. Nilsson, Daniel Sundh, Fredrik Bäckhed, Mattias Lorentzon. Lactobacillus reuteri reduces bone loss in older women with low bone mineral density – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trialJournal of Internal Medicine, 2018; DOI: 10.1111/joim.12805.


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A Phenome-Wide Association Study Uncovers a Role for Autoimmunity in the Development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, 2018; 58 (6): 777 DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2017-0409LE

Remission of Human Type 2 Diabetes Requires Decrease in Liver and Pancreas Fat Content but Is Dependent upon Capacity for β Cell Recovery. Cell Metabolism, 2018,

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Fecal Gluten Peptides Reveal Limitations of Serological Tests and Food Questionnaires for Monitoring Gluten-Free Diet in Celiac Disease Patients

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affron®, a standardised extract from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of youth anxiety and depressive symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, May 2018, 232, 349–357.


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8. Lechtenberg M, Schepmann D, Niehues M et al. Quality and functionality of saffron: quality control, species assortment and affinity of extract and isolated saffron compounds to NMDA and sigma1 (sigma-1) receptors. Planta Med 2008; 74(7): 764-772
9. Berger F, Hensel A, Nieber K. Saffron extract and trans-crocetin inhibit glutamatergic synaptic transmission in rat cortical brain slices. Neuroscience 2011; 180: 238-247
10. Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia HR. Protective effect of safranal on pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in the rat: involvement of GABAergic and opioids systems. Phytomedicine 2007; 14(4): 256-26.
11. Sadeghnia HR, Cortez MA, Liu D et al. Antiabsence effects of safranal in acute experimental seizure models: EEG and autoradiography. J Pharm Pharm Sci 2008; 11(3): 1-14.

12. Akhondzadeh S, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian MH et al. A 22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010; 207(4): 637-643
13. Akhondzadeh S, Sabet MS, Harirchian MH et al. Saffron in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a 16-week, randomized and placebo- controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010; 35(5): 581-588
14. Agha-Hosseini M, Kashani L, Aleyaseen A et al. Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomised and placebo- controlled trial. BJOG 2008; 115(4):

15. Nahid K, Fariborz M, Ataolah G et al. The effect of an Iranian herbal drug on primary dysmenorrhea: a clinical controlled trial. J Midwifery Womens Health 2009; 54(5):
16. Gout B, Bourges C, Paineau-Dubreuil S. Satiereal, a Crocus sativus L extract, reduces snacking and increases satiety in a randomized placebo-controlled study
of mildly overweight, healthy women. Nutr Res. 2010 May;30(5):305-13. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2010.04.008.
17. Falsini B, Piccardi M, Minnella A et al. Influence of saffron supplementation on retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51(12): 6118-6124
18. Professor Silvia Bisti. Researchers strike gold – saffron found to help vision loss in elderly. The University of Sydney News, 5 February 2010. au/news/84.html?newsstoryid=4452. Accessed January 2013.
19. Piccardi M, Marangoni D, Minnella AM et al. A longitudinal follow-up study of saffron supplementation in early age-related macular degeneration: sustained benefits to central retinal function. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012: 429124


Apoptotic epithelial cells control the abundance of Treg cells at barrier surfaces. Nature Immunology, 2016; DOI: 10.1038/ni.3345


Miguel’s food challenge:

Harnessing the Power of Microbiome Assessment Tools as Part of Neuroprotective Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine Interventions
by Miguel Toribio-Mateas. Microorganisms 2018, 6(2), 35;

American Gut: an Open Platform for Citizen Science Microbiome Research. mSystems. 2018 May 15;3(3). pii: e00031-18. doi: 10.1128/mSystems.00031-18. eCollection 2018 May-Jun.

Martin, C. M. and Felix-Bortolotti, M. (2010) ‘W(h)ither complexity? The emperor’s new toolkit? Or elucidating the evolution of health systems knowledge?’, J Eval Clin
Pract, 16(3), pp. 415-20.

Daniel McDonald et al. American Gut: an Open Platform for Citizen Science Microbiome Research. mSystems, 2018; 3 (3): e00031-18 DOI: 10.1128/mSystems.00031-18

Effect of a Preparation of Four Probiotics on Symptoms of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Association with Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.
Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018 Mar 5. doi: 10.1007/s12602-018-9401-3. [Epub ahead of print]


CDKN1B/p27 is localized in mitochondria and improves respiration-dependent processes in the cardiovascular system—New mode of action for caffeine. PLOS Biology, 2018; 16 (6): e2004408 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2004408

Multiscale Analysis of Independent Alzheimer’s Cohorts Finds Disruption of Molecular, Genetic, and Clinical Networks by Human Herpesvirus. Neuron, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.05.023

June 2018

Mediterranean diet and 3-year Alzheimer brain biomarker changes in middle-aged adults. Neurology. Online April 13, 2018, DOI:

Lifestyle and vascular risk effects on MRI-based biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease: a cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults from the broader New York City area. BMJ Open. 2018 Mar 23;8(3):e019362. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019362.

Counting the Cost:

Bernie Sanders opioid bill:

BEN BROWN – IBD interventions

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  40. Chassaing B, et al. Dietary emulsifiers impact the mouse gut microbiota promoting colitis and metabolic syndrome. Nature. 2015 Mar 5;519(7541):92-6
  41. Swidsinski A, Ung V, Sydora BC, et al. Bacterial overgrowth and inflammation of small intestine after carboxymethyl cellulose ingestion in genetically susceptible mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009;15(3):359–64.
  42. Roberts CL, Keita AV, Duncan SH, et al. Translocation of Crohn’s disease Escherichia coli across M-cells: contrasting effects of soluble plant fibres and emulsifiers. Gut 2010;59:1331–9.
  43. Martino JV, Van Limbergen J, Cahill LE. The role of carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose in the development of intestinal inflammation. Front Pediatr 2017;(5):96.
  44. Martino JV, Van Limbergen J, Cahill LE. The Role of Carrageenan and Carboxymethylcellulose in the Development of Intestinal Inflammation. Front Pediatr. 2017 May 1;5:96.
  45. Rodriguez-Palacios A, Harding A, Menghini P, et al. The Artificial Sweetener Splenda Promotes Gut Proteobacteria, Dysbiosis, and Myeloperoxidase Reactivity in Crohn’s Disease-Like Ileitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2018 Mar 15. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izy060. [Epub ahead of  print]
  46. Bian X, Chi L, Gao B, Tu P, Ru H, Lu K. The artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium affects the gut microbiome and body weight gain in CD-1 mice. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 8;12(6):e0178426.
  47. Bian X, Tu P, Chi L, Gao B, Ru H, Lu K. Saccharin induced liver inflammation in mice by altering the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 May 1. pii: S0278-6915(17)30223-5.
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1. ACG Clinical Guideline: The Diagnosis and Management of Idiosyncratic Drug-Induced Liver Injury. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/ajg.2014.131.
Bonkovsky also quoted in “When Green Tea Is a Bad Thing”, by Charlotte Hilton Andersen, SHAPE:
2. Determination of Catechin and Epicatechin Content in Chocolates by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. Int Sch Res Notices. 2014; 2014: 628196. Published online 2014 Oct 28. doi:  10.1155/2014/628196.

  1. Green Tea Catechins and Cardiovascular Health: An Update. Curr Med Chem. 2008; 15(18): 1840–1850. Pon Velayutham, Anandh Babu, and Dongmin Liu.
  2. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer. Nutrients. 2016 Aug; 8(8): 458. Published online 2016 Jul 28. doi:  10.3390/nu8080458
  3. Green Tea Polyphenols Stimulate Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Improve Renal Function after Chronic Cyclosporin A Treatment in Rats. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6): e65029.

Published online 2013 Jun 3. doi:  10.1371/journal.pone.0065029

Blueberry Supplementation Influences the Gut Microbiota, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats. J Nutr. 2018 Feb 1;148(2):209-219. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxx027.

Diet-driven microbiota dysbiosis is associated with vagal remodeling and obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 2017; 173: 305 DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.02.027

Oral NaHCO3 Activates a Splenic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway: Evidence That Cholinergic Signals Are Transmitted via Mesothelial Cells. The Journal of Immunology, 2018; ji1701605 DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701605

Wax Esters from the Marine Copepod Calanus finmarchicus Reduce Diet-Induced Obesity and Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders in Mice. J Nutr, 2013, doi: 10.3945/jn.113.182501.
Oil from the marine zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus improves the cardiometabolic phenotype of diet-induced obese mice. British Journal of Nutrition 2013, 110 (12): 2186-93.

Wax Esters from the Marine Copepod Calanus finmarchicus Reduce Diet-Induced Obesity and Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders in Mice. J Nutr 2014, 144 (2): 164-169.

Extract from the Marine Copepod Calanus finmarchicus Attenuates Atherogenesis in Female Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice. J Nutr 2012, 142: 508-512.
Dietary and pharmacological anti-obesogenic treatments improve myocardial metabolism in diet-induced obese mice. Poster presented at 2017 Annual Scientific Sessions, Society for Heart and Vascular Metabolism. P2.11.


  1. Mushrooms: A rich source of the antioxidants ergothioneine and glutathione. Michael D. Kalaras, John P. Richie, Ana Calcagnotto, Robert B. Beelman.  Food Chemistry, 2017; 233: 429 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.04.109
  2. The Complexity of Fungal β-Glucan in Health and Disease: Effects on the Mononuclear Phagocyte System. Camilli G, Tabouret G, Quintin J. Front Immunol.2018 Apr 16;9:673. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00673. eCollection 2018.
  3. Anti-inflammatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris might be related to its linear (1→3)-β-D-glucan. PLoS One.2014 Oct 17;9(10):e110266. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0110266. eCollection 2014.
    4. β-Glucan Reverses the Epigenetic State of LPS-Induced Immunological Tolerance. Cell, 2016; 167 (5): 1354 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.09.034
  5. Cordyceps militaris Improves Tolerance to High-Intensity Exercise After Acute and Chronic Supplementation. J Diet Suppl.2016 Jul 13:1-13. [Epub ahead of print]
  6. Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms: Emerging Brain Food for the Mitigation of Neurodegenerative Diseases. Journal of Medicinal FoodVOL. 20, NO. 1 |

Published Online: 1 Jan 2017

  1. Article online at MRL’s website:

Fasting Activates Fatty Acid Oxidation to Enhance Intestinal Stem Cell Function during Homeostasis and Aging. Cell Stem Cell, 2018; 22 (5): 769 DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2018.04.001.

Glutamine Oxidation Is Indispensable for Survival of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Metab. 2016 Apr 12;23(4):663-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2016.03.001. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Natural polyphenols as sirtuin 6 modulators. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22388-5.

Inactive Matrix Gla Protein, Arterial Stiffness, and Endothelial Function in African American Hemodialysis Patients. American Journal of Hypertension, 2018; 31 (6): 735 DOI: 10.1093/ajh/hpy049.

Effect of a high-egg diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in people with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Egg (DIABEGG) Study—randomized weight-loss and follow-up phase.  American J of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqy048

Microglial control of astrocytes in response to microbial metabolites. Nature, 2018; DOI: 10.1038/s41586-018-0119-x

The mycobiome: Role in health and disease, and as a potential probiotic target in gastrointestinal disease. Dig Liver Dis. 2017 Nov;49(11):1171-1176. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2017.08.025. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Vitamin D Switches BAF Complexes to Protect β Cells. Cell, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2018.04.013.

May 2018
JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Jan 1;178(1):17-26. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.5038.

Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology.

Chiu YH1,2Williams PL2,3Gillman MW4,5Gaskins AJ1,6Mínguez-Alarcón L7Souter I8Toth TL8Ford JB7Hauser R2,7,8Chavarro JE1,2,6EARTH Study Team.

Hum Reprod. 2015 Jun;30(6):1342-51. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dev064. Epub 2015 Mar 30. Fruit and vegetable intake and their pesticide residues in relation to semen quality among men from a fertility clinic.

Chiu YH1Afeiche MC2Gaskins AJ3Williams PL4Petrozza JC5Tanrikut C6Hauser R7Chavarro JE8.

CNN Exclusive: “The more opioids doctors prescribe, the more money they make”

Story by Aaron KesslerElizabeth Cohen and Katherine Grise. Updated 8:45 AM ET, Mon March 12, 2018:

Jonathan C Hill, David GT Whitehurst, Martyn Lewis, Stirling Bryan, Kate M Dunn, Nadine E Foster, Kika Konstantinou, Chris J Main, Elizabeth Mason, Simon Somerville, Gail Sowden, Kanchan Vohora, Elaine M Hay. Comparison of stratified primary care management for low back pain with current best practice (STarT Back): a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 2011; 378 (9802): 1560 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60937-9

What low back pain is and why we need to pay attention. Jan Hartvigsen, Mark J Hancock, Alice Kongsted, Quinette Louw, Manuela L Ferreira, Stéphane Genevay, Damian Hoy, Jaro Karppinen, Glenn Pransky, Joachim Sieper, Rob J Smeets, Martin Underwood on behalf of the Lancet Low Back Pain Series Working Group

The Lancet, March 21, 2018.

Eva Benito, Cemil Kerimoglu, Binu Ramachandran, Tonatiuh Pena-Centeno, Gaurav Jain, Roman Manuel Stilling, Md Rezaul Islam, Vincenzo Capece, Qihui Zhou, Dieter Edbauer, Camin Dean, André Fischer. RNA-Dependent Intergenerational Inheritance of Enhanced Synaptic Plasticity after Environmental EnrichmentCell Reports, 2018; 23 (2): 546 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.03.059.


  1. Redman, L.M., et al., Metabolic Slowing and Reduced Oxidative Damage with Sustained Caloric Restriction Support the Rate of Living and Oxidative Damage Theories of Aging. Cell Metab, 2018.
  2. Williams, D.S., et al., Oxaloacetate supplementation increases lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans through an AMPK/FOXO-dependent pathway. Aging Cell, 2009. 8(6): p. 765-8.
  3. Edwards, C.B., et al., Malate and Fumarate Extend Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans. PLoS One, 2013. 8(3): p. e58345.
  4. Nogueira, L., Acute Oxaloacetate Exposure Enhances Resistance to Fatigue in in vitro Mouse Soleus Muscle. FASEB Journal, 2011. 25(1104.5).

Christopher R. Martens, Blair A. Denman, Melissa R. Mazzo, Michael L. Armstrong,

Nichole Reisdorph, Matthew B. Mcqueen, Michel Chonchol, Douglas R. Seals. Chronic nicotinamide riboside supplementation is well-tolerated and elevates NAD in healthy middle-aged and older adultsNature Communications, 2018; DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-03421-7.

Hypertension – BEN BROWN

  1. Appel LJ, Brands MW, Daniels SR, Karanja N, Elmer PJ, Sacks FM; American Heart Association. Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension. 2006 Feb;47(2):296-308.
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50.  Safar ME. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for clinical hypertension. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018 Feb;15(2):97-105.51.  Jamwal S, Sharma S. Vascular endothelium dysfunction: a conservative target in metabolic disorders. Inflamm Res. 2018 Jan 25. doi: 10.1007/s00011-018-1129-8.52.  Castro-Ferreira R, Cardoso R, Leite-Moreira A, Mansilha A. The Role of Endothelial Dysfunction and Inflammation in Chronic Venous Disease. Ann Vasc Surg. 2018 Jan;46:380-393.53.  Bruno RM, Masi S, Taddei M, Taddei S, Virdis A. Essential Hypertension and Functional Microvascular Ageing. High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2018 Mar;25(1):35-40.54.  Macready AL, George TW, Chong MF, Alimbetov DS, Jin Y, Vidal A, Spencer JP, Kennedy OB, Tuohy KM, Minihane AM, Gordon MH, Lovegrove JA; FLAVURS Study Group.  Flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetables improve microvascular reactivity and inflammatory status in men at risk of cardiovascular disease–FLAVURS: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Mar;99(3):479-89.55.  John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P, Roe LS, Neil HA; Oxford Fruit and Vegetable Study Group. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Jun 8;359(9322):1969-74.56.  Varadharaj S, Kelly OJ, Khayat RN, Kumar PS, Ahmed N, Zweier JL. Role of Dietary Antioxidants in the Preservation of Vascular Function and the Modulation  of Health and Disease. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2017 Nov 1;4:64.57.  Machha A, Schechter AN. Dietary nitrite and nitrate: a review of potential mechanisms of cardiovascular benefits. Eur J Nutr. 2011 Aug;50(5):293-303.58.  d’El-Rei J, Cunha AR, Trindade M, Neves MF. Beneficial Effects of Dietary Nitrate on Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure Levels. Int J Hypertens. 2016;2016:6791519.

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CONSULTATION – Garner Thomson

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2. Marvel MK (1999) Soliciting the patient’s agenda: have we improved? JAMA; 281: 283–7.


3. Svab I (1993) The time used by the patient when he/she talks without interruptions. Aten Primaria; 11: 175–7


4. Little M (1995) Humane Medicine. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press


5. Thomson G, Khan K (2016) Magic in Practice, London:Hammersmith Health Books


6.Hagger, M. S., Koch, S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Orbell, S. (2017). The common sense model of self-regulation: Meta-analysis and test of a process model. Psychological Bulletin, 143(11), 1117-1154.



Hetland G, Johnson E, Lyberg T, Kvalheim G (2011) The mushroom AgaricusblazeiMurill elicits medicinal effects on tumor, infection, allergy, and inflammation through its modulation of innate immunity and amelioration of Th1/Th2 imbalance and inflammation. Advances in PharmacologicalSciences, Article ID 157015.

Kohda H, Tokumoto W, Sakamoto K, Fujii M, Hirai Y, Yamasaki K, Komoda Y, Nakamura H, Ishihara S, Uchida M (1985). The biologically active constituents of Ganodermalucidum (Fr.) Karst histamine release-inhibitory triterpenes. Chemical and PharmaceuticalBulletin 33, 1367-1374.

Powell M (2006) The use of Ganodermalucidum (Reishi) in the management of histamine-mediated allergic responses Townsend Letter. TheExaminer of Alternative Medicine 274, 26-30

Takimoto H, Kato H, Kaneko M, Kumazawa Y (2008) Amelioration of skewed Th1/Th2 balance in tumor-bearing and asthma-induced mice by oral administration of Agaricusblazei extracts. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 30, 747-760

Tasaka K, Akagi M, Miyoshi K, Mio M, Makino T (1988a) Anti-allergic constituents in the culture medium of Ganodermalucidum. (I) Inhibitory effect of oleic acid on histamine release. Agents Actions 23,153-156

Tasaka K, Mio M, Izushi K, Akagi M, Makino T (1988b) Anti-allergic constituents in the culture medium of Ganodermalucidum. (II) The inhibitory effect of cyclooctasulfur on histamine release. Agents Actions 23, 157-160

Milica Vukmanovic-Stejic, Emma S. Chambers, Mayte Suárez-Fariñas, Daisy Sandhu, Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Neil Patel, Elaine Agius, Katie E. Lacy, Carolin T. Turner, Anis Larbi, Veronique Birault, Mahdad Noursadeghi, Neil A. Mabbott, Malcolm H.A. Rustin, James G. Krueger, Arne N. Akbar. Enhancement of cutaneous immunity during aging by blocking p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase–induced inflammationJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.10.032


Leanne M. Redman, Steven R. Smith, Jeffrey H. Burton, Corby K. Martin, Dora Il’yasova, Eric Ravussin. Metabolic Slowing and Reduced Oxidative Damage with Sustained Caloric Restriction Support the Rate of Living and Oxidative Damage Theories of AgingCell Metabolism, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.02.019

  1. Parvez, R. R. Gerona, C. Proctor, M. Friesen, J. L. Ashby, J. L. Reiter, Z. Lui, P. D. Winchester. Glyphosate exposure in pregnancy and shortened gestational length: a prospective Indiana birth cohort studyEnvironmental Health, 2018; 17 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12940-018-0367-0

Erzsebet Polyak, Julian Ostrovsky, Min Peng, Stephen D. Dingley, Mai Tsukikawa, Young Joon Kwon, Shana E. McCormack, Michael Bennett, Rui Xiao, Christoph Seiler, Zhe Zhang, Marni J. Falk. N -acetylcysteine and vitamin E rescue animal longevity and cellular oxidative stress in pre-clinical models of mitochondrial complex I disease. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.02.013

Eneida Boteon Schmitt, Jorge Nahas-Neto, Flavia Bueloni-Dias, Priscila Ferreira Poloni, Claudio Lera Orsatti, Eliana Aguiar Petri Nahas. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Maturitas, 2018; 107: 97 DOI: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2017.10.011

Smruti Pushalkar, Mautin Hundeyin, Donnele Daley, Constantinos P. Zambirinis, Emma Kurz, Ankita Mishra, Navyatha Mohan, Berk Aykut, Mykhaylo Usyk, Luisana E. Torres, Gregor Werba, Kevin Zhang, Yuqi Guo, Qianhao Li, Neha Akkad, Sarah Lall, Benjamin Wadowski, Johana Gutierrez, Juan Andres Kochen Rossi, Jeremy W. Herzog, Brian Diskin, Alejandro Torres-Hernandez, Josh Leinwand, Wei Wang, Pardeep S. Taunk, Shivraj Savadkar, Malvin Janal, Anjana Saxena, Xin Li, Deirdre Cohen, R. Balfour Sartor, Deepak Saxena, George Miller. The Pancreatic Cancer Microbiome Promotes Oncogenesis by Induction of Innate and Adaptive Immune SuppressionCancer Discovery, 2018; DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-1134

Brandon H Hidaka, Jocelynn M Thodosoff, Elizabeth H Kerling, Holly R Hull, John Colombo, Susan E Carlson. Intrauterine DHA exposure and child body composition at 5 y: exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial of prenatal DHA supplementation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2018; 107 (1): 35 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqx007

Current Opinion in Food Science, Volume 20, April 2018, Pages 19-23. CYP7A1-rs3808607: a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with cholesterol response to functional foods YongboShe12Dylan SMacKay23James DHouse2Peter JHJones.

COMMENT by Dr Eve Pearce:

Abdullah, M. M., Cyr, A., Lépine, M.-C., Eck, P. K., Couture, P., Lamarche, B., & Jones, P. J. (2016). Common Variants in Cholesterol Synthesis– and Transport–Related Genes Associate with Circulating Cholesterol Responses to Intakes of Conventional Dairy Products in Healthy Individuals. The Journal of Nutrition, 146(5), 1008–1016.

De Castro-Orós, I., Pampín, S., Cofán, M., Mozas, P., Pintó, X., Salas-Salvadó, J., … Pocoví, M. (2011). Promoter variant −204A > C of the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene: Association with response to plant sterols in humans and increased transcriptional activity in transfected HepG2 cells. Clinical Nutrition, 30(2), 239–246.

Jenkins, D. J. A., Kendall, C. W. C., Faulkner, D., Vidgen, E., Trautwein, E. A., Parker, T. L., … Connelly, P. W. (2002). A dietary portfolio approach to cholesterol reduction: combined effects of plant sterols, vegetable proteins, and viscous fibers in hypercholesterolemia. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 51(12), 1596–604.

Juzyszyn, Z., Kurzawski, M., Lener, A., Modrzejewski, A., Pawlik, A., & Droździk, M. (2008). Cholesterol 7α-Hydrolase ( CYP7A1 ) c.−278A>C Promoter Polymorphism in Gallstone Disease Patients. Genetic Testing, 12(1), 97–100.

MacKay, D. S., Eck, P. K., Gebauer, S. K., Baer, D. J., & Jones, P. J. (2015). CYP7A1-rs3808607 and APOE isoform associate with LDL cholesterol lowering after plant sterol consumption in a randomized clinical trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 102(4), 951–957.

Rideout, T. C., Harding, S. V, & Mackay, D. S. (2012). Metabolic and genetic factors modulating subject specific LDL-C responses to plant sterol therapy. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 90(5), 509–14.

Russell, D. W. (2003). The enzymes, regulation, and genetics of bile acid synthesis. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 72(1), 137–74.

She, Y., MacKay, D. S., House, J. D., & Jones, P. J. (2018). CYP7A1-rs3808607: a single nucleotide polymorphism associated with cholesterol response to functional foods. Current Opinion in Food Science, 20, 19–23.




March 2018
IHCAN March references


Fiolet Thibault, Srour Bernard, Sellem Laury, Kesse-Guyot Emmanuelle, Allès Benjamin, Méjean Caroline et al. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and cancer risk: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort. BMJ 2018; 360 :k322.

Yumi Hurst, Haruhisa Fukuda. Effects of changes in eating speed on obesity in patients with diabetes: a secondary analysis of longitudinal health check-up data. BMJ Open, 2018; 8 (1): e019589 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019589.

Christopher D. Gardner, John F. Trepanowski, Liana C. Del Gobbo, Michelle E. Hauser, Joseph Rigdon, John P. A. Ioannidis, Manisha Desai, Abby C. King. Effect of Low-Fat vs Low-Carbohydrate Diet on 12-Month Weight Loss in Overweight Adults and the Association With Genotype Pattern or Insulin Secretion: The DIETFITS Randomized Clinical TrialJAMA, 2018; 319 (7): 667-679 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2018.0245.

Adelaida Esteban-Fernández, Irene Zorraquín-Peña, Maria D. Ferrer, Alex Mira, Begoña Bartolomé, Dolores González de Llano, M. Victoria Moreno-Arribas. Inhibition of Oral Pathogens Adhesion to Human Gingival Fibroblasts by Wine Polyphenols Alone and in Combination with an Oral ProbioticJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2018; DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b05466


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Attia Anwar, Provvidenza Maria Abruzzo, Sabah Pasha, Kashif Rajpoot, Alessandra Bolotta, Alessandro Ghezzo, Marina Marini, Annio Posar, Paola Visconti, Paul J. Thornalley, Naila Rabbani. Advanced glycation endproducts, dityrosine and arginine transporter dysfunction in autism – a source of biomarkers for clinical diagnosisMolecular Autism, 2018; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s13229-017-0183-3.


Kathleen F. Holton, Peter K. Ndege, Daniel J. Clauw. Dietary correlates of chronic widespread pain in meru, KenyaNutrition, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2018.01.016.

Adil Mardinoglu, Hao Wu, Elias Bjornson, Cheng Zhang, Antti Hakkarainen, Sari M. Räsänen, Sunjae Lee, Rosellina M. Mancina, Mattias Bergentall, Kirsi H. Pietiläinen, Sanni Söderlund, Niina Matikainen, Marcus Ståhlman, Per-Olof Bergh, Martin Adiels, Brian D. Piening, Marit Granér, Nina Lundbom, Kevin J. Williams, Stefano Romeo, Jens Nielsen, Michael Snyder, Mathias Uhlén, Göran Bergström, Rosie Perkins, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Fredrik Bäckhed, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Jan Borén. An Integrated Understanding of the Rapid Metabolic Benefits of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet on Hepatic Steatosis in Humans. Cell Metabolism, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.01.005.

Nicola McCleary, Bright I. Nwaru, Ulugbek B. Nurmatov, Hilary Critchley, Aziz Sheikh. Endogenous and exogenous sex steroid hormones in asthma and allergy in females: A systematic review and meta-analysisJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.11.034



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Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh, Kyle J. Berean, Nam Ha, Adam F. Chrimes, Kai Xu, Danilla Grando, Jian Zhen Ou, Naresh Pillai, Jos L. Campbell, Robert Brkljača, Kirstin M. Taylor, Rebecca E. Burgell, Chu K. Yao, Stephanie A. Ward, Chris S. McSweeney, Jane G. Muir, Peter R. Gibson. A human pilot trial of ingestible electronic capsules capable of sensing different gases in the gutNature Electronics, 2018; 1 (1): 79 DOI: 10.1038/s41928-017-0004-x.

Paleo diet: material supplied by Umeå universitet: – dissertation available there.

Stephen A. Fleming, Supida Monaikul, Alexander J. Patsavas, Rosaline V. Waworuntu, Brian M. Berg, Ryan N. Dilger. Dietary polydextrose and galactooligosaccharide increase exploratory behavior, improve recognition memory, and alter neurochemistry in the young pigNutritional Neuroscience, 2017; 1 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2017.1415280.

Giuseppe Faraco, David Brea, Lidia Garcia-Bonilla, Gang Wang, Gianfranco Racchumi, Haejoo Chang, Izaskun Buendia, Monica M. Santisteban, Steven G. Segarra, Kenzo Koizumi, Yukio Sugiyama, Michelle Murphy, Henning Voss, Joseph Anrather, Costantino Iadecola. Dietary salt promotes neurovascular and cognitive dysfunction through a gut-initiated TH17 responseNature Neuroscience, 2018; DOI: 10.1038/s41593-017-0059-z

Salt stats:

Irina Leonardi et al. CX3CR1 mononuclear phagocytes control immunity to intestinal fungiScience, 2018 DOI: 10.1126/science.aao1503.

Sébastien Lucas, Yasunori Omata, Jörg Hofmann, Martin Böttcher, Aida Iljazovic, Kerstin Sarter, Olivia Albrecht, Oscar Schulz, Brenda Krishnacoumar, Gerhard Krönke, Martin Herrmann, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Till Strowig, Georg Schett, Mario M. Zaiss. Short-chain fatty acids regulate systemic bone mass and protect from pathological bone loss. Nature Communications, 2018; 9 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02490-4


Yu-Jin Jung, Young-Tae Lee, Vu Le Ngo, Young-Hee Cho, Eun-Ju Ko, Sung-Moon Hong, Ki-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Jang, Joon-Suk Oh, Min-Kyung Park, Cheol-Hyun Kim, Jun Sun, Sang-Moo Kang. Heat-killed Lactobacillus casei confers broad protection against influenza A virus primary infection and develops heterosubtypic immunity against future secondary infectionScientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17487-8

Aura Raulo, Lasse Ruokolainen, Avery Lane, Katherine Amato, Rob Knight, Steven Leigh, Rebecca Stumpf, Bryan White, Karen E. Nelson, Andrea L. Baden, Stacey R. Tecot. Social behaviour and gut microbiota in red-bellied lemurs (Eulemur rubriventer): In search of the role of immunity in the evolution of socialityJournal of Animal Ecology, 2017; DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12781

Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 is a critical modulator of mast cell degranulation and stress-induced pathophysiology.

Ayyadurai S, Gibson AJ, D’Costa S, Overman EL, Sommerville LJ, Poopal AC, Mackey E, Li Y, Moeser AJ. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Dec;102(6):1299-1312. doi: 10.1189/jlb.2HI0317-088RR.

Mast cell degranulation and calcium influx are inhibited by an Echinacea purpurea extract and the alkylamide dodeca-2E,4E-dienoic acid isobutylamide.

Gulledge TV1, Collette NM1, Mackey E2, Johnstone SE1, Moazami Y3, Todd DA4, Moeser AJ2, Pierce JG5, Cech NB4, Laster SM6. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Feb 15;212:166-174. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.10.012. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Evilena Anastasiou, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Lynne A. Schepartz, Piers D. Mitchell. Infectious disease in the ancient Aegean: Intestinal parasitic worms in the Neolithic to Roman Period inhabitants of Kea, GreeceJournal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.11.006

Catherine Vilchèze, John Kim, William R. Jacobs. Vitamin C potentiates the killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid and rifampicin in miceAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2018; AAC.02165-17 DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02165-17

January 2018

Lean, Michael EJ et al. Primary care-led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open-label, cluster-randomised trial. The Lancet, 5 December 2017. DOI:

Elisabetta Lauretti, Domenico Pratic�. Effect of canola oil consumption on memory, synapse and neuropathology in the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s diseaseScientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17373-3

Monica E. Embers, Nicole R. Hasenkampf, Mary B. Jacobs, Amanda C. Tardo, Lara A. Doyle-Meyers, Mario T. Philipp, Emir Hodzic. Variable manifestations, diverse seroreactivity and post-treatment persistence in non-human primates exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi by tick feedingPLOS ONE, 2017; 12 (12): e0189071 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189071

Nicholas A. Crossland, Xavier Alvarez, Monica E. Embers. Late Disseminated Lyme Disease: Associated Pathology and Spirochete Persistence Post-Treatment in Rhesus MacaquesThe American Journal of Pathology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.11.005

J Public Health Policy. 2017 Nov 27. doi: 10.1057/s41271-017-0095-7. [Epub ahead of print]. Complexity and conflicts of interest statements: a case-study of emails exchanged between Coca-Cola and the principal investigators of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE).

Stuckler D1, Ruskin G2, McKee M3. Open Access:


Louisa E. Jeffery, Peter Henley, Nefisa Marium, Andrew Filer, David M. Sansom, Martin Hewison, Karim Raza. Decreased sensitivity to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in T cells from the rheumatoid jointJournal of Autoimmunity, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.jaut.2017.10.001

Shweta Khanna, Kumar Sagar Jaiswal, Bhawna Gupta. Managing Rheumatoid Arthritis with Dietary InterventionsFrontiers in Nutrition, 2017; 4 DOI: 10.3389/fnut.2017.00052

  1. Loukov, S. Karampatos, M.R. Maly, D.M.E. Bowdish. Monocyte activation is elevated in women with knee-osteoarthritis and associated with inflammation, BMI and painOsteoarthritis and Cartilage, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.joca.2017.10.018

Diddier Prada, Jia Zhong, Elena Colicino, Antonella Zanobetti, Joel Schwartz, Nicholas Dagincourt, Shona C Fang, Itai Kloog, Joseph M Zmuda, Michael Holick, Luis A Herrera, Lifang Hou, Francesca Dominici, Benedetta Bartali, Andrea A Baccarelli. Association of air particulate pollution with bone loss over time and bone fracture risk: analysis of data from two independent studiesThe Lancet Planetary Health, 2017; 1 (8): e337 DOI: 10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30136-5

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 28;114(13):3503-3508. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1618545114. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial.

Zhong J1, Karlsson O2,3, Wang G4, Li J5,6, Guo Y7, Lin X8, Zemplenyi M7, Sanchez-Guerra M9, Trevisi L10, Urch B11,12,13,14, Speck M11, Liang L7, Coull BA7, Koutrakis P10, Silverman F11,12,13,14, Gold DR10,15, Wu T5,6, Baccarelli AA16.

A.A. Macintosh et al. Prehistoric women’s manual labor exceeded that of athletes through the first 5500 years of farming in Central EuropeScience Advances, 2017 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao3893


Omar Al Rifai, Jacqueline Chow, Julie Lacombe, Catherine Julien, Denis Faubert, Delia Susan-Resiga, Rachid Essalmani, John W.M. Creemers, Nabil G. Seidah, Mathieu Ferron. Proprotein convertase furin regulates osteocalcin and bone endocrine functionJournal of Clinical Investigation, 2017; 127 (11): 4104 DOI: 10.1172/JCI93437

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PMCID: PMC4611080. Yogurt drink fortified with menaquinone-7 improves vitamin K status in a healthy population

Marjo H. J. Knapen,1 Lavienja A. J. L. M. Braam,1 Kirsten J. Teunissen,1 Renate M. L. Zwijsen,2 Elke Theuwissen,1 andCees Vermeer1,*

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24. Dancey CP, Taghavi M, Fox RJ. The relationship between daily stress and symptoms of irritable bowel: a time-series approach. J Psychosom Res 1998, May;44(5):537-45.
25. Shaw G et al. Stress management for irritable bowel syndrome: a controlled trial.
Digestion. 1991;50(1):36-42.
26. Koh J. H, Suh H. J, Ahn T. Hot-water extract from mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis as a substitute for antibiotic growth promoters. Biotechnol Lett 2003a, 25:585–90.
27. Macpherson AJ, Marrinic MM, Harris N. The functions of mucosal T-cells in containing the indigenous commensal flora of the intestine. Cell Mol Life Sci 2002, 59:2088–96.

NUTRIGENOMICS – Bernie Williams
I. Hara K et al., The Pro12Ala Polymorphism in PPAR𝛾2 may confer resistance to type 2 diabetes. Biochem Biophys. Res. Comm. (2000) 29:212-216
II. Stefan N. et al., Effect of experimental elevation of free fatty acids on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in healthy carriers of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 gene. Diabetes. (2001) 50:1143–1148
III. Vaquero AR et al. Using gene-network landscape to dissect genotype effects of TCF7L2 genetic variant on diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Physiol. Genomics. (2012) 44:903–14
IV. Shaffer S A et al. Impaired glucagon-like peptide-1-induced insulin secretion in carriers of transcription factor 7-like 2 gene polymorphisms. Diabetes. (2007)12: 2443-50
V. Grant S et al. Variant of Transcription factor 7-like 2 gene confers risk of type 2 diabetes. Nature. (2006) 38: 320-323
VI. Scheller J et al., The pro-and-anti-inflammatory properties of the cytokine interleukin-6. Biochim et Biophys Acta – Mol Cell Res. (2011) 1813:5 878-888
VII. Ligthart S et al., DNA methylation signatures of chronic low grade inflammation are associated with complex diseases. (2016) Genome Biology 17:255
VIII. Brustolin S et al., Genetics of homocysteine metabolism and associated disorders. Braz J Med Biol Res (2010) 43:1-7
IX. Lim U & Song M, Dietary and Lifestyle Factors of DNA methylation. Cancer Epigenetics (2012) 863:359-376
X. Bokor S et al., Single nucleotide polymorphism in the FADS gene cluster are associated with delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase activities estimated by serum fatty acid ratios. Journal of Lipid Research (2010) 51:2325-33.
XI. Vessby B et al,. Desaturation and elongation of Fatty acids and insulin action. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (2002) 967:183-95.
XII. Leffler D et al., Extraintestinal manifestations of coeliac disease. Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol.Hepatol. (2015) 12: 561-571
XIII. Monsuur et al., Effective detection of human leukocyte antigen risk alleles in celiac disease using tag single nucleotide polymorphisms. PLoS ONE. (2008) 3:e2270
XIV. Withoff S, et al., Understanding celiac disease by genomics. Trends in Genetics. (2016) 32:295-308.

FRONTIERS – Simon Mills
Aggarwal BB.(2004) Nuclear factor-kappaB: the enemy within. Cancer Cell 6(3): 203-208.
Barnard RJ, Aronson WJ. (2009) Benign prostatic hyperplasia: does lifestyle play a role? Phys Sportsmed 37(4): 141-146.
Barry MJ, Meleth S, Lee JY, et al (2011). Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto extract on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Urological Symptoms (CAMUS) Study Group. JAMA. 306(12):1344-51.
Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. (1997) Cucurbita pepo L. Fitoterapia 68(4): 291-302.
Bone K, Mills S. (2013) Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy; 2nd Edition. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh
Capodice JL, Gorroochurn P, Cammack S et al. (2009) Zyflamend in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: results of a phase I clinical trial. J Soc Integr Oncol 7(2): 43-51.
Demark-Wahnefried W, Polascik TJ, George SL et al. (2008) Flaxseed supplementation (not dietary fat restriction) reduces prostate cancer proliferation rates in men presurgery. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17(12): 3577-3587.
Freedland SJ, Aronson WJ. (2009) Dietary intervention strategies to modulate prostate cancer risk and prognosis. Curr Opin Urol 19(3): 263-267.
Gardner CD, Oelrich B, Liu JP et al. (2009) Prostatic soy isoflavone concentrations exceed serum levels after dietary supplementation. Prostate 69(7): 719-726.
Jacobs EJ, Rodriguez C, Mondul AM et al. (2005) A large cohort study of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and prostate cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 97(13): 975-980.
John H, Barghorn A, Funke G et al. (2001) Noninflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome: immunological study in blood, ejaculate and prostate tissue. Eur Urol 39(1): 72-78.
Kell JS. (2010) Prostate-specific antigen tests and prostate cancer screening: an update for primary care physicians. Can J Urol 17(Suppl 1): 18-25.
Kramer G, Mitteregger D, Marberger M (2007). Is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) an immune inflammatory disease? Eur Urol 51(5): 1202-1216.
Krieger JN. (2004) Classification, epidemiology and implications of chronic prostatitis in North America, Europe and Asia. Minerva Urol Nefrol 56(2): 99-107.
McCann MJ, Gill CI, Linton T et al. (2008) Enterolactone restricts the proliferation of the LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line in vitro. Mol Nutr Food Res 52(5): 567-580.
Mehik A, Hellstrom P, Sarpola A et al. (2001) Fears, sexual disturbances and personality features in men with prostatitis: a population-based cross-sectional study in Finland. BJU Int 88(1): g35-38.
Mills S. (2001) Benign prostatic disease: herbal approaches in Boyd & Hamilton-Stewart eds. Key advances in the effective management of benign prostatic disease. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, London. 35-40
Moul S, McVary KT. (2010) Lower urinary tract symptoms, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Curr Opin Urol 20(1): 7-12.
Parsons JK, Im R. (2009) Alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 182(4): 1463-1468.
Parsons JK, Sarma AV, McVary K et al. (2009) Obesity and benign prostatic hyperplasia: clinical connections, emerging etiological paradigms and future directions. J Urol 182(6 Suppl): S27-S31.
Parsons JK. (2007) Modifiable risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms: new approaches to old problems. J Urol 178(2): 395-401.
Patel AR, Klein EA. (2009) Risk factors for prostate cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urology 6(2): 87-95.
Ranjan P, Dalela D, Sankhwar SN. (2006) Diet and benign prostatic hyperplasia: implications for prevention. Urology 68(3): 470-476.
Roehrbornb CG (2008). Pathology of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Int J Impot Res 20(Suppl 3): S11-S18.
Safarinejad MR. (2005) Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Herbal Pharmacother 5(4): 1-11.
Sarma AV, Kellogg Parsons J. (2009) Diabetes and benign prostatic hyperplasia: emerging clinical connections. Curr Urol Rep 10(4): 267-275.
Sarma AV, Parsons JK, McVary K et al. (2009) Diabetes and benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms-what do we know? J Urol 182(6 Suppl): S32-S37.
Schoonen WM, Salinas CA, Kiemeney LALM et al. (2005) Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men. Int J Cancer 113(1): 133-140.
Sciarra A, Mariotti G, Salciccia S et al. (2008) Prostate growth and inflammation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 108(3-5): 254-260.
Sea J, Poon KS, McVary KT. (2009) Review of exercise and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Phys Sportsmed 37(4): 75-83.
Singh RP, Tyagi AK, Dhanalakshmi S et al. (2004) Grape seed extract inhibits advanced human prostate tumor growth and angiogenesis and upregulates insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Int J Cancer 108(5): 733-740.
Tacklind J, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Wilt TJ. (2009) Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD001423.
Van Patten CL, de Boer JG, Tomlinson Guns ES. (2008) Diet and dietary supplement intervention trials for the prevention of prostate cancer recurrence: a review of the randomized controlled trial evidence. J Urol 180(6): 2314-2322.
Vikram A, Jena G, Ramarao P. (2010) Insulin-resistance and benign prostatic hyperplasia: the connection. Eur J Pharmacol 641(2-3): 75-81.
Wilt T, Ishani A, MacDonald R. (2002) Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001423.
Yan L, Spitznagel EL. (2009) Soy consumption and prostate cancer risk in men: a revisit of a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 89(4): 1155-1163.
Yassin AA, El-Sakka AI, Saad F et al. (2008) Lower urinary-tract symptoms and testosterone in elderly men. World J Urol 26(4): 359-364.

IN PRACTICE – Daniela Lawler.

Atkinson, W et al 2004. Food elimination based on IgG antibodies in irritable bowel syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Gut, 53 Pp: 1391-1393.
Cantorna, M. Mahon, B. 2004. Mounting Evidence for Vitamin D as an Environmental Factor Affecting Autoimmune Disease Prevalence. EBM, 229(11).
Heitzer, T et al 2001. Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. Circulation, 104 Pp: 2673-2678. June 2017.
Hyde, J. (2015). The Gut Makeover. (Great Britain. Quercus).
Kharrazian, D (2010). Why Do I Still Have Thyroid Symptoms?. (California. Elephant Press) p25, 31.
Lewis, C. (2016). Enteroimmunology. 3rd ed (Carrabelle Florida. PsyPress), p246.
Liblau, R. 1995. Th1 and Th2 CD4+ T cells in the pathogenesis of organ specific autoimmune disease. Immunology Today, 16(1). Pp: 34-38.


Chunxu Gao, Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Zhongcheng Shi, Rajesh Rasik Shah, Robert Fultz, Angela Major, Susan Venable, Monica Lugo, Kathleen Hoch, Xiaowei Chen, Anthony Haag, Timothy C. Wang, James Versalovic. Gut Microbe–Mediated Suppression of Inflammation-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis by Luminal Histamine Production. The American Journal of Pathology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.06.011

Lori D’Ortenzio, Isabelle Ribot, Bonnie Kahlon, Benoit Bertrand, Emmy Bocaege, Emeline Raguin, Annabelle Schattmann, Megan Brickley. The rachitic tooth: The use of radiographs as a screening technique. International Journal of Paleopathology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpp.2017.10.001

Haris Majeed, G. W. K. Moore. Impact of Multidecadal Climate Variability on United Kingdom Rickets Rates. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-16058-1
Francesca Romana Mancini, Aurélie Affret, Courtney Dow, Beverley Balkau, Fabrice Bonnet, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Guy Fagherazzi. Dietary antioxidant capacity and risk of type 2 diabetes in the large prospective E3N-EPIC cohort. Diabetologia, 2017; DOI: 10.1007/s00125-017-4489-7

Nicola Wilck et al. Salt-responsive gut commensal modulates TH17 axis and disease. Nature, 2017; DOI: 10.1038/nature24628

November 2017
Joseph Jamnik, Christopher R Villa, Sirbarinder Bryn Dhir, David J A Jenkins, Ahmed El-Sohemy. Prevalence of positive coeliac disease serology and HLA risk genotypes in a multiethnic population of adults in Canada: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 2017; 7 (10): bmjopen-2017-017678 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017678.

Luke T. Stewart, Anas U. Khan, Kai Wang, Diana Pizarro, Sandipan Pati, Susan C. Buckingham, Michelle L. Olsen, John C. Chatham, Lori L. McMahon. Acute Increases in Protein O-GlcNAcylation Dampen Epileptiform Activity in Hippocampus. The Journal of Neuroscience, 2017; 37 (34): 8207 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0173-16.2017.

Ken-ichi Kudo, Tadashi Hanafusa and Toshiro Ono.  In vitro analysis of radioprotective effect of monoterpenes. J Radioanal Nucl Chem (2017) 313: 169.

Laura M. Kemppainen, Teemu T. Kemppainen, Jutta A. Reippainen, Suvi T. Salmenniemi, Pia H. Vuolanto. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Europe: Health-related and sociodemographic determinants. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2017; 140349481773386 DOI: 10.1177/1403494817733869.

Olga Bednarska, Susanna A. Walter, Maite Casado-Bedmar, Magnus Ström, Eloísa Salvo-Romero, Maria Vicario, Emeran A. Mayer, Åsa V Keita. VIP and Mast Cells Regulate Increased Passage of Colonic Bacteria in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Gastroenterology, 2017; DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.06.051

BEN BROWN – Nickel

1.             Schram SE, Warshaw EM, Laumann A. Nickel hypersensitivity: a clinical review and call to action. Int J Dermatol. 2010 Feb;49(2):115-25.2.             Yoshihisa Y, Shimizu T. Metal allergy and systemic contact dermatitis: an overview. Dermatol Res Pract. 2012;2012:749561.3.             Torres F, das Graças M, Melo M, Tosti A. Management of contact dermatitis due to nickel allergy: an update. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2009 Apr 17;2:39-48.4.             Sharma AD. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 Sep-Oct;73(5):307-12.5.             Jensen CS, Menné T, Lisby S, Kristiansen J, Veien NK. Experimental systemic contact dermatitis from nickel: a dose-response study. Contact Dermatitis. 2003 Sep;49(3):124-32.6.             Ysart G, Miller P, Crews H, Robb P, Baxter M, De L’Argy C, Lofthouse S, Sargent C, Harrison N. Dietary exposure estimates of 30 elements from the UK Total Diet Study. Food Addit Contam. 1999 Sep;16(9):391-403. 7.             Krecisz B, Chomiczewska D, Kiec-Swierczynska M, Kaszuba A. Systemic contact dermatitis to nickel present in cocoa in 14-year-old boy. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011 May-Jun;28(3):335-6. 8.             Silvestri DL, Barmettler S. Pruritus ani as a manifestation of systemic contact dermatitis: resolution with dietary nickel restriction. Dermatitis. 2011  Jan-Feb;22(1):50-5.

  1. Rizzi A, Nucera E, Laterza L, et al. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Nickel Allergy: What Is the Role of the Low Nickel Diet? J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Jan 30;23(1):101-108.

10.         Sharma AD. Relationship between nickel allergy and diet. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 Sep-Oct;73(5):307-12.11.         Saito M, Arakaki R, Yamada A, Tsunematsu T, Kudo Y, Ishimaru N. Molecular Mechanisms of Nickel Allergy. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Feb 2;17(2).12.         Minelli M, Schiavino D, Musca F, et al. Oral hyposensitization to nickel induces clinical improvement and a decrease in TH1 and TH2 cytokines in patients with systemic nickel allergy syndrome. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010 Jan-Mar;23(1):193-201.

  1. Picarelli A, Di Tola M, Vallecoccia A, Libanori V, Magrelli M, Carlesimo M, et al. Oral mucosa patch test: a new tool to recognize and study the adverse effects of dietary nickel exposure. Biol Trace Elem Res 2011; 139: 151-9.

14.         Braga M, Quecchia C, Perotta C, Timpini A, Maccarinelli K, Di Tommaso L, Di Gioacchino M. Systemic nickel allergy syndrome: nosologic framework and usefulness of diet regimen for diagnosis. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2013 Jul-Sep;26(3):707-16.15.         Borghini R, Donato G, Alvaro D, Picarelli A. New insights in IBS-like disorders: Pandora’s box has been opened; a review. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench. 2017 Spring;10(2):79-89.

  1. Tammaro A, De Marco G, Persechino S, Narcisi A, Camplone G. Allergy to nickel: first results on patients administered with an oral hyposensitization therapy. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2009 Jul-Sep;22(3):837-40.


Roopa Hebbandi Nanjundappa, Francesca Ronchi, Jinguo Wang, Xavier Clemente-Casares, Jun Yamanouchi, Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Yang Yang, Jesús Blanco, Helena Bassolas-Molina, Azucena Salas, Hamza Khan, Robyn M. Slattery, Madeleine Wyss, Catherine Mooser, Andrew J. Macpherson, Laura K. Sycuro, Pau Serra, Derek M. McKay, Kathy D. McCoy, Pere Santamaria. A Gut Microbial Mimic that Hijacks Diabetogenic Autoreactivity to Suppress Colitis. Cell, 2017; 171 (3): 655 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.022

Membrane Lipid Replacement – Mike Ash
[i] Nicolson GL, Ash ME.  Membrane Lipid Replacement for chronic illnesses, aging and cancer using oral glycerolphospholipid formulations with fructooligosaccharides to restore phospholipid function in cellular membranes, organelles, cells and tissues. Biochim. Biophys. Acta  2017; 1859: 1704-1724.  View Full Paper
[ii] Nicolson GL.  Membrane Lipid Replacement: clinical studies using a natural medicine approach to restoring membrane function and improving health.  Intern. J. Clin. Med. 2016; 7: 133-143. View Full Paper
[iii] Nicolson GL, Rosenblatt S, Ferreira de Mattos G, Settineri R, Breeding PC, Ellithorpe RR,  Ash ME.  Clinical uses of Membrane Lipid Replacement supplements in restoring membrane function and reducing fatigue in chronic diseases and cancer.  Discoveries 2016; 4(1): e54. View Full Paper
[iv] Singer, SJ, Nicolson GL The fluid mosaic model of the structure of cell membranes, Science 1972; 175: 720-731. View Abstract
[v] Nicolson GL. The Fluid—Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure: still relevant to understanding the structure, function and dynamics of biological membranes after more than 40 years. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 2014; 1838: 1451-1466. View Full Paper

Rosshart et al. Wild Mouse Gut Microbiota Promotes Host Fitness and Improves Disease Resistance. Cell, 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.09.016.

Troy D. Hubbard, Iain A. Murray, Robert G. Nichols, Kaitlyn Cassel, Michael Podolsky, Guray Kuzu, Yuan Tian, Phillip Smith, Mary J. Kennett, Andrew D. Patterson, Gary H. Perdew. Dietary broccoli impacts microbial community structure and attenuates chemically induced colitis in mice in an Ah receptor dependent manner. Journal of Functional Foods, 2017; 37: 685 DOI: 10.1016/j.jff.2017.08.038.

Christopher L. Hager, Mahmoud A. Ghannoum. The mycobiome: Role in health and disease, and as a potential probiotic target in gastrointestinal disease. Digestive and Liver Disease, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.dld.2017.08.025.

Tiffani Alvey Jones, Diane Z. Hernandez, Zoë C. Wong, Anica M. Wandler, Karen Guillemin. The bacterial virulence factor CagA induces microbial dysbiosis that contributes to excessive epithelial cell proliferation in the Drosophila gut. PLOS Pathogens, 2017; 13 (10): e1006631 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006631


Dorothy K. Sit, James McGowan, Christopher Wiltrout, Rasim Somer Diler, John (Jesse) Dills, James Luther, Amy Yang, Jody D. Ciolino, Howard Seltman, Stephen R. Wisniewski, Michael Terman, Katherine L. Wisner. Adjunctive Bright Light Therapy for Bipolar Depression: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2017; appi.ajp.2017.1 DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16101200

Xiangyun Zhu et al. Effects of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition & Metabolism 2017,14:60.

Kootte et al. Improvement of insulin sensitivity after lean donor feces in metabolic syndrome is driven by baseline intestinal microbiota composition. Cell Metabolism, 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.09.008

Katherine McGuire, J.Antonio Avina-Zubieta, John M. Esdaile, Mohsen Sadatsafavi, Eric C. Sayre, Michal Abrahamowicz, Diane Lacaille. Risk of Incident Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Population Based Cohort Study. Arthritis Care & Research, 2017; DOI: 10.1002/acr.23410.

Ian J. Wallace et al. Knee osteoarthritis has doubled in prevalence since the mid-20th century PNAS 2017 114 (35) 9332-9336; doi:10.1073/pnas.1703856114

Timothy Heisel, Emmanuel Montassier, Abigail Johnson, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Yi-Wei Lin, Li-Na Wei, Dan Knights, Cheryl A. Gale. High-Fat Diet Changes Fungal Microbiomes and Interkingdom Relationships in the Murine Gut. mSphere, October 2017 DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00351-17.

Wendy S White, Yang Zhou, Agatha Crane, Philip Dixon, Frits Quadt, Leonard M Flendrig. Modeling the dose effects of soybean oil in salad dressing on carotenoid and fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability in salad vegetables. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2017; 106 (4): 1041 DOI: 10.3945/%u200Bajcn.117.153635

October 2017
IHCAN October references


Nisha Rao, Henry A. Spiller, Nichole L. Hodges, Thiphalak Chounthirath, Marcel J. Casavant, Amrit K. Kamboj, Gary A. Smith. An Increase in Dietary Supplement Exposures Reported to US Poison Control Centers. Journal of Medical Toxicology, 2017; DOI: 10.1007/s13181-017-0623-7.

Crawley EM, Gaunt DM, Garfield K, et al. Clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Lightning Process in addition to specialist medical care for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome: randomised controlled trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Published Online First: 20 September 2017. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-313375.

Chunxu Gao, Bhanu Priya Ganesh, Zhongcheng Shi, Rajesh Rasik Shah, Robert Fultz, Angela Major, Susan Venable, Monica Lugo, Kathleen Hoch, Xiaowei Chen, Anthony Haag, Timothy C. Wang, James Versalovic. Gut Microbe–Mediated Suppression of Inflammation-Associated Colon Carcinogenesis by Luminal Histamine Production. The American Journal of Pathology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2017.06.011

NEW RELEASES – migraine

Lidiane Lima Florencio, Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira, Gabriela Ferreira Carvalho, Fabiola Dach, Marcelo Eduardo Bigal, César Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Débora Bevilaqua-Grossi. Association Between Severity of Temporomandibular Disorders and the Frequency of Headache Attacks in Women With Migraine: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 2017; 40 (4): 250 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2017.02.006.

BEN BROWN: Alzheimer’s


1.             Beilharz JE, Maniam J, Morris MJ. Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits: The Role of Fat and Sugar, Potential Mechanisms and Nutritional Interventions. Nutrients. 2015 Aug 12;7(8):6719-38.2.             Petersson SD, Philippou E. Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Function, and Dementia: A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Adv Nutr. 2016 Sep 15;7(5):889-904.3.             McMillan L, Owen L, Kras M, Scholey A. Behavioural effects of a 10-day Mediterranean diet. Results from a pilot study evaluating mood and cognitive performance. Appetite. 2011 Feb;56(1):143-7.

  1. Smith PJ, Blumenthal JA, Babyak MA, Craighead L, Welsh- Bohmer KA, Browndyke JN, et al. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, exercise, and caloric restriction on neurocognition in overweight adults with high blood pressure. Hypertension 2010;55:1331–8.

5.             Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Clavero P, Toledo E, Estruch R, Salas-Salvadó J, San Julián B, Sanchez-Tainta A, Ros E, Valls-Pedret C, Martinez-Gonzalez MÁ. Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013 Dec;84(12):1318-25.6.             Valls-Pedret C, Sala-Vila A, Serra-Mir M, Corella D, de la Torre R, Martínez-González MÁ, Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Fitó M, Pérez-Heras A, Salas-Salvadó J, Estruch R, Ros E. Mediterranean Diet and Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jul;175(7):1094-103.7.             Knight A, Bryan J, Wilson C, Hodgson JM, Davis CR, Murphy KJ. The Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Function among Healthy Older Adults in a 6-Month Randomised Controlled Trial: The MedLey Study. Nutrients. 2016 Sep 20;8(9).8.             Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang Y, Sacks FM, Barnes LL, Bennett DA, Aggarwal NT. MIND diet slows cognitive decline with aging. Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Sep;11(9):1015-22.9.             Morris MC, Tangney CC, Wang Y, Sacks FM, Bennett DA, Aggarwal NT. MIND diet associated with reduced incidence of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Sep;11(9):1007-14.

  1. Morris MC. MIND Diet Intervention and Cognitive Decline (MIND). Accessed on on September 15th, 2017.

11.         Bland J. Mild Cognitive Impairment, Neurodegeneration, and Personalized Lifestyle Medicine. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2016 Apr;15(2):12-4.12.         Schelke MW, Hackett K, Chen JL, Shih C, Shum J, Montgomery ME, Chiang GC, Berkowitz C, Seifan A, Krikorian R, Isaacson RS. Nutritional interventions for Alzheimer’s prevention: a clinical precision medicine approach. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Mar;1367(1):50-6.13.         Bredesen DE. Reversal of cognitive decline: a novel therapeutic program. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 Sep;6(9):707-17. 14.         Bredesen DE, Amos EC, Canick J, Ackerley M, Raji C, Fiala M, Ahdidan J. Reversal of cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Aging (Albany NY). 2016 Jun;8(6):1250-8.15.         Koppel SJ, Swerdlow RH. Neuroketotherapeutics: A modern review of a century-old therapy. Neurochem Int. 2017 Jun 1. pii: S0197-0186(17)30227-9.16.         Cunnane SC, Courchesne-Loyer A, St-Pierre V, Vandenberghe C, Pierotti T, Fortier M, Croteau E, Castellano CA. Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016 Mar;1367(1):12-20.17.         Yin JX, Maalouf M, Han P, Zhao M, Gao M, Dharshaun T, Ryan C, Whitelegge J, Wu J, Eisenberg D, Reiman EM, Schweizer FE, Shi J. Ketones block amyloid entry and improve cognition in an Alzheimer’s model. Neurobiol Aging. 2016 Mar;39:25-37.18.         Bough KJ, Wetherington J, Hassel B, Pare JF, Gawryluk JW, Greene JG, Shaw R, Smith Y, Geiger JD, Dingledine RJ. Mitochondrial biogenesis in the anticonvulsant mechanism of the ketogenic diet. Ann Neurol. 2006 Aug;60(2):223-35.19.         Yang X, Cheng B. Neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of ketogenic diet on MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. J Mol Neurosci. 2010 Oct;42(2):145-53.20.         Krikorian R, Shidler MD, Dangelo K, Couch SC, Benoit SC, Clegg DJ. Dietary ketosis enhances memory in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiol Aging. 2012

  1. Henderson ST, Vogel JL, Barr L, Garvin F, Jones JJ, Costantini LG. Study of the ketogenic agent AC-1202 in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2009;6:31.

22.         Maynard SD, Gelblum J. Retrospective cohort study of the efficacy of caprylic triglyceride in patients with mild-to-moderate alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:1619-27.23.         Farah BA. Effects of caprylic triglyceride on cognitive performance and cerebral glucose metabolism in mild Alzheimer’s disease: a single-case observation. Front Aging Neurosci. 2014 Jul 16;6:133.24.         Ohnuma T, Toda A, Kimoto A, et al. Benefits of use, and tolerance of, medium-chain triglyceride medical food in the management of Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective, open-label pilot study. Clin Interv Aging. 2016 Jan 8;11:29-36.

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